2020年电池能源前景展望-美国能源部(英文版)(69页)(69页).pdf

编号:19258 PDF 69页 1.87MB 下载积分:VIP专享
下载报告请您先登录!

2020年电池能源前景展望-美国能源部(英文版)(69页)(69页).pdf

1、 Potential Benefits of High-Power, High-Capacity Batteries January 2020 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | January 2020 Department of Energy | January 2020 Potential Benefits of High-Power, High-Capacity Batteries | Page i Executive Summary The ability of

2、the United States (U.S.) electric power system (i.e., the electric grid) to reliably meet customer demand is crucial to our economy and national security. The increasing adoption of variable generation technologies and dynamic changes in customer demand are creating the need for enhanced grid flexib

3、ility to ensure the continued reliability, resilience, and security of the electric power system. Batteries and other energy storage technologies that have the capability to both supply and absorb electrical power (bidirectional electrical energy storage) can provide flexibility by helping to balanc

4、e electrical supply and demand. Report Scope and Approach This report describes opportunities for high-power, high-capacity batteries to increase the resilience of the U.S. electric power system and to help integrate higher levels of variable renewable energy (VRE). These opportunities can be addres

5、sed through multiple pathways based on technology and grid architecture options that include battery storage. By describing the opportunities in terms of grid services and dimensional requirements, this report aims to align system needs with the storage options best suited to fill those needs. Dimen

6、sional requirements for storage technologies vary by duration (intra-hour, intraday, weekly, and seasonally) and discrete market applications (e.g., power reliability, demand charge management, or electric energy time shift). This report describes the suitability of viable energy storage technology

7、options to fulfill these requirements, including technology maturity and examples of notable deployments. The report also describes efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and other grid stakeholders to improve an understanding of battery capabilities, validate new storage applicat

8、ions, and pursue opportunities to develop advanced technology solutions. These efforts include studies of adoption scenarios, technology gaps, the effect of policies, and the current market and regulatory landscape. The U.S. energy innovation ecosystem continues to invest in research and development

9、 (R planning and deployment of grid infrastructure and information and control technology; and coupling of the electricity, fuel, and transport sectors. Department of Energy | January 2020 Potential Benefits of High-Power, High-Capacity Batteries | Page iv DOE, the power industry, and other grid sta

10、keholders continue to improve their understanding of battery capabilities, validate new storage applications, and pursue opportunities to develop technology solutions. These efforts include studies of adoption scenarios, technology gaps, the effects of policies, and the current market and regulatory

11、 landscape. The U.S. energy innovation ecosystem continues to invest in research and development, modeling, testing, and technical assistance that aims to enlarge the set of available options and help policymakers connect emerging opportunities with an appropriate set of solutions. With benefits ext

12、ending to transportation, the grid, and throughout the economy, DOE has proactively developed new tools and technologies to accelerate energy storage development. The DOE Office of Electricity has been leading efforts to develop the next generation of high- capacity, high-power stationary batteries

13、to support the long-term resiliency needs for the U.S. grid. Research aimed at increasing the energy density or capacity of flow batteries and other technologies through the use of low-cost earth-abundant materials seeks to enable these systems to provide longer duration services like time-shifting

14、of renewable resources, while also continuing to support grid stability. Other DOE storage activities include the Grid Modernization Initiative, the Advanced Energy Storage Initiative, and the Grid Storage Launchpad (GSL). In May of 2019, DOE issued its most recent Grid Modernization Lab Call, with

15、Energy Storage and System Flexibility as one of the major topic areas. The lab call emphasized developing the storage functions that enhance system resilience and flexibility. The Advanced Energy Storage Initiative will build an integrated DOE R however, strategically placed energy storage systems w

16、ithin the grid could also provide reactive power, in addition to energy storage functionality.12 Black Start After a blackout, most generators need external power to turn on the pumps, sensors, and control equipment necessary to bring the plant back online, a process known as black start. Energy sto

17、rage systems of the proper size and characteristics can be used as a black start resource.13 Black start service payments can be competitive, cost-based, or bundled with other payments.14 Load Following/Ramping Support for Renewables For load-following applications, energy storage systems should be

18、able to quickly inject or absorb power from the grid without significant performance penalties (such as efficiency losses). Most renewable applications will have a specified up and down ramp rate in MW/minute and the time duration of the ramp for energy storage applications. Both the Midcontinent In

19、dependent System Operator (MISO) and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) have implemented ramp-specific compensation mechanisms.15,16 Frequency Response Frequency response is very similar to frequency regulation, except the needed response time is much shorter (seconds to less than a

20、minute) when there is a sudden loss of a generation or a transmission line.17 Various generator response actions are needed to counteract this sudden imbalance between load and generation to maintain system frequency and stability of the grid. 11 NERC, Ancillary Services Matrix. C%2012%2014.pdf 12 S

21、andia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 9. 13 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1

22、002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 10. 14 FERC and NERC Staff, “Recommended Study: Blackstart Resources Availability,” May 2018. https:/www.ferc.gov/legal/staff- reports/2018/bsr-report.pdf 15 149 FERC 61,095, “Midcontinent Independent System Opera

23、tor, Inc.,” October 31, 2014. 16 156 FERC 61,226, “California Independent System Operator Corporation,” September 26, 2016. 17 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND20

24、15-1002.pdf, page 14. Department of Energy | January 2020 Potential Benefits of High-Power, High-Capacity Batteries | Page 5 Primary frequency response occurs within initial seconds to enable generation units to increase/decrease their power output. This is followed by the longer duration secondary

25、frequency control response that spans a half-minute to several minutes.18 In 2018, FERC began requiring new “large and small generating facilitiesto install, maintain, and operate equipment capable of providing primary frequency response as a condition of interconnection.”19 I.C. Transmission Infras

26、tructure Applications Transmission Upgrade Deferral Transmission upgrade deferral involves delaying or avoiding the need for investments in transmission system upgrades by using energy storage systems to time-shift energy.20 In some cases, installing a small amount of energy storage downstream from

27、the nearly overloaded transmission component could defer the upgrade for a few years.21 Transmission Congestion Relief Transmission congestion occurs when available least-cost energy cannot be delivered to loads because transmission facilities do not have enough capacity to deliver that energy.22 Tr

28、ansmission congestion may lead to increased costs or locational marginal pricing for wholesale electricity at certain transmission nodes.23 Like transmission upgrade deferral, congestion relief can be accomplished by time-shifting energy using storage. Electricity would be stored when there is no tr

29、ansmission congestion and would be discharged during peak demand periods to reduce peak transmission capacity requirements and congestion charges.24 I.D. Distribution Infrastructure Applications Distribution Upgrade Deferral Distribution upgrade deferral involves using storage to delay or avoid inve

30、stments that would otherwise be necessary to ensure adequate distribution capacity to serve load requirements. 18 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf,

31、page 14. 19 Order 842, 162 FERC 61,128, “Essential Reliability Services and the Evolving Bulk-Power SystemPrimary Frequency Response,” February 15, 2018. 20 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.g

32、ov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 16. 21 American Public Power Association, “Arizona utility taps storage over traditional grid upgrade,” August 14, 2017. https:/www.publicpower.org/periodical/article/arizona-utility-taps-storage-over-traditional-grid-upgrade 22 Sandia National Laborat

33、ories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 17. 23 U.S. Department of Energy, “National Electric Transmission Congestion Study,” September 2015. https:/www.energy.gov/sites/pro

34、d/files/2015/09/f26/2015%20National%20Electric%20Transmission%20Congestion%20Study _0.pdf 24 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 17. Department o

35、f Energy | January 2020 Potential Benefits of High-Power, High-Capacity Batteries | Page 6 The upgrade deferral could be a replacement of an aging or overstressed distribution transformer at a substation or upgrading distribution lines with higher capacity conductors.25 For most feeders within a dis

36、tribution system, the highest loads occur just a few days per year, for just a few hours per year, allowing energy storage systems to provide significant benefits with limited discharge requirements.26 I.E. Customer Energy Management Applications Power Quality When placed upstream of customer onsite

37、 loads, energy storage systems can protect against short-duration events that affect the quality of power. Some manifestations of poor power quality include the following: Variations in voltage magnitude (e.g., short-term spikes or dips, longer-term surges, or sags) Variations in the primary 60-hert

38、z frequency at which power is delivered Low power factor (voltage and current excessively out of phase with each other) Harmonics (the presence of currents or voltages at frequencies other than the primary frequency) Interruptions in service of any duration, ranging from a fraction of a second to se

39、veral seconds.27 Typically, the discharge duration required for the power quality use ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes. Power Reliability A storage system can effectively support customer loads when a total loss of power from the source utility occurs. This support requires the storage sys

40、tem and customer loads to island during the utility outage and re-synchronize with the utility when power is restored. The energy capacity of the storage system relative to the size of the load determines the time duration that the storage can supply the load. This duration can be extended by supple

41、menting the storage system with onsite generation assets.28 Retail Energy Time Shift Retail electric energy time shift involves the use of storage to reduce overall costs for electricity. Customers charge the storage system during off-peak times when the retail electric 25 Sandia National Laboratori

42、es, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 19. 26 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. http

43、s:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 20. 27 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 21. 28 Sandia National Laboratories, “D

44、OE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 22. Department of Energy | January 2020 Potential Benefits of High-Power, High-Capacity Batteries | Page 7 energy price is low and then disch

45、arge the energy during periods when on-peak time of use energy prices apply.29 The maximum discharge duration in this case is determined based on the relevant tariff. A study of over 3000 U.S. residential utility rates found a limited number of tariffs that would provide a significant financial ince

46、ntive for storage-based time shifting.30 Demand Charge Management The energy time shift capability of electricity storage can be used to reduce customer demand during peak periods.31 To avoid a demand charge, load must be reduced during all hours a specified demand charge period (e.g., 11:00 a.m. to

47、 5:00 p.m.) and on specified days. In many cases, the demand charge is assessed if load is present during just one 15-minute period during times of the day and during months when demand charges apply.32 I.F. Summary of Grid Functions Table 2 summarizes the services and applications listed in this se

48、ction and qualitatively identifies the current ability of existing technology to provide each. Energy storage, and battery-based energy storage in particular, is highly suitable to provide a variety of grid functions. The subsequent sections will highlight the services that are important for resilie

49、nce or VRE generation applications. 29 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA,” SAND2015-1002, February 2015. https:/www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/publications/SAND2015-1002.pdf, page 23. 30 A. Breckel, “Electricity Bill Savings Opportunities from Distributed Electric Storage,” presented at the 2015 Grid of the Future Symposium, International Council on Large Electric Systems, October 2015. 31 Sandia National Laboratories, “DOE/EPRI Energy

友情提示

1、下载报告失败解决办法
2、PDF文件下载后,可能会被浏览器默认打开,此种情况可以点击浏览器菜单,保存网页到桌面,就可以正常下载了。
3、本站不支持迅雷下载,请使用电脑自带的IE浏览器,或者360浏览器、谷歌浏览器下载即可。
4、本站报告下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰。

本文(2020年电池能源前景展望-美国能源部(英文版)(69页)(69页).pdf)为本站 (Mercury) 主动上传,三个皮匠报告文库仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知三个皮匠报告文库(点击联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。
客服
商务合作
小程序
服务号
会员动态
会员动态 会员动态:

wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP Jes**ca... 升级为标准VIP

Qig**ng 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP 156**97... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP 139**10... 升级为高级VIP

151**25... 升级为至尊VIP Co**y 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

微**... 升级为标准VIP yuc**nl... 升级为至尊VIP

150**21... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP Ma**ie... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP 黄庆 升级为至尊VIP

136**36... 升级为标准VIP DFC**23 升级为高级VIP

189**78... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

153**39... 升级为标准VIP 178**11... 升级为至尊VIP

升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

133**09... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP 136**96... 升级为至尊VIP

131**29... 升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

133**12... 升级为至尊VIP th**7 升级为至尊VIP

Mic**el... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

136**86... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

136**86... 升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP 138**26... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP 185**10... 升级为高级VIP

186**99... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

180**08... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

180**72... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

186**12... 升级为至尊VIP 153**18... 升级为高级VIP

130**56... 升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP 楠**7 升级为标准VIP

152**20... 升级为至尊VIP h**i 升级为至尊VIP

151**15... 升级为标准VIP 151**27... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

139**55... 升级为高级VIP 133**69... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP 风**... 升级为至尊VIP

微**... 升级为至尊VIP 微**... 升级为高级VIP

wei**n_... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP 157**01... 升级为标准VIP

139**49... 升级为高级VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

186**80... 升级为标准VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

134**15... 升级为至尊VIP wei**n_... 升级为标准VIP

wei**n_... 升级为至尊VIP Ja**n 升级为至尊VIP

186**83... 升级为高级VIP 186**39... 升级为标准VIP