2020年澳大利亚锂电池阳极制造产业发展报告 - Future Battery Industries(英文版)(144页).pdf

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2020年澳大利亚锂电池阳极制造产业发展报告 - Future Battery Industries(英文版)(144页).pdf

1、Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia A SCENE SETTING PROJECT FUTURE BATTERY INDUSTRIES CRC Contents 2 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia FUTURE BATTERY INDUSTRIES CRC Executive summary Disclaimer Engineering Development Introduction List of tables, figures and appendices Valu

2、e-Add Estimates Cathode Active Materials Project Objectives Recommendations Summary About the Future Battery Industries Cooperative Research Centre Endnotes Precursor Chemicals Acknowledgments About the Queensland University of Technology Institute for Future Environments Appendix 6 3 54 15 14 83 87

3、 88 11 4 80 20 86 87 90 Disclaimer Notice to Users This report was prepared by The Queensland University of Technology ABN 83 791 724 622 (“QUT”) at the request of The Future Battery Industries CRC ABN 19 633 491 595 (the “Client”) for the exclusive use of the Client for the sole purpose of services

4、 on the Battery Precursor Manufacture in Australia Scene Setting Project. The Basis of QUTs engagement by the Client is that QUTs liability, whether under the law of contract, tort, stature, equity or otherwise, is limited as set out by the original Project Agreement (“Agreement”). Notice to Third P

5、arties The report is a report scoped in accordance with instructions given by or on behalf of the Client. This report may not address issues which would need to be addressed with a third party if that partys particular circumstances, requirements and experience with such reports were known and may m

6、ake assumptions about matters of which a third party is not aware. QUT disclaims any and all liability arising out of, or in connection with, any third partys use of, or reliance upon, information contained in this report and the use of the report by any third party is at the risk of that party. Lim

7、its on Investigation and Information This report contains the professional opinion of QUT as to the matters set out herein, using its professional judgment and acting in accordance with the standard care and skill normally exercised by professional consultants providing similar services in similar c

8、ircumstances and comparable locations. No other express or implied warranty is made as to the professional advice contained in this report. The report may also be based on information provided to QUT by the Client and/or other parties. Unless expressly stated otherwise, the information that has been

9、 provided to QUT has not been independently verified by QUT to be accurate, complete or adequate. QUT takes no responsibility and disclaims all liability whatsoever for any loss or damage that the Client may suffer resulting from any conclusions based on information provided to QUT, except to the ex

10、tent that QUT expressly indicates in the report that it has verified the information to its satisfaction. 3 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia List of tables, figures and appendices Figure 1 Demand of various cathode materials in the EV market 11 Figure 2 Flow diagram for Scene Setting

11、Report objectives 13 Figure 3 Current processing methods for nickel sulphate 23 Figure 4 IGOs flowsheet to convert sulphide nickel concentrate to nickel sulphate 24 Figure 5 Outlook for supply and demand of nickel sulphate, 2012-2028 (kt Ni) 25 Figure 6 Estimated market balance for nickel, 2017-2028

12、 26 Figure 7 Estimated supply and demand for nickel, 2017-2028 26 Figure 8 Estimated capacity and production for nickel sulphate, 2016-2022 27 Figure 9 Schematic of HPMSM production from HPEMM or carbonate ores 29 Figure 10 Simplified flowsheet of HPMSM production from oxide ore 30 Figure 11 MMCs fl

13、owsheet for HPEMM production from oxides ores in Nelspruit, South Africa 31 Figure 12 Estimated market demand for HPMSM and HPEMM in the battery industry, 2015-2040 32 Figure 13 HPEMM entry into HPMSM supply chain 33 Figure 14 Sample cobalt sulphate battery grade specifications 35 Figure 15 Simplifi

14、ed flowsheet for cobalt sulphate production 36 Figure 16 First Cobalts conceptual flowsheet for cobalt sulphate 37 Figure 17 Mckinsey cobalt market outlook, 2017-2025 40 Figure 18 Cobalt supply and demand outlook, 2018-2028 41 Figure 19 Cobalt demand and price forecast, 2018-2028 (Roskill, 2019) 41

15、Figure 20 Simplified flowsheet of LiOH production by spodumene processing 46 Figure 21 Production of mined lithium by country 47 Figure 22 Lithium hydroxide production by source, 2000-2018 (t LCE) 48 Figure 23 Major producers of battery grade lithium hydroxide, 2014-2018 49 Figure 24 Total refined l

16、ithium capacity by integration, 2000-2018 (t/a LCE) 50 Figure 25 Total lithium supply and demand, 2017 vs 2025 52 Figure 26 Global forecast consumption of lithium by product, 2018-2028 (kt LCE) 53 Figure 27 NCM CAM synthesis process block flow diagram 54 Figure 28 Breakdown of Chemical Mixing 56 Fig

17、ure 29 Breakdown of Co-Precipitation 57 Figure 30 Breakdown of Dry Solids Recovery 58 Figure 31 Breakdown of Lithiation and Doping 59 Figure 32 Breakdown of Calcination 60 Figure 33 Breakdown of Coating 61 Figure 34 Chemical Mixing and Co-precipitation reactor PFD 69 Figure 35 Dry Solids Recovery de

18、watering filter PFD 69 Figure 36 DrM FUNDABAC filter with 0.13m2 filter area 72 Figure 37 Horizontal plate and frame filter 72 Figure 38 Outotec Larox PF 0.4 filter 73 Figure 39 Dry Solids Recovery drying oven 74 Figure 40 Lithiation V-mixer 75 Figure 41 AWE V-mixer 75 Figure 42 Example of an RHK fu

19、rnace 76 Figure 43 Batch rotating calcine kiln 77 4 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia FUTURE BATTERY INDUSTRIES CRC Table 1 Summary of different NCM chemistries 17 Table 2 Sample nickel sulphate battery grade specifications 22 Table 3 Sample manganese sulphate battery grade specificati

20、ons 28 Table 4 Largest producers of refined cobalt, 2013-2017 (tonnes) 30 Table 5 Sample lithium hydroxide battery grade specifications 45 Table 6 Key process design criteria 62 Table 7 Summary of electrical power draw 78 Table 8 Feed pricing 81 Table 9 Utility pricing 81 Table 10 Current market pri

21、ces for P-CAM, CAM and precursor materials 81 Appendix A Process flow diagram sketches 92-93 Appendix B Process design criteria 94-102 Appendix C Equipment list 103 Appendix D Pilot plant capacity estimate 104-106 Appendix E Filtration equipment 107-133 E.1 IFS Consultant E.2 Outotec E.3 GBL Process

22、 Appendix F Calcine kiln equipment 134-142 5 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia This research was commissioned to establish the economic feasibility and supply chain requirements for precursor manufacture in Western Australia at industrial scale. This report is one of a series of scene

23、setting projects commissioned by the FBICRC to set direction and inform its initial research portfolio. It was undertaken by a team from the Queensland University of Technology with support from Hatch Engineering and contributions from Curtin University. The research details recommendations for cost

24、 effective, sustainable production of superior quality nickel-rich NCM (nickel cobalt manganese) battery cathode active material (CAM) and the supply of relevant precursor chemicals within Australia, while minimizing wastes. It will inform the FBICRC industry and research participants who have inves

25、ted significant time and money in developing a proposal for a Cathode Precursor Production Pilot Plant project in Western Australia which is currently being scoped and costed. The global automotive lithium-ion battery market is projected to reach USD 95.3 Billion by 2030 growing at an annualised rat

26、e of 11%1. In Europe alone, 500 GWh/annum of battery factories has been announced to be commissioned by 2025. The battery value chain supporting this growth offers opportunities to Western Australia given its endowment of key mineral resources and emerging technical grade battery chemical industry2.

27、 The step to battery cathode active material and cathode precursor production is a key focus within the FBICRCs initial research portfolio. Australia currently produces nine of the 10 mineral elements required to produce most lithium-ion battery anodes and cathodes, and has commercial reserves of gr

28、aphite the remaining element. Accelerating global demand presents Australia with a once-in-a-generation opportunity to transition into a major processing, manufacturing and trading hub if an adequate business case can be built. Critical components in advanced battery production precursor, anode, cat

29、hode, electrolyte can be manufactured in Australia. Battery manufacturing technology central to downstream lithium processing therefore stands as the critical gap in the Australian supply chain. 1. Executive Summary Purpose Growing an Australian battery industry 1 Bloomberg, 21 November 2019. 2 J.Wi

30、lson, 2020. The governance of battery value chains: Security, Sustainability and Australian Policy Options, FBICRC Scene Setting Report. 6 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia FUTURE BATTERY INDUSTRIES CRC A number of mining groups are already advancing from raw battery minerals to the pr

31、oduction of purified metal salts and their refinement to battery grade quality within Australia. These products are expected to supply the rapidly expanding global demand for vehicle electrification. NCM CAM is of particularly high relevance to the electric vehicle (EV) market, serving 53% of the ma

32、rket demand in 2019 and predicted to grow. Due to the increasing market demand for NCM materials, and the Western Australian endowment and processing capability in lithium, nickel, manganese, cobalt chemicals, it has been chosen as the potential candidate for Australian CAM manufacture, and as such

33、is the main focus of this Report. At an entry level to the value chain above the supply of concentrated minerals are the purified metal salts; above that is the mixed metal hydroxide precursor (P-CAM) product followed by the lithiated final CAM product. Both P-CAM and CAM products are subject to str

34、ict quality specifications in terms of their impurities, particle size distribution and particle shape, and electrochemical attributes. Key to successful and sustainable production of these battery materials is the consistent achievement of quality requirements whilst ensuring that costs and environ

35、mental impacts are minimised. Currently Australia exports the main commodities (Li, Ni, Mn, Co, C) used in the Lithium battery production in the form of mineral concentrates and very little of the value incorporated into manufacturing of lithium ion battery materials is retained in Australia. This i

36、s illustrated in the lithium value chain shown below where the production of concentrate yielded a revenue of $1.13 billion for Australia in 2017, with no revenue obtained from the major value- adding steps, including precursor production that was worth $22.1 billion2. Future estimates expect precur

37、sor production to increase to around 17fold by 2025. Battery precursor production is a crucial step to add value to the Australian battery industry and currently there are no facilities for this in Australia. With increasing global demand for lithium ion batteries Australia has been presented with a

38、 unique opportunity to transition into a major processing, manufacturing and trading hub to increase it share of market value. 7 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia The report provides a state-of-the-art technical assessment on the process to establish precursor manufacture in WA. It con

39、firms its technical and commercial feasibility as the foundation for laboratory and pilot scale testing. The findings provide a firm foundation and direction for the next phase of the CRCs development work. The co-precipitation technique is identified by the report as the most suitable candidate for

40、 CAM manufacture. The main drivers for this being the maturity and low cost of the technology, which is the current industry standard for NCM/NCA CAM manufacture. The raw chemical supply required by this technique is also in line with current Australian production. Key recommendations of the report

41、include a manufacturing schedule for differing NCM CAM types based on complexity of processing and current market demand. This gradual ramp up in processing capability will allow for development of the technical expertise required to produce high-quality CAM materials. This will reduce risk in the i

42、nitial commissioning phase while also ensuring the material produced by the Pilot Plant is at the same level or better than what is currently accepted by cell manufacturers. A further recommendation is a lab-scale/mini plant phase to be implemented before pilot-scale production. This will provide va

43、lidation and reasonable starting values to commence pilot-scale operation. As a much Key Findings Li-ion batteries - Lithium Value Chain 2017 - 2025 1. 2. 3. The report identifies an international standard technique for WA manufacture A gradual ramp up of the pilot plant is proposed A lab scale/mini

44、 plant phase before pilot scale production 0.53%of value chain realised by Australia 0.47% of value chain realised by Australia Future Smart Strategies 2018 y pack ssembly AUS 2017 2025 Rest of world Hard rock vs brineLiOH,Li2Co3Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 Graphite Sinter/AssembleManufacture, deploy, manage $0m

45、$2b$0m$22.1b$0m$31.1b$1.13b$740m $10.1b$16.2b$2.6b$63.2b$0m$385b$0m$550b$0m$1.68t Mine/Concentrate Refi ne/Process Precursor/ electrochemical production Battery cell production $0m$156b Battery pack system assembly 2 Future Smart Strategies 2018 . 8 Li-ion battery cathode manufacture in Australia FU

46、TURE BATTERY INDUSTRIES CRC The aim of the 15 industry and four research participants in FBICRC supporting the cathode precursor pilot plant project is to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability of this further local processing step in the value chain. Process modelling and scale-up verif

47、ication of final process design will be completed along with capital and operating costs for commercialisation at scoping study level. Environmental, safety and business benefits/risks will be analysed. Final project delivery will seek to prove the viability of the production of ultra-stable NCM/NCA

48、 cathode materials with a clear path to commercialisation. Battery manufacturers are required to provide statistically representative numbers of good performing cells, which could be in the tens of thousands Next steps smaller quantity of material is required at lab-scale, this will also reduce the operating costs and increase the speed of initial testing while minimising risk. The high level processing steps in the production of NCM CAM is the mixing and reaction of nickel, cobalt and manganese sulphate solutions with caustic soda and aqueous ammonia under ine

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