2019年能源效率指标统计方法报告 - 国际能源署(英文版)(204页).pdf

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2019年能源效率指标统计方法报告 - 国际能源署(英文版)(204页).pdf

1、Energy efficiency indicators s t a t i s t i c s 2019 H I GH L I GH TS Energy efficiency indicators 2019 H I GH L I GH TS The IEA examines the full spectrum of energy issues including oil, gas and coal supply and demand, renewable energy technologies, electricity markets, energy efficiency, access t

2、o energy, demand side management and much more. Through its work, the IEA advocates policies that will enhance the reliability, affordability and sustainability of energy in its 30 member countries, 8 association countries and beyond. Please note that this publication is subject to specific restrict

3、ions that limit its use and distribution. The terms and conditions are available online at www.iea.org/t and seven countries from Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). The collection of these data for th

4、e seven latter countries has been made possible with the financial assistance of the European Union, as part of the EU4Energy project (https:/www.eu4energy.iea.org/). Given the increasing importance of tracking energy efficiency progress worldwide, it is our wish that more countries may be added in

5、future editions. vi - ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDICATORS Highlights (2019 edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Energy efficiency indicators at the IEA The IEA energy efficiency indicators statistical report is based on national annual data collected by the IEA since the 2009 Ministerial agreement. This pu

6、blication presents a selection of energy efficiency indicators data for IEA Member countries and beyond, where data are available, mainly in graphical format; and an analysis of overall IEA trends. Data are based on submissions from national administrations to the IEA. The IEA Secretariat is working

7、 with national administrations to improve data quality over time. Still, as collecting end-use energy and activity data is particularly challenging, data availability varies across IEA countries, and coverage may be incomplete for a given sector in a given country. This publication and associated da

8、ta are available at https:/www.iea.org/statistics/efficiency/. Inquiries should be addressed to energyindicatorsiea.org. Please note that all IEA data is subject to the following Terms and Conditions found on the IEAs website: www.iea.org/t_c/. Energy efficiency indicators data for IEA member countr

9、ies1,2 and countries beyond IEA were collected by the Energy Data Centre (EDC), headed by Nick Johnstone. Within the IEA, data were prepared by Mafalda Silva, Jungyu Park, and Vctor Garcia, who also produced this report. Roberta Quadrelli had overall responsibility for this report. Desktop publishin

10、g support was provided by Sharon Burghgraeve. The report also benefited from the collaboration with Markus Fager-Pintil under the EU4Energy program to develop the section beyond IEA. This report benefited from discussions and feedback from several IEA colleagues including Joe Ritchie, Kathleen Gaffn

11、ey, Edith Bayer, Kevin Lane, Maxine Jordan, Stphanie Bouckaert, Pierpaolo Cazzola, Till Bunsen, Araceli Fernandez Pales, and bio Vtor. Special thanks to our counterparts in Brazil for the close collaboration and detailed discussions around the newly added end-use data for Brazil. The IEA would like

12、to thank and acknowledge the dedication and professionalism of the statisticians working on energy efficiency data in all the respective countries. Data for some European countries have been collected through cooperation with the Odyssee project: www.indicators.odyssee-mure.eu/, as detailed in the C

13、ountry notes. The Energy efficiency indicators Highlights publication is complemented by the IEA Energy Efficiency Indicators database, which includes end use energy consumption by energy product, as well as end use efficiency and carbon indicators for all the years between 2000 and 2017. Selected i

14、nformation is also available for free download at https:/www.iea.org/statistics/efficiency/. Enquiries about data or methodology should be addressed to: Energy Data Centre Energy Efficiency Indicators Telephone: (+33-1) 40-57-67-44 E-mail: energyindicatorsiea.org 1. This document is without prejudic

15、e to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. In this publication, “country” refers to a country or a territory, as the case may be. 2. The countries considered in this publication r

16、eflect IEA membership at the date of preparing this publication (October 2019). ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDICATORS Highlights (2019 edition) - 1 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY: KEY TRENDS IN IEA COUNTRIES Energy efficiency “the first fuel” is at the heart of clean energy transitions

17、 and the one energy resource that all countries possess in abundance. Strong energy efficiency policies are vital to achieving key energy-policy goals, and the so-called “multiple benefits” of energy efficiency (IEA, 2014a), such as reducing energy bills, addressing climate change and air pollution,

18、 improving energy security and increasing energy access. Still, global policy coverage1 (35%) leaves many opportunities untapped and could be scaled up (Figure 1). Reliable energy end-use data and indicators are key to in- form and monitor the effectiveness of energy efficiency poli- cies, as they s

19、how the drivers of energy demand. Figure 1. Global energy use covered by policies Source: Adapted from IEA Energy efficiency 2019. 1. Policy coverage refers to the share of total final energy use that is estimated to be subject to mandatory policies and regulations. This report draws on previous edi

20、tions of the Energy effi- ciency indicators Highlights, providing an updated selec- tion of data, collected by the IEA from member countries since 20092 and more recently, new countries beyond IEA. Based on such data, this chapter shows historical trends of energy use and an overview of the final en

21、ergy-consuming sectors. Global decoupling trends Globally, energy use and economic development have been decoupling, with gross domestic product (GDP) more than doubling between 1990 and 2017, whereas total primary energy supply (TPES) grew by 59% (Figure 2). Figure 2. World GDP and TPES trends (199

22、0=100) Sources: IEA World energy balances 2019 database; TPES: total primary energy supply; GDP based on 2010 USD, market exchange rate. 2. Time series collected generally start in 1990. This edition includes for the first time data for Brazil (IEA Association country) and for seven countries under

23、the EU4Energy programme. 35% 65% Global energy use covered by policies Global energy use not covered by policies 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 GDPTPES 2 - ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDICATORS Highlights (2019 edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY The amount of energy used to generate a unit of GDP, also call

24、ed energy intensity of the economy (TPES/GDP) de- creased globally by 35% between 1990 and 2017, with large regional variations (Figure 3). In non-OECD this fall has been greater. For example, in China3, intensity more than halved (-70%) over this period. Figure 3. Energy intensity 1990 and 2017 toe

25、/thousand 2010 USD PPP Sources: IEA World energy balances 2019 database; TPES: total primary energy supply; GDP based on 2010 USD PPP. Is energy intensity an energy efficiency indicator? The energy intensity of a countrys economy is often used as an indicator of energy efficiency mainly because, at

26、an aggregate level, it is a proxy measurement for the energy required to satisfy the energy services demanded, and the fact that this indicator is relatively easily available to evalu- ate and compare across countries. However, a country with relatively low energy intensity does not necessarily have

27、 high energy efficiency. For instance, a small service-based country with a mild climate would have a lower intensity than a large industry-based country with a cold climate, even if energy is used more efficiently in the latter country. Equally, trends towards lower intensity are not necessarily dr

28、iven by efficiency improvements. Other elements also play a role in defining intensity levels and trends, including: the structure of the economy (share of large energy-consuming industries); geographic charac- teristics (e.g. longer distances implying higher demand for 3. Including the Peoples Repu

29、blic of China and Hong Kong, China. the transport sector); the overall climate and weather condi- tions (demand changes for heating or cooling); and the ex- change rate (IEA, 2014b). Thats why it is important to conduct more detailed analysis that provides insight on the factors driving final energy

30、 use trends. IEA4 energy end use and efficiency trends Energy and emissions by end use In the IEA, the transport sector as a whole accounted for the highest share of final energy consumption5 in 20176 (36%), followed by manufacturing industry (23%) and the residen- tial sector (20%, Figure 4). Figur

31、e 4. Largest end uses by sector in IEA, 2017 * Passenger cars includes cars, sport utility vehicles and personal trucks. * Other industries includes agriculture, mining and construction. 4. For figures 4 to 14, the IEA aggregate refers to sixteen IEA member coun- tries for which energy efficiency da

32、ta covering most end uses are available for the year 2017: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries represented about 86% of the total IEA final energy

33、 consumption for 2017. 5. In this publication, for the purposes of studying energy efficiency, final ener- gy consumption is computed to include oil and gas extraction; coal mining; blast furnaces and coke ovens energy and transformation losses; and to ex- clude non-energy use, military consumption,

34、 and pipeline transport. This defini- tion differs from that in the energy balances. 6. The latest year for which detailed energy use data were available for most IEA countries at the time of preparation of this publication. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 WorldOECD TotalNon-OECD Total 19902017 Residential 20% Transp

35、ort 36% Manufacturing 23% Services 14% Other industries* 7% Residential space heating 10% Passenger cars* 21% Chemicals 5% Mining 4% ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDICATORS Highlights (2019 edition) - 3 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Passenger cars alone used more energy than the whole residential sector and, tog

36、ether with freight road vehicles, they accounted for almost a third of final energy-related CO2 emissions (Figure 5). Transports position as leading overall consumption is influenced by the fact that in United States, as in Canada and Australia, transport represented the larg- est consuming sector,

37、in large extent, due to higher per- capita distances travelled and the use of larger vehicles. Figure 5. Top ten CO2 emitting end uses in IEA, 2017 * Passenger cars includes cars, sport utility vehicles and personal trucks; other end uses includes the remaining part of emissions beyond the top-ten.

38、The manufacturing sector, driven by basic metals and chemicals subsectors, shows large shares in Belgium and Japan; and the share of the residential sector, with energy use dominated by space heating and appliances, was larg- est mainly in European countries. In almost all the IEA countries, emissio

39、ns for both residential space heating and appliances were larger than those of any manufacturing subsector. In some countries, like the Czech Republic, space heating was the largest emitting end use. Residential sector Space heating accounted for nearly half of the IEA energy consumption in the resi

40、dential sector (Figure 6), with the highest shares in European countries (74 % in Belgium and Hungary) and typically the lowest shares in Asia and Oceania (Japan 26% and New Zealand 30%). Energy efficiency improvements for space heating have occurred across IEA countries, mostly due to better insula

41、- tion of buildings, refurbishment of old buildings, and im- provements in heating equipment. The effects are tracked by trends in residential space heating intensity defined as energy consumption per floor area which significantly decreased in most IEA countries (Figure 7). For instance, France, Ge

42、rmany and the United Kingdom have experi- enced reductions of over 30% since 2000. Warmer countries generally have lower space heating in- tensities, as less energy is needed on average to keep the indoor temperature at a comfort level. Figure 6. Shares of residential energy consumption by end use i

43、n IEA, 2017 Figure 7. Energy intensity* per floor area of residential space heating by country, 2000-2017 * Corrected for temperature. * Refers to 2000-2016 data. 20% 10% 7% 6% 6% 5% 4% 3% 3% Passenger cars* Freight road Residential space heating Residential appliances Basic Metals Chemicals Mining

44、Services Space Heating Residential Water Heating Other end-uses* Space heating 48% Space cooling 4% Lighting 3% Cooking 4% Non- specified 2% Water heating 18% Residential appliances 21% 00.20.40.60.81 Australia Belgium Canada Czech Republic Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Japan Korea* Luxembour

45、g New Zealand Spain United Kingdom United States GJ/m 20002017 4 - ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDICATORS Highlights (2019 edition) INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY Industry and services7 In the IEA, the largest energy-consuming manufacturing subsectors in 2017 were basic metals (26%) and chemicals (23%), followed

46、 by paper and printing (13%) and food and tobacco (10%, Figure 8). In terms of the structure of the manufacturing sector, the subsector with the largest value added was machinery8 (34%), followed by transport equipment (15%) and chemicals (13%, Figure 9). Figure 8. Manufacturing energy consumption b

47、y subsector in IEA, 2017 Figure 9. Manufacturing value added by sub-sector in IEA, 2017 7. In this publication, the services sector is analysed together with industry due to limitations in end-use data availability. Industry includes manufacturing industry, agriculture/fishing, mining and constructi

48、on. 8. Includes ISIC Divisions 25-28: Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment; manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products; manufacture of electrical equipment; manufacture of machin- ery and equipment not elsewhere specified. The intensities of the manu

49、facturing subsectors (energy consumption per value added) vary greatly (Figure 10). Within manufacturing, basic metals and paper and printing are the most energy intensive subsectors, while machinery is the least intensive one. The energy intensity of services is lower than that of all manufacturing s

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