2020年技术研发预算报告- 国际能源署(英文版)(16页).pdf

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2020年技术研发预算报告- 国际能源署(英文版)(16页).pdf

1、Statistics report Energy Technology RD the 2019 level was one third higher than in 2008 and comparabletothatof2012,althoughmuchlowerthanthe2009peak. Figure1:IEAmembercountriestotalpublicenergyRDthesecondlargestincreasewasinNorway(additionalUSD242million,linkedto thewinddemonstrationprojectmentioneda

2、bove).Inanoppositetrendtomostcountries,Japandecreased itslowcarbonbudgetby2%. 5InthecurrentIEAcategorizationofRD&Denergytechnologies,lowcarbonenergytechnologiesaredefinedas:energyefficiency,carboncapture andstorage(CCS),renewableenergysources,nuclear,hydrogenandfuelcells,otherpowerandstorage,andothe

3、rcrosscuttingtechnologiesand research. 6InthecurrentIEAcategorizationofRD&Denergytechnologies,nonlowcarbonenergytechnologiesrepresentcoal,gas,oilandotherfossilfuel RD&D,excludingCCS. 0 5 10 15 20 25 USD (2019, PPP) billion Low-carbonNon-low-carbon ENERGYTECHNOLOGYRD&DBUDGETS:OVERVIEW(2020firsteditio

4、n)9 www.iea.org/statistics IEA.Allrightsreserved. Figure8:VariationsinpubliclowcarbonenergyRD&Dbudgets forselectedIEAcountriesandtheEuropeanUnionin2019* * Data for the United States have been estimated by the IEA Secretariat for 2016-2019. Source: IEA. All rights reserved. -30% -15% 0% 15% 30% 45% 6

5、0% 75% 90% 105% 120% 135% 150% 165% 180% -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 United StatesNorwayEuropean UnionGermanyCanadaJapan Million USD Low-carbon absolute growth (million USD)Low-carbon growth (%) 10ENERGYTECHNOLOGYRD&DBUDGETS:OVERVIEW(April2020edition) www.iea.org/statistics IEA.Allrightsreserved.

6、 PartIV.GlobalenergyRD&Dtrends IEAs work on energy innovation under the World Energy Investment report7and the Clean Energy Transitions Programme (CETP) complements the collection and dissemination of IEA member country RD&DbudgetdatabyassemblingavailableinformationonnonIEAgovernmentenergyRD&Dspendi

7、ngand privatesectorenergyR&Dspendingtrends8,inasustainedefforttoincreasecoveragebeyondofficialdata submissionstotheIEA. In 2019, the estimated global public energy RD&D budget reached about USD30.4billion9(Figure9), confirmingtheincreasingtrendsince2017afterseveralyearsofdecline.Thegrowthwasmostlysu

8、pported byEuropeandtheUnitedStates,whilepublicspendinginenergyR&DstabilisedinChinaaftertwoyearsof stronggrowthandaheadofthecountrysnextfiveyearplan. Figure9:GlobalpublicenergyRD&Dbudget* * Data for non-member countries are estimated based on public sources and are subject to revisions over time. Dat

9、a for 2018 include for the first time the additional spending of the Ministry of Environment (MoE) of Japan (0.4 USD billion), which is not covered for previous years. This has effects on the apparent 2017-2018 growth. IEA Asia Oceania includes Japan, Korea, Australia and New Zealand. IEA Europ and

10、EU includes Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the European Union. IEA Americas include

11、s Canada, Mexico and the United States. Source: IEA. All rights reserved. UnderMissionInnovation(MI),fifteenIEAmembercountriesandtheEuropeanUnion,aswellaskey emergingeconomiessuchasBrazil,China,India,andIndonesia,pledgedin2015toseektodoublepublic cleanenergyR&Dspendingoverfiveyears.Whiletherearediff

12、erencesbetweenIEAandMIclassifications andcountries,IEAdatashowthatestimatedglobalpubliclowcarbonenergyRD&Dspendingreboundedin 2016followingtwoyearsofdecline,andithasbeenontherisesincethen,reachinganewhighin2019at aboutUSD25.0billion(Figure10).Similarlytototalspending,thisgrowthwasdrivenbyincreasingb

13、udgets inEuropeandtheUnitedStates,followedbyChina.Notably,publicspendinginlowcarbonenergyR&D grewfasterthantotalenergyR&Dbudgets,atanearly6%yearonyeargrowthrate. 7ThenextreleaseoftheIEAWorldEnergyInvestment(WEI)reportisscheduledforJune2020. 8UpdatedestimatesofcorporateenergyR&Dspendinganddatafor2019

14、willbereleasedintheIEAWorldEnergyInvestment(WEI)2020report. 9Inthissection,figuresarebasedon2019pricesandexchangerates(notPPP)terms. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 201420152016201720182019 USD (2019) bn China Rest of World IEA Asia Oceania IEA Europe and EU IEA Americas ENERGYTECHNOLOGYRD&DBUDGETS:OVERVIEW(2

15、020firstedition)11 www.iea.org/statistics IEA.Allrightsreserved. Theseencouragingtrends,however,warrantfurtherexaminationin202021astheimpactsoftheCovid19 pandemiconglobalenergysystems,includingonpubliclowcarbonenergyR&Dbudgets,unfold. Figure10:GlobalpubliclowcarbonenergyRD&Dbudget* * Data for non-me

16、mber countries are estimated by the IEA based on public sources and are subject to revisions over time. Data for 2018 include for the first time the additional spending of the Ministry of Environment (MoE) of Japan (0.4 USD billion), which is not covered for previous years. This has effects on the a

17、pparent 2017-2018. Source: IEA. All rights reserved. CorporateenergyR&Dspending10 PublisheddataforR&Dbudgetsbylistedcorporationsgloballyshowthatthesearethelargestsinglesource offundingforenergyR&D,despitelowerspendinginrecentyears.Thesampleoflistedcompaniesactivein energytechnologysectorsforwhich201

18、8dataiscurrentlyavailableincreasedtheirannualenergyR&D spending,byaround4%(includingautomakers)(Figure11).ThetotalenergyR&Dspendingofthissample reachednearlyUSD94billionin2018.Excludingtransport,athirdofthetotalcorporateenergyR&Dis estimatedtohavebeenallocatedtolowcarbonsectors. CorporateR&Dspending

19、bycompaniesintheoilandgasandotherfossilfuelextractionsectorsshowed1% growthinrealtermsin2018,thefirstincreaseinR&Dspendinginthissectorsince2014.Spendingremains 45%below2014levels,however,andisnotrisingsignificantlyasashareofrevenue. WhilethereboundofoilandgascompanyR&Dbudgetsissluggish,thatofelectri

20、citygenerationandsupply companiescontinuestorise.SiemensandGeneralElectricoccupiedthetopspotsinthelistofthehighest globalenergyR&Dspenders,withPetrochinadroppingoutofthetopthreeforthefirsttimeinadecade. FourofthetoptenareChinesecompanies,andfiveareintheelectricitysector. 10Thissectionpresentstrendsa

21、ndfindingsupto2018whichwerepublishedinWEI2019aswellasintheIEAEnergyTechnologyRD&Dbudgets publicationfromOctober2019.Updatedtimeseriesanddatafor2019willbepublishedinWEI2020. 0 5 10 15 20 25 201420152016201720182019 USD (2019) bn China Rest of World IEA Asia Oceania IEA Europe and EU IEA Americas 12EN

22、ERGYTECHNOLOGYRD&DBUDGETS:OVERVIEW(April2020edition) www.iea.org/statistics IEA.Allrightsreserved. Figure11:GlobalcorporateR&Dspendinginenergyrelatedsectors Notes: Classifications are based on Bloomberg Industry Classification System. All publicly reported R&D is included, though companies domiciled

23、 in countries that do not require disclosure of R&D spending are under-represented. To allocate R&D spending for companies active in multiple sectors, interviews with company decision-makers and, in the absence of other data sources, the shares of revenue per sector were used. “Other” comprises carb

24、on capture utilization and storage, electricity storage, insulation, lighting, other fossil fuels and smart energy systems. Source: IEA. All rights reserved. AutomakerswhotypicallyhavemuchhigherR&Dbudgetsthanenergycompaniesinabsolutetermsand asashareofrevenuecontinuetoincreasetheirR&Dspendingasgover

25、nmentpoliciesandcompetitive pressuresdrivehigherspendingonenergyefficiencyandelectricvehicles.Automakerswerethebiggest contributorstothegrowthincorporateenergyR&Dspendingtechnologiesin2018.Thistrendisnotable amongmajorEuropeanandUScarandautopartscompanies,whoseR&Dspendingrosebyaround7%on averagein20

26、18,comparedto4%forJapaneseandKoreanfirms.However,theincreasinglyglobalpresence ofChineseautomakersisreflectedintheirR&Dspending,whichrosemorethan20%onaverage. UnlikepublicR&D,manyofthemajorcompaniesactiveacrosstheenergysystemdevotenomorethan onetenthtoonethirdoftheirtotalR&Dbudgetstonewtechnologies,

27、withthebulkofspendinggoingto incrementalimprovementsofexistingtechnologiesandproductdevelopment. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2012201320142015201620172018 USD (2018) billion Other Oil and gas Thermal power and combustion equipment Nuclear Electricity generation and networks Renewables Automotive Overall responsibility: Roberta Quadrelli Statistics: Domenico Lattanzio Alexandre Bizeul Contacts: Energy Data Centre RDD statistics 9, rue de la Fdration 75739 Paris Cedex Tel: +33 (0) 1 40 57 66 26 rddiea.org Media enquiries: Tel: +33 (0) 1 40 57 65 54 ieapressoficeiea.org Statistics report 2020

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