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2020年电池原材料可持续资源报告 - JRC Technical Report(英文版)(124页).pdf

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2020年电池原材料可持续资源报告 - JRC Technical Report(英文版)(124页).pdf

1、 Responsible and sustainable sourcing of battery raw materials Insights from hotspot analysis, company disclosures and field research Mancini, L., Eslava, N. A., Traverso, M., Mathieux, F. 2020 EUR 30174 EN This publication is a technical report by the Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commi

2、ssions science and knowledge service. It aims to provide evidence-based scientific support to the European policymaking process. The scientific output expressed does not imply a policy position of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commiss

3、ion is responsible for the use that might be made of this publication. For information on the methodology and quality underlying the data used in this publication for which the source is neither Eurostat nor other Commission services, users should contact the referenced source. The designations empl

4、oyed and the presentation of material on the maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the European Union concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Contact

5、information Name: Lucia Mancini Address: via E. Fermi 2749, Ispra, Italy Email: lucia.manciniec.europa.eu Tel.: +39 0332 78 5428 EU Science Hub https:/ec.europa.eu/jrc JRC120422 EUR 30174 EN PDF ISBN 978-92-76-17950-4 ISSN 1831-9424 doi:10.2760/562951 Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European

6、Union, 2020 European Union, 2020 The reuse policy of the European Commission is implemented by Commission Decision 2011/833/EU of 12 December 2011 on the reuse of Commission documents (OJ L 330, 14.12.2011, p. 39). Except otherwise noted, the reuse of this document is authorised under the Creative C

7、ommons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence (https:/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). This means that reuse is allowed provided appropriate credit is given and any changes are indicated. For any use or reproduction of photos or other material that is not owned by the EU, permission

8、 must be sought directly from the copyright holders. All content European Union, 2020. (unless otherwise specified) How to cite this report: Mancini, L., Eslava, N. A., Traverso, M., Mathieux, F., Responsible and sustainable sourcing of battery raw materials, EUR 30174 EN, Publications Office of the

9、 European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-17950-4, doi:10.2760/562951, JRC120422. i Contents Acknowledgements . 4 Abstract . 6 1. Introduction . 8 1.1. Policy context . 8 1.2. Conflict minerals and responsible sourcing . 8 1.3. The case of cobalt . 9 1.4. Research questions and structure of

10、this report . 10 2. Hotspot analysis of battery supply chain . 12 2.1. Methodology . 12 2.1.1. Selection of relevant risk aspects, related indicators and sources of data . 12 2.1.2. Selection of relevant countries in the battery supply chain . 14 2.1.3. Attribution of risk levels to the selected cou

11、ntries and identification of hotspots . 16 2.2. Results of the hotspots analysis . 24 2.3. Interpretation of the results . 26 2.4. Main findings of the chapter . 30 3. Corporate-level social data disclosure . 31 3.1. Methodology . 32 3.2. Analysis . 32 3.2.1. Cobalt . 34 3.2.2. Graphite. 35 3.2.3. L

12、ithium . 35 3.2.4. Manganese . 35 3.3. Main findings of the chapter . 37 4. Responsible and sustainable supply of battery materials: review of the main initiatives and standards . 38 4.1. Responsible sourcing frameworks and guidance . 38 4.1.1. OECD due diligence guidance for responsible mineral sup

13、ply chains . 38 4.1.2. International Finance Corporations performance standards on environmental and social sustainability . 39 4.1.3. China Chamber of Commerce of Metals, Minerals the representatives of CDM, Chemaf, COMIKU, COMIKAOL, Pact, RCS Global for granting us access to the pilots as well as

14、their time and availability. Authors are also grateful to JRC colleagues Konstantinos Georgitzikis (JRC.D.3), for his support in retrieving the data on raw materials supply and Luca Vernaccini (JRC.E.1), for his feedback and support on the use of Inform data. Authors Lucia Mancini Nicolas A. Eslava

15、Marzia Traverso Fabrice Mathieux 5 6 Abstract Used in e-mobility and electronics, batteries are essential to achieve the EU objective of decarbonisation of the economy and other challenges related to sustainable development. Several policy initiatives have been issued and others are under discussion

16、 to promote sustainable and competitive production of batteries in the EU. Recently, various stakeholders highlighted social risks related to supply chains of batteries and in particular in regard to the provision of raw materials. Cobalt is especially concerning when it comes to human rights abuses

17、, child labour and life-threatening working conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). That country provides around 60 % of the global supply, a significant proportion of it originating from artisanal and small- scale mining (ASM) operators. Reports from non-governmental organisations

18、 (NGOs), international organisations and media on this topic have increased in number since 2016, and the issue is now more visible than in 2007, when the first reports on the sector emerged. At the same time, responsible sourcing initiatives have been launched and implemented for cobalt and other m

19、aterials, most of them aligned with the OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development due diligence guidance for responsible supply chains of minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas (OECD Guidance). Among them, EU Regulation 2017/821 will require EU importers of tin, tungst

20、en, tantalum and gold (3TG) to perform due diligence on their supply chain, according to the OECD Guidance. The strategic battery action plan proposed by the European Commission identifies some clear work streams on responsible sourcing. A battery-specific regulation including requirements for the e

21、thical sourcing of materials is also currently under discussion. The objective of Chapters 2 and 3 is to identify potential risks in the mining stage of battery materials production, using data at country and corporate levels. Chapter 2 presents a hotspot analysis of primary raw materials used in ba

22、tteries. It combines data on the mining stage (including global supply, EU sourcing, and reserves and resources) with indicators considered relevant to the responsible sourcing of batteries (i.e. on governance, conflict risk, human and social rights, environmental performance and water risk). These

23、are complemented by insights from the Environmental Justice Atlas, which documents information about conflicts and struggles over the exploitation of natural resources and the related production processes. The analysis resulted in the identification of three main groups of countries that could prese

24、nt risk as global suppliers, as EU suppliers and for future materials supply. Chapter 3 investigates what information about social sustainability is available at corporate level. Applying an original methodology, it scrutinises publicly available sustainability reports by large-scale and multination

25、al mining companies that produce materials for batteries, taking into account the impact categories proposed in the social life-cycle assessment (S-LCA) framework and the key principles described by the EU Guidelines for non- financial reporting. Although sustainability reporting practice has been i

26、ncreasing in recent years, the level of disclosure is very heterogeneous between companies and only a few sustainability reports are audited by third- party organisations. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the initiatives implemented to mitigate the risks identified in the previous chapters, using both data

27、 from the literature and primary data. As companies are increasingly asked to perform due diligence on their supply chains, several initiatives, schemes and company strategies have been developed. They are reviewed in Chapter 4, which compares the different requirements and risk categories that have

28、 to be scrutinised under the various initiatives. Most of them are aligned with the requirements of the OECD Guidance, while approaches towards artisanal mining differ. Four initiatives are implemented on the upstream phase, and three of those engage with the ASM sector and work on the ground in ord

29、er to improve working conditions in the DRC. The impacts of two initiatives (those implemented for at least 1 year) are assessed through a field investigation. The analysis in Chapter 5 is based on a comparison of two visited pilot projects with the general conditions of the cobalt and copper ASM se

30、ctor in Lualaba and Haut-Katanga provinces in the DRC. The characterisation of pilot sites is based on the collecting of qualitative information through information matrices. These are based on the OECD Guidance and other relevant standards for responsible and sustainable supply, which include the S

31、-LCA framework. This information gathering was complemented by a visit to a third ASM site, where no pilot was implemented. It was chosen as representative of the general ASM sector, and used as a baseline. Given the nature of this work and the amount of primary data collected, an extensive analysis

32、 and detailed description of the contexts under investigation are provided. Results show that the systems analysed are rather effective at 7 implementing the changes that they are designed to implement. This is especially visible when it comes to issues of life-threatening working conditions and chi

33、ld labour. However, risk categories addressed by these projects are dictated by downstream expectations and do not necessarily correspond to the demands of the miners they are designed to protect. For instance, price calculation and income are particularly salient aspects and are not captured by the

34、 evaluations. The S-LCA methodology offers a promising avenue to expand the scope of enquiry in a structured manner. Traceability is another key point, as the systems are applied only in small areas of the mining sites. Companies participation in the pilots could be used to burnish their reputation

35、as a whole, out of proportion to the contribution of the pilot sites to the companies overall supply. Moreover, the scalability of these pilots within a short time frame is unknown, as the availability of local skilled professionals, among other challenges, might be a critical bottleneck. Overall, t

36、he positive results of the systems analysed warrants an appeal to further facilitate (e.g. through funding) the development of similar initiatives. This study is a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the main risks in battery supply chains at mining stage, and the assessment o

37、f the impact of current initiatives implemented on the ground. It sets the stage for a more complete understanding of the concept and practice of responsible sourcing, and proposes a methodology that could be replicated for other materials, other sectors and other applications. 8 1. Introduction 1.1. Policy context One of the priorities under the agenda of the n

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