皮尤研究中心:美国在国际上的形象直线下降因为大多数人说美国对冠状病毒的处理很糟糕(英文版)(48页).pdf

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皮尤研究中心:美国在国际上的形象直线下降因为大多数人说美国对冠状病毒的处理很糟糕(英文版)(48页).pdf

1、 FOR RELEASE SEPTEMBER 15, 2020 U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly Ratings for Trump remain poor BY Richard Wike, Janell Fetterolf and Mara Mordecai FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Richard Wike, Director, Global Attitudes Research Stefan S. Cornibert,

2、 Communications Manager 202.419.4372 www.pewresearch.org RECOMMENDED CITATION Pew Research Center, September, 2020, “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” 1 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a non

3、partisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. The Center conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research. It studies U.S. politi

4、cs and policy; journalism and media; internet, science and technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and trends; and U.S. social and demographic trends. All of the Centers reports are available at www.pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Chari

5、table Trusts, its primary funder. Pew Research Center 2020 2 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org How we did this This analysis focuses on public opinion of the United States in 13 countries in North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. Views of the U.S. and its president are examined in

6、the context of long-term trend data. The report also examines how people in other countries perceive Americas handling of the coronavirus outbreak and how those perceptions compare to ratings for their own country, the World Health Organization, the European Union and China. For this report, we use

7、data from nationally representative surveys of 13,273 adults from June 10 to Aug. 3, 2020, in 13 advanced economies. All surveys were conducted over the phone with adults in Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the UK, Australia, Japan and South Korea. Du

8、e to the coronavirus outbreak, face-to-face interviewing is not currently possible in many parts of the world, and so surveys were only conducted in countries with robust telephone polling operations. Here are the questions used for the report, along with responses, and the survey methodology. 3 PEW

9、 RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly Ratings for Trump remain poor Since Donald Trump took office as president, the image of the United States has suffered across many regions of the globe. As a new 13-nation Pew R

10、esearch Center survey illustrates, Americas reputation has declined further over the past year among many key allies and partners. In several countries, the share of the public with a favorable view of the U.S. is as low as it has been at any point since the Center began polling on this topic nearly

11、 two decades ago. For instance, just 41% in the United Kingdom express a favorable opinion of the U.S., the lowest percentage registered in any Pew Research Center survey there. In France, only 31% see the U.S. positively, matching the grim ratings from March 2003, at the height of U.S.-France tensi

12、ons over In some countries, ratings for U.S. are at record low % who have a favorable view of the U.S. UK France Germany Japan Canada Australia Note: 2000 trend is from 1999 or 2000 and provided by U.S. Department of State. Source: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q8a. “U.S. Image Plummets Inter

13、nationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARCH CENTER 78 26 200020102020 62 31 200020102020 83 41 0 100 200020102020 77 41 0 100 200020102020 72 35 200020102020 59 33 200020102020 100% 100% 4 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org the Iraq War. Germans give the U.S. part

14、icularly low marks on the survey: 26% rate the U.S. favorably, similar to the 25% in the same March 2003 poll. Part of the decline over the past year is linked to how the U.S. had handled the coronavirus pandemic. Across the 13 nations surveyed, a median of just 15% say the U.S. has done a good job

15、of dealing with the outbreak. In contrast, most say the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union have done a good job, and in nearly all nations people give their own country positive marks for dealing with the crisis (the U.S. and UK are notable exceptions). Relatively few think China has

16、 handled the pandemic well, although it still receives considerably better reviews than the U.S. response. All publics surveyed rank the U.S. coronavirus response lowest % who say _ has done a good job dealing with the coronavirus outbreak Note: In Australia and Canada, the question was asked about

17、“COVID-19.” In Japan, it was asked about “the novel coronavirus,” and in South Korea, it was asked about “Corona19.” Source: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q10a-e. “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARCH CENTER 20% 18 16 16 15 15 15

18、14 14 11 9 7 6 15 54% 74 88 46 71 59 55 94 87 61 88 95 86 74 67% 54 67 64 73 62 24 54 66 61 66 74 19 64 65% 54 65 64 56 57 34 46 68 51 68 66 19 57 49% 51 36 37 33 44 16 25 42 40 41 26 20 37 Spain Italy Canada UK Sweden France Japan Australia Netherlands Belgium Germany Denmark South Korea U.S.ChinaO

19、wn countryEU 13-COUNTRY MEDIAN WHO 5 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org Ratings for U.S. President Donald Trump have been low in these nations throughout his presidency, and that trend continues this year. Trumps most negative assessment is in Belgium, where only 9% say they have confidence in

20、the U.S. president to do the right thing in world affairs. His highest rating is in Japan; still, just one-quarter of Japanese express confidence in Trump. Attitudes toward Trump have consistently been much more negative than those toward his predecessor, Barack Obama, especially in Western Europe.

21、In the UK, Spain, France and Germany, ratings for Trump are similar to those received by George W. Bush near the end of his presidency. Poor ratings for the U.S. and Trump % who have (a) Source: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q8a surveys were conducted face-to-face in 2002 and 2007-2019. Sourc

22、e: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q8a. “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARCH CENTER Highest rating Lowest rating 14 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org In every country surveyed, men have a more positive assessment of the U.S.

23、than women. The gender gap is largest in Denmark, where 42% of men rate the U.S. favorably, compared with 26% of women. There is a similarly large gap in Spain (48% of men vs. 33% of women) while the magnitude of the gender difference is roughly 10 percentage points in the other countries polled. In

24、 all European countries surveyed, views of the U.S. are significantly more favorable among those who support their countrys right-wing populist parties. For example, 73% of people with a favorable view of Spains Vox have a positive opinion of the U.S., compared with only 29% of those who view Vox un

25、favorably. Consistent with the right-wing populist party findings, people who place themselves on the right of the ideological spectrum in general have a more positive view of the U.S. than people on the ideological left. This ideological divide is particularly large in Spain and South Korea, where

26、there is a roughly 30 percentage point difference between the two groups. This pattern mirrors the findings of previous surveys, where those on the right have generally viewed the U.S. more favorably than those on the left, even during President Obamas tenure. In 2019, U.S. favorability ratings incr

27、eased in some countries, driven in part by large jumps in ratings among those on the ideological right. Sentiment toward the U.S. differs by ideological orientation % who have a favorable view of the U.S. Note: Statistically significant differences in bold. Political ideology not asked in Japan. Sou

28、rce: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q8a. “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARCH CENTER 15 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org Overwhelming majorities rate Americas response to coronavirus outbreak as bad Overall, few assess the

29、American response to the coronavirus outbreak positively. In no country surveyed do more than a fifth think the U.S. has done at least a somewhat good job dealing with the virus, and a median of only 15% across the 13 countries polled consider the countrys handling of the virus to be effective. Whil

30、e positive assessments of the U.S. response to the coronavirus outbreak are scarce overall, in some countries, they are in the single digits: Only 6% in South Korea, 7% in Denmark and 9% in Germany think the U.S. has dealt well with the virus. Spaniards hold the most positive assessments of the Amer

31、ican response, but even there, only one-in-five think the U.S. has handled the outbreak well. On the flip side, in every country surveyed, roughly eight-in-ten or more say the U.S. has handled the virus badly. And, in 11 of the 13 countries surveyed, half or more say the U.S. has done a very bad job

32、 dealing with the coronavirus outbreak. Few think the U.S. has dealt with the coronavirus outbreak well % who say the United States has done a _ job dealing with the coronavirus outbreak Note: Those who did not answer are not shown. In Australia and Canada, question asked about “COVID-19.” In Japan,

33、 asked about “novel coronavirus.” In South Korea, asked about “Corona19.” Source: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q10a. “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARCH CENTER 26% 38 37 23 32 33 30 44 26 31 32 27 25 49 31 57% 54 51 64 53 51 53

34、 39 55 50 53 66 60 30 53 16% 7 9 11 14 15 16 15 20 18 15 6 14 15 15 Canada Denmark Germany Belgium Netherlands France UK Sweden Spain Italy MEDIAN South Korea Australia Japan median Very/ Somewhat good Somewhat bad Very bad 13-COUNTRY MEDIAN 92 83% 88 87 85 84 83 83 81 81 84 93 85 79 84 Total bad 16

35、 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org These numbers are particularly low when compared to how publics think other countries and organizations have handled the outbreak. Consistently, the shares who think the U.S. has responded well to the virus are surpassed by those who think the same of China,

36、the EU, the WHO and their own country. Only in Japan does the comparison between the U.S. and China coronavirus response come close: 15% think the U.S. has done a good job dealing with the outbreak and 16% think the same of China. In most countries, at least half or more believe their country has do

37、ne a good job dealing with the virus. However, the U.S. and UK are notable outliers, with 47% and 46% of people in each country, respectively, saying their nation has done at least a somewhat good job dealing with the outbreak. Poor marks for Americas response to coronavirus outbreak % who say each

38、has done a _ job dealing with the coronavirus outbreak Note: Percentages are medians based on 13 countries. Those who did not answer are not shown. Source: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q10a-e. “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARC

39、H CENTER 25% 34 39 60 84 74% 64 57 37 15 Our country WHO EU China U.S. Bad Good 17 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org Attitudes toward political parties also impact assessments of the U.S.s handling of the virus. Those who hold favorable views of right-wing populist parties are more likely than

40、 those who hold unfavorable views to think the U.S. has dealt with the virus effectively. The differences between supporters and nonsupporters on this mark are sharp: Across all 11 right-wing parties surveyed, there are double-digit gaps in views of the American response to the outbreak. Political i

41、deology also influences how people assess the American response to the outbreak in roughly half of the countries surveyed. In Spain, Germany, Canada, Italy, the UK, France and Belgium, those who identify as being on the right of the ideological spectrum are significantly more likely than those on th

42、e left to positively assess the U.S.s efforts to curtail the virus. Those with favorable views of right-wing populist parities more approving of U.S. handling of virus % who say the United States has done a good job dealing with the coronavirus outbreak Among those who Do not support Support Diff %

43、% Spain Vox 14 36 +22 Netherlands Party for Freedom (PVV) 8 27 +19 Germany Alternative for Germany (AfD) 6 25 +19 Italy Lega 13 30 +17 Italy Forza Italia 13 30 +17 France National Rally 11 28 +17 Netherlands Forum for Democracy (FvD) 9 26 +17 Belgium Flemish Interest 7 24 +17 UK Brexit Party 12 28 +

44、16 Denmark Danish Peoples Party 3 14 +11 Sweden Sweden Democrats 12 22 +10 Note: All differences shown are statistically significant. “Support” percentages represent respondents who have a favorable view of each party. “Do not support” percentages represent respondents who have an unfavorable view o

45、f each party. For more information on European populist parties, see Appendix. Source: Summer 2020 Global Attitudes Survey. Q10a. “U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly” PEW RESEARCH CENTER 18 PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org Few in Europe name

46、the U.S. as the worlds leading economic power, but most in South Korea and Japan do A median of 34% across the 13 countries surveyed believe the U.S. is the worlds leading economic power, while almost half (48%) say the same of China. South Korea and Japan the two nations geographically closest to C

47、hina among those surveyed are the only countries where the U.S. is the most common choice for the leading economic power. In Australia, Canada and the European countries surveyed, China is the top choice. Overall, very few say the countries of the European Union are the worlds leading economic power

48、, though 18% in Germany and 16% in Denmark hold this view. Previous surveys have found that the U.S. tends to be the most common choice in Latin America, Africa and the Middle East. But in Canada, Europe and parts of the Asia-Pacific, more have chosen China consistent with the pattern of findings in

49、 the current survey. Overall, ratings have not changed significantly in most countries since 2019, despite the drastic economic challenges spurred by the coronavirus pandemic. South Korea, Japan see U.S. as worlds leading economic power; Europeans say its China % who say _ is the worlds leading economic power Note: Volunteered “other,” “none/there is no leading power” and those who did not answer are not sh

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