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类型中国人民银行:2019人民币国际化报告(174页).pdf

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    中国人民银行 2019 人民币 国际化 报告 174
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    1、人民币国际化报告2019年THE PEOPLES BANK OF CHINA2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT目录第一部分人民币国际化十年发展一、政策演进及发展成果二、基础设施建设成果三、央行合作成果第二部分2018年人民币国际使用一、跨境使用总体情况二、经常项目收付三、资本项目收付四、境内人民币外汇交易五、人民币计价大宗商品六、人民币国际储备货币七、人民币跨境现钞调运八、人民币跨境支付系统建设 九、人民币利率和汇率变动十、央行合作 第三部分政策及相关改革进展一、优化跨境人民币业务政策 二、推动资本市场双向开放三、完善宏观审慎管理四、完善人民币汇率形成机制

    2、 第四部分离岸人民币市场发展一、离岸人民币利率和汇率变动1134559111819212122232526262627282929目录1二、离岸人民币存贷款三、离岸人民币证券融资四、全球人民币外汇交易五、离岸人民币清算第五部分全球主要经济体相关经济金融形势一、美国二、欧元区三、日本四、英国五、新兴市场第六部分趋势展望一、人民币支付货币功能将继续增强二、人民币投融资货币功能将不断深化三、人民币储备货币功能将继续实现四、人民币计价货币功能将有更多发展五、继续推动双边货币合作第七部分人民币国际化大事记后记专栏专栏一周边国家人民币使用发展专栏二跨国企业更多选择人民币进行跨境收付313233333737

    3、373838384040404041414867811目录2141617202228323439416679101213131415172123目录3专栏三“熊猫债”受到市场欢迎专栏四中国债券纳入全球重要指数专栏五境外主体持有境内人民币资产情况专栏六INE原油期货交易发展情况专栏七海外人民币现钞兑换情况调查专栏八完善自律机制取得阶段性成果专栏九在香港发行人民币央行票据专栏十香港以外其他主要离岸市场发展情况专栏十一更多国家出台人民币结算政策专栏十二年度人民币国际使用市场调查图图2-120172018年人民币跨境收付月度图图2-220102018年人民币占本外币跨境收付比例图2-32018年人民币

    4、跨境收付金额国别和地区分布情况图2-420172018年经常项目人民币跨境收付图2-520172018年经常项目人民币占本外币跨境收付比例图2-620172018年资本项目人民币跨境收付图2-720172018年直接投资人民币跨境收付月度情况图2-820172018年跨境人民币资金池业务收付月度情况图2-92018年“熊猫债”发行机构分布图2-102018年“熊猫债”投资机构结构图2-112018年末RQFII额度分布图2-1220162018年人民币在COFER中的规模和占比图2-132018年上海银行间同业拆放利率走势(1)4目录图2-142018年上海银行间同业拆放利率走势(2)图2-1

    5、52018年境内人民币汇率走势图4-12018年香港离岸人民币拆借利率走势(1)图4-22018年香港离岸人民币拆借利率走势(2)图4-32018年香港离岸人民币对美元汇率走势图4-420172018年香港地区人民币存贷款情况图4-520152018年伦敦离岸人民币日均外汇交易图6-1境内外企业对人民币国际地位的预期图6-2境外金融机构对人民币国际地位的预期图6-3境外金融机构可提供人民币产品和服务的种类图6-4境内企业的境外交易对手对人民币接受情况图6-5面临汇率波动时境内企业坚持人民币计价的比例图6-6考虑将人民币作为融资货币的境外企业和金融机构占比图6-7境外企业获得人民币收入后的交易行

    6、为图6-8境外金融机构计划增持各类人民币金融资产的占比图6-9境外金融机构对人民币债券类型的投资偏好图6-10境外金融机构对人民币债券期限的投资偏好表表2-12018年分地区人民币跨境收付情况表2-2非居民持有境内人民币金融资产情况表2-32018年银行间外汇即期市场人民币对各币种交易量232429303132344242434344444546464771819CONTENTS68717274767878838695969899101101104105105106107109KEY ABBREVIATIONSPART ONE Ten-year Development of RMB Inter

    7、nationalizationI. Policy Evolution and Achievements in DevelopmentII. Achievements in Infrastructure Construction III. Achievements of Central Bank Cooperation PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 2018I. General Situation of Cross-border Use of RMB II. Current Account III. Capital Account IV

    8、. Domestic RMB Foreign Exchange TradingV. RMB-denominated CommoditiesVI.RMB as an International Reserve CurrencyVII. The Operation of Cross-border Transportation of RMB BanknotesVIII. RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment System IX. RMB Interest Rate and Exchange RateX. Central Banks CooperationPART TH

    9、REE Policies and Relevant ReformsI. Optimization of Policies on Cross-border RMB BusinessII. Promotion of the Two-way Opening up of Capital MarketIII. Improvement of Macro-prudential ManagementIV. Improvement of the RMB Exchange Rate Formation Regime5CONTENTS11011011311411511612112112212212212312512

    10、5126126126126134164PART FOUR Development of the Offshore RMB MarketI. Offshore RMB Interest Rate and Exchange Rate II. Offshore RMB Deposits and LoansIII. Offshore RMB Security FinancingIV. Global RMB Foreign Exchange TradingV. Offshore RMB Clearing PART FIVE Economic and Financial Status of Major E

    11、conomies in the WorldI. United States II. Euro ZoneIII. Japan IV. United KingdomV. Emerging MarketsPART SIX OutlookI. RMBs Function as a Payment Currency Would be StrengthenedII. RMBs Function as an Investment and Financing Currency Would be DeepenedIII. RMBs Function as a Reserve Currency Would be

    12、RealizedIV. RMBs Function as a Pricing Currency Would See More Development V. The Bilateral Monetary Cooperation Would be PromotedPART SEVEN Highlights of RMB InternationalizationAfterwordCONTENTS6818589929497100108115117123127797981837CONTENTSBoxsBox 1 The Use of RMB in Neighboring Countries Box 2

    13、Multinational Enterprises Prefer RMB in Cross-border Receipt and PaymentBox 3 Panda Bond was Welcome by the MarketBox 4 Chinese Bond were Included in Important International IndexesBox 5 Domestic RMB Financial Assets Held by Foreign EntitiesBox 6 Developments of INE Crude Oil Futures TradingBox 7 Su

    14、rvey on Offshore RMB Banknotes ExchangeBox 8 The Interim Achievement in the Foreign Exchange Self-disciplinary Mechanism Box 9 Issuance of RMB-denominated Central-bank Bills in Hong KongBox 10 Development of Major Offshore RMB Markets Other than Hong KongBox 11 More Countries Promulgated Policies fo

    15、r Settlement in RMBBox 12 Annual Market Survey on RMB International UsageFiguresFigure 2-1 Monthly RMB Settlement during 2017-2018Figure 2-2 Proportion of RMB in Total Cross-border Receipts and Payments during 2010-2018Figure 2-3 Distribution of RMB Cross-border Receipts and Payments by Country and

    16、Region in 2018Figure 2-4 Monthly RMB Settlements under the Current Account during 2017-201884878888899093991021021031111111121141178CONTENTSFigure 2-5 The Share of RMB Settlement in Total Cross-border Settlement under Current Account during 2017-2018Figure 2-6 Cross-border RMB Settlement under the C

    17、apital Account during 2017-2018Figure 2-7 Monthly Cross-border RMB Settlement of Direct Investment during 2017-2018Figure 2-8 Monthly Settlement of Cross-border RMB Cash Pooling Business during 2017-2018Figure 2-9 The Distribution of Panda Bond Issuers in 2018Figure 2-10 The Structure of Investment

    18、Institutions of Panda Bond in 2018Figure 2-11 Allocation of RQFII Quotas, End-2018Figure 2-12 The Scale and Ratio of RMB in COFER during 2016-2018Figure 2-13 Tendency of Shanghai Interbank Offered Ratein 2018 (1)Figure 2-14 Tendency of Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate in 2018 (2)Figure 2-15 Tendency

    19、of Domestic RMB Exchange Rate against USD in 2018Figure 4-1 Movement of Hong Kongs Offshore RMB Lending Rate in 2018(1)Figure 4-2 Movement of Hong Kongs Offshore RMB Lending Rate in 2018(2)Figure 4-3 Movement of Hong Kong Offshore RMB Exchange Rate against USD in 2018Figure 4-4 Hong Kongs RMB Deposi

    20、ts and Loans during 2017-2018Figure 4-5 Average Daily RMB Foreign Exchange Trading Volume in London during 2015-20181271281291291301301321321331338094969CONTENTSFigure 6-1 Anticipation of Domestic and Foreign Enterprises on the International Role of RMBFigure 6-2 Anticipation of Foreign Financial In

    21、stitutions on the International Role of RMBFigure 6-3 RMB Products and Services Provided by Foreign Financial InstitutionsFigure 6-4 Acceptance of RMB by Foreign Trade Counterparties of Domestic EnterprisesFigure 6-5 Proportion of Domestic Enterprises Sticking to RMB Pricing in the Situation of FX V

    22、olatilityFigure 6-6 Proportion of Foreign Enterprises and Financial Institutions Considering RMB as a Financing CurrencyFigure 6-7 Trading Behaviors of Foreign Enterprises When Receiving RMBFigure 6-8 Proportion of Foreign Financial Institutions Planning to Increase RMB Financial AssetsFigure 6-9 Th

    23、e Foreign Financial Institutions Investment Preference as to the Type of RMB BondFigure 6-10 The Foreign Financial Institutions Investment Preference as to the Maturity of RMB BondTablesTable 2-1 Cross-border RMB Settlement by Provinces in 2018Table 2-2 Domestic RMB Financial Assets Held by Non-resi

    24、dents Table 2-3 The Trading Volume of RMB against Currencies in the Interbank Foreign Exchange Spot Market in 2018 第一部分人民币国际化十年发展 1改革开放四十年来,中国经济实力显著提升,开放型经济新体制逐步健全,中国在全球经济中扮演着日益重要的角色。随着中国对外开放程度不断提高,中国经济全面融入世界经济体系,人民币逐渐走出国门。2008年以来,人民银行与市场机构一道,按照尊重市场需求、服务实体经济、确保风险可控的原则,有序推动人民币国际使用。十年来,跨境人民币业务政策框架基本建立

    25、,基础设施逐步完善,人民币国际使用稳步发展。特别是党的十八大以来,人民币加入SDR,国际货币地位初步奠定,资本项目可兑换有序推进,金融市场开放成效显著。目前,人民币已连续八年为中国第二大国际收付货币,全球第五大支付货币、第三大贸易融资货币、第八大外汇交易货币、第六大储备货币。全球已有60多个央行或货币当局将人民币纳入外汇储备。超过32万家企业和270多家银行开展跨境人民币业务,与中国发生跨境人民币收付的国家和地区达242个。人民币作为支付货币功能不断增强,作为投融资和交易货币功能持续深化,作为计价货币功能有所突破,作为储备货币功能逐渐显现。一、政策演进及发展成果改革开放初期,人民币通过人员往来

    26、、边境贸易、边境旅游等途径向中国毗邻国家和港澳台少量流出。2008年国际金融危机爆发,美元、欧元、日元等主要国际储备货币汇率大幅波动,企业和个人对人民币跨境使用的需求越来越高。人民币国际化在市场呼声中启动。十年来,人民币跨境使用的政策限制逐步解除,人民币国际使用经历了从经常到资本、从银行企业到个人、从简单到复杂业务逐步发展的过程,作为国际货币功能也从单一的支付结算向投融资、交易计价、储备拓展。(一)从贸易结算试点拓展到经常项目阶段2008年国际金融危机后,为降低汇兑成本、获得稳定的贸易融资,国内进出口企业提出了在跨境贸易中使用人民币进行结算的需求。2009年7月,上海和广东省广州、深圳、珠海、

    27、东莞等城市启动跨境贸易人民币结算试点,境外地域范围第一部分人民币国际化十年发展2019年人民币国际化报告2为我国港澳地区和东盟国家。2010年6月,人民银行等六部委联合将试点地区扩大到北京、天津等20个省(自治区、直辖市),不再限制境外地域范围,试点业务范围涵盖跨境货物贸易、服务贸易和其他经常项目结算。2011年8月,跨境人民币结算试点扩大至全国,业务范围涵盖货物贸易、服务贸易和其他经常项目结算。2009年以来,经常项目下人民币跨境收付快速增长,从初期年度结算金额不到4 000亿元,至2015年达到7万亿元,随后进入平稳增长通道。(二)从经常项目拓展至资本项目阶段 随着跨境贸易人民币结算试点的

    28、深入开展,境内外机构使用人民币进行直接投资的需求日益增长。2010年10月,人民银行在新疆试点开展境内企业人民币对外直接投资业务。2011年1月,人民银行允许跨境贸易人民币结算试点地区开展对外直接投资人民币结算业务。8月,跨境贸易人民币结算试点范围扩大到全国,人民币对外直接投资业务也扩大至全国范围。10月,外商直接投资业务政策出台。对外直接投资和外商直接投资人民币跨境结算从无到有,在直接投资跨境收付中的份额不断扩大,由2010年的不到5%逐年上升至2018年的超过50%。人民币跨境贸易融资、境外项目人民币贷款、境内企业境外放款、跨境人民币资金池业务等政策也陆续推出并不断完善。(三)不断推动金融

    29、市场双向开放随着境外主体人民币的积累,使用人民币进行投资和配置资产的需求日趋增长。与此同时,中国金融市场双向开放进程不断加快,银行间债券市场投资、人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)、人民币合格境内机构投资者(RQDII)、“沪深港通”、基金互认、“债券通”、黄金国际板等投资渠道陆续放开。境外发行人民币债券的境内主体和境内发行人民币债券(“熊猫债”)的境外主体类型越来越多元化。证券投资项下人民币收付业务从无到有,从2011年的1 000亿元增长至2018年的超过6万亿元,2018年增速超过83.6%。(四)人民币加入SDR,国际货币地位初步奠定2016年10月,人民币正式加入国际货币基金组织

    30、(IMF)特别提款权货币篮子,权重为10.92%,在篮子货币中排名第三。2016年第四季度,IMF官方外汇储备货币构成(COFER)中人民币储备规模为907.8亿美元,这是IMF首次公布人民币储备信息。截至2018年第四季度末,COFER中人民币储备规模为2 027.9亿美元,占比1.89%,在主要储备货币中排名第6位。据不完全统计,已有60多个央行或货币当局将人民币纳入外汇储备。第一部分人民币国际化十年发展 3二、基础设施建设成果(一) 人民币跨境支付系统人民银行从2012年开始组织建设人民币跨境支付系统(CIPS),CIPS业务功能不断完善,参与者数量不断增加,业务量不断攀升,清算结算效率

    31、得到参与者的广泛认可。2015年10月,CIPS(一期)投产,引入实时全额结算模式,支持客户和金融机构汇款等支付业务,满足了全球各主要时区跨境人民币贸易、投融资业务的结算需要。2017年10月,“债券通”开通,CIPS可满足其结算需要,以香港为节点连接中国内地与多个不同经济体市场,支持国际通行的付款交割结算(DVP),涵盖了现券买卖、发行承销、债券回购等金融市场业务类型,满足了国际投资者在不改变业务习惯下投资内地债券市场的需求。2018年5月,CIPS(二期)上线,引入了定时净额结算机制,系统运行时间由原来的512小时延长至524小时4小时,全面覆盖了全球各时区的金融市场,支持当日结算。CIP

    32、S为银行间货币市场加开夜盘,满足了境内外直接参与者夜间流动性调剂需要。除付款交割结算(DVP),CIPS还开通了人民币对外币同步交收(PVP)、中央对手集中清算等资金结算模式。截至2018年末,CIPS共有31家直接参与者、818家间接参与者,参与者覆盖全球六大洲89个国家和地区,业务实际覆盖全球161个国家和地区,2 659家法人金融机构。截至2018年末,CIPS已累计处理人民币跨境支付业务超过342万笔、金额45.84万亿元。(二)人民币跨境收付信息管理系统2009年7月,为支持跨境人民币结算试点业务的有序开展,人民银行上线了人民币跨境收付信息管理系统(RCPMIS)。RCPMIS是目前

    33、国内唯一的专门针对人民币资金跨境流动监测的全国性信息管理系统。自上线以来,为适应新业务发展需要,RCPMIS系统性能不断优化。经过多次升级改造,系统采集范围涵盖人民币跨境收付相关业务信息、流量信息和存量信息。系统统计监测功能逐步完善,满足了人民银行对人民币跨境收付的分析、监测、评估以及宏观调控决策等方面需要。截至2018年末,全国已有424家法人银行机构和港澳清算行接入RCPMIS,系统有效用户69 249个,共计采集数据信息3 378万余条。(三)跨境现钞调运2009年以来,跨境人民币现钞业务规模不断增长,银行跨境调运人民币2019年人民币国际化报告4现钞金额由2009年最初的109亿元增长

    34、到2018年的1 171亿元,年均增长率达28.9%。2009年以前,跨境现钞调运业务主要发生在我国香港、澳门地区及蒙古国、越南等毗邻国家。从2010年起,香港清算行依托中银香港代保管库为海外提供人民币现钞或回流人民币现钞,人民币现钞供应回流渠道逐步延伸至全球范围。银行跨境调运人民币现钞业务形成了境外代保管库调运、境外清算行调运和商业银行代理行调运等三种模式。随着境外人民币清算机制安排和调运、提存环境不断优化,海外人民币现钞二级市场不断发展,境外获取人民币现钞日益便利。三、央行合作成果 (一)双边本币互换 2008年国际金融危机爆发,全球金融体系出现严重的流动性困难,一些贸易和投资伙伴国家希望

    35、获得流动性支持。经国务院批准,2008年以来,人民银行先后与38个国家和地区的央行或货币当局签署了双边本币互换协议,总金额超过3.7万亿元。本币互换安排对便利中国与有关国家和地区贸易投资、维护金融稳定、促进人民币国际使用发挥了积极作用。截至2018年末,有效协议30份,总金额3.48万亿元。(二)人民币清算机制安排经国务院批准,人民银行先后于2003年和2004年允许香港和澳门的银行为个人人民币业务提供清算机制安排,授权中银香港和中国银行澳门分行分别担任香港和澳门人民币业务清算行。2009年,跨境贸易人民币结算试点启动,港澳人民币清算行业务范围随之拓宽。为顺应境外人民币市场发展及扩大金融市场双

    36、向开放的需要,人民银行先后与境外央行或货币当局签署了合作备忘录,在25个国家和地区建立人民币清算机制安排并授权25家当地银行担任人民币清算行,其中中资清算行24家、外资清算行1家。目前,境外人民币清算行已覆盖我国港澳台地区、东南亚、欧洲、南北美洲、大洋洲、中东和非洲。第二部分2018年人民币国际使用52018年,在国内外经济金融形势复杂多变、资本流出压力较大、人民币汇率前升后跌波动加剧的背景下,人民币跨境收付保持了较快增长,跨境收付占本外币跨境收付比例创历史新高,收支总体平衡,呈小幅净流入态势。全年,人民币国际使用呈现主要特点如下:一是经常项目收付金额同比回升,货物贸易汇出净额收窄,服务贸易收

    37、付金额增幅较大,服务贸易和收益汇出净额扩大。二是金融市场开放不断加深,资本项目收付金额首次达到经常项目收付金额的两倍,其中证券投资增长显著,直接投资银行间债券市场(CIBM)吸引外资净流入金额居首位。三是离岸人民币市场保持平稳发展,在岸人民币汇率对离岸人民币汇率引领作用明显,离岸与在岸市场联动性逐步增强,广度和深度继续拓展。一、跨境使用总体情况 2018年,人民币跨境收付金额合计15.85万亿元,同比增长46.3%。其中收款8万亿元,同比增长51.6%,付款7.85万亿元,同比增长41.3%,收付比为10.98,净流入1 544亿元,2017年为净流出2 765亿元。人民币跨境收付占同期本外币

    38、跨境收付总金额的比重为32.6%,创历史新高,较上年提高约7个百分点。人民币已连续8年成为中国第二大国际支付货币。根据SWIFT数据,截至2018年末,人民币为全球第五大支付货币,占全球所有货币支付金额比重为2.07%,较2017年同期1.61%有所上升,排名仅次于美元、欧元、英镑及日元。离岸市场79%的收付发生在香港地区。第二部分2018年人民币国际使用2019年人民币国际化报告6图2-120172018年人民币跨境收付月度图数据来源:中国人民银行。经常项目 ( 左轴 )资本项目 ( 左轴 )人民币收付 / 本外币收付 ( 右轴 )亿元%45403530252015105018 00016

    39、00014 00012 00010 0008 0006 0004 0002 0000 2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12图2-220102018年人民币占本外币跨境收付比例数据来源:中国人民银行。经常项目 ( 左轴 )资本项目 ( 左轴 )人民币收付 / 本外币收付 ( 右轴 )亿元%年20102

    40、01120122013201420152016201720184035302520151050180 000160 000140 000120 000100 00080 00060 00040 00020 0000 第二部分2018年人民币国际使用7上海、北京、深圳三地人民币跨境收付量位列全国前三。2018年,上海、北京、深圳人民币跨境收付总金额占全国人民币跨境收付总金额的比重分别为45.8%、14.1%和10.3%。2018年,全国共有9个省(自治区、直辖市)人民币跨境收付金额超过2 000亿元,同比增加2个。8个边境省、自治区的收付金额合计约4 718亿元,同比增长17.6%。专栏1.1国

    41、际金融中心的界定表2-12018年分地区人民币跨境收付情况占比(%)合计资本和金融项目经常项目地区序号单位:亿元11 333.06 973.66 775.97 717.64 004.83 252.4 532.310 479.251 068.761 320.615 339.99 627.17 562.02 255.42 025.61 840.47 495.1107 466.272 653.622 313.416 403.015 279.66 260.25 278.02 372.717 974.2158 534.9 45.814.110.39.63.93.31.511.3100.0上海北京深圳广东

    42、(不含深圳)江苏浙江福建其他地区合计12345678数据来源:中国人民银行。图2-32018年人民币跨境收付金额国别和地区分布情况数据来源:中国人民银行。中国香港,40.5%卢森堡,1.03%英国,2.38%韩国,3.86%日本,3.49%德国,4.18%中国澳门,2.05%荷兰,1.16%澳大利亚,1.06%开曼群岛,1.10%中国台湾,3.39%其他,23.62%新加坡,8.99%美国,1.89% 瑞士,1.29%2019年人民币国际化报告82018年,与我国香港地区的人民币跨境收付金额占比为40.5%,之后分别是新加坡占比9%、德国占比4.2%、韩国占比近4%。新加坡、韩国、英国、瑞士、

    43、荷兰、卢森堡以及我国台湾和澳门等国家和地区的收付金额占比较2017年均有大幅上升。2018年,中国与“一带一路”沿线国家办理人民币跨境收付金额超过2.07万亿元,占同期人民币跨境收付总额的13.1%,其中货物贸易收付金额6 134亿元,直接投资收付金额2 244亿元,其他投资收付金额3 331亿元,跨境融资收付金额3 132亿元。截至2018年末,中国与21个“一带一路”沿线国家签署了本币互换协议,在8个“一带一路”沿线国家建立了人民币清算机制安排,有6个“一带一路”沿线国家获RQFII试点,人民币与9个“一带一路”沿线国家货币实现直接交易、与3个沿线国家货币实现区域交易。专栏一周边国家人民币

    44、使用发展2018年,中国与周边国家跨境人民币结算金额约为3.1万亿元,同比增长46.3%,高于同期全国跨境人民币结算额增幅,其中经常项目人民币跨境收付金额合计1.1万亿元,同比增长13%,直接投资项下人民币跨境收付金额合计2 828亿元,同比增长68.1%。贸易和投资跨境人民币结算量占跨境人民币收付总量的比重达40%以上。其中与尼泊尔跨境人民币结算额同比增长9倍,与白俄罗斯增长7倍,与新加坡、韩国、俄罗斯、泰国等13个国家增长均超过50%。俄罗斯、新加坡、韩国、泰国、柬埔寨等15个国家央行已将人民币资产纳入其外汇储备。目前,人民银行已在6个周边国家建立了人民币清算机制。与越南、哈萨克斯坦等9个

    45、周边国家签署了双边本币结算协定,与蒙古国、日本等14个周边国家签署了双边本币互换协议。2018年2月,人民币对泰铢区域交易推广至全国银行间外汇市场。9月,人民币对哈萨克斯坦坚戈直接报价交易和跨境平盘机制启动,引入首批境外银行加入银行间外汇市场区域交易,初步形成人民币对坚戈银行柜台挂牌为基础、银行间外汇市场区域交易为支撑的挂牌交易体系。此外,中国于2018年陆续推出了“口岸互联互通信息服务平台”“中国(新疆)丝路货币区域交易信息平台”,开发完成了境外边民银行账户服务平台,大幅提高了边民参与互市贸易的能力。第二部分2018年人民币国际使用92018年,中国建立了中老双边本外币现钞陆路调运通道,新设

    46、了“磨憨磨丁”滇老调运线路,开通了对俄陆路跨境人民币现钞调运渠道,完成了首笔坚戈现钞调运。人民币在周边国家使用有利于促进中国与周边国家经贸往来,将中国发展成果更多惠及周边,推动形成中国全面开放的新格局。 二、经常项目收付2018年,经常项目人民币跨境收付金额合计5.11万亿元,同比增长19%,其中收入2.06万亿元,同比增长19%,支出3.05万亿元,同比增长17%,净支出约0.99万亿元,同比增长14%。2018年,经常项目人民币跨境收付占同期本外币跨境收付的比例为14%,较2017年提高1个百分点。图2-420172018年经常项目人民币跨境收付数据来源:中国人民银行。货物贸易 ( 左轴

    47、)经常转移 ( 左轴 )服务贸易 ( 左轴 )收益 ( 左轴 )同比增速 ( 右轴 )亿元%6040200-20-40-606 0005 0004 0003 0002 0001 0000 2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.122019年人民币国际化报告10(一)货物贸易 2018年,货物贸易人民币跨境

    48、收付金额合计3.66万亿元,同比上升13.2%,占同期本外币跨境收付比重为11.7%,较上年提高0.3个百分点。货物贸易项下人民币资金净流出3 962亿元,同比下降15%。其中,一般贸易人民币跨境收付金额合计2.21万亿元,与上年基本持平,离岸转手买卖、进料加工贸易人民币结算同比分别下降71.7%和31%。随着跨境人民币业务管理的不断完善,离岸转手买卖跨境人民币收付大幅下降,从2015年最高的1.88万亿元下降到2018年的1 000多亿元,货物贸易跨境人民币业务更加健康发展。(二)服务贸易 2018年,服务贸易人民币跨境收付金额合计7 688亿元,同比增长32.9%,占同期本外币跨境收付比重

    49、为20.4%,较上年提高4.4个百分点。服务贸易项下人民币资金净流出933亿元,同比增加909亿元。服务贸易跨境收付主要集中于境外酒店、机票、学费、旅游及计算机服务等项目。其中,服务贸易项下第三方支付公司人民币跨境收付金额合计1 790亿元,同比增长171.8%。(三)收益和经常转移 2018年,收益项下人民币跨境收付金额合计6 515亿元,同比增长32%,经常图2-520172018年经常项目人民币占本外币跨境收付比例数据来源:中国人民银行。经常项目服务贸易货物贸易收益及经常转移6050403020100%2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062

    50、017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12第二部分2018年人民币国际使用11转移项下人民币跨境收付金额合计294亿元,同比增长23%。收益及经常转移人民币跨境收付占同期本外币跨境收付比重为43.4%,较上年提高10.2个百分点。收益项下人民币资金净流出5 150亿元,同比增长27%,经常转移项下净回流244亿元,同比增长74%。专栏二跨国企业更多选择人民币进行跨境收付随着中国综合国力的提

    51、升,中国在跨国企业全球布局中占据越来越重要的位置。以上海为例,目前已有83家世界500强企业在上海设立了区域总部级机构,承担在中国的资金管理、采购、销售、结算等多项职能。2018年,在沪跨国企业共发生跨境人民币收付1 742亿元,占同期本外币跨境收付的比重为54%,跨境人民币结算量首次超过外汇结算量。其中,人民币跨境收付占比超过90%的有20家。多家跨国企业已考虑与中国相关的跨境业务全部使用人民币结算。跨境人民币业务为跨国企业带来了实实在在的好处:一是有利于规避汇率风险,降低兑换成本。二是有利于减少供应链运营成本,促进上下游企业聚焦主业。三是有利于提高跨境资金结算效率,减少“脚底成本”。四是有

    52、利于提升跨国企业中国总部的话语权。许多在华跨国企业积极向母公司争取,将与中国相关的业务使用人民币结算,把集团的全球人民币资产移交境内公司集中运营管理。2018年以来,人民币汇率呈现一定波动,但跨国企业未因此减少人民币跨境使用,这显示出跨国企业使用人民币跨境收付已经形成一定路径依赖。调查显示,跨国企业希望继续维护当前良好的营商环境,保持跨境人民币政策的稳定性和连续性,进一步提高政策便利度,提升人民币可兑换、可自由使用程度。三、资本项目收付2018年,资本项目下人民币跨境收付金额合计10.75万亿元,同比增长65%,其中收入5.94万亿元,支出4.81万亿元,净收入1.13万亿元,直接投资、证券投

    53、资、跨境融资净流入分别占资本项目净流入的21.7%、69.3%和7.6%。 2019年人民币国际化报告12(一)直接投资 2018年,直接投资项下人民币跨境收付金额合计2.66万亿元,同比增长61.1%,占本外币跨境收付的比重为59.5%,同比提高10.2个百分点,净流入2 464亿元,同比增长51%。2018年,对外直接投资人民币跨境收付金额8 048亿元,同比增长76.2%,全年资本金流出530亿元,流入118亿元,净流出412亿元。2018年,外商直接投资人民币跨境收付金额1.86万亿元,同比增长57.5%,全年资本金流入2 874亿元,流出1 316亿元,净流入1 558亿元。(二)跨

    54、境人民币资金池 截至2018年末,全国共设立跨境人民币资金池1 253个,全年跨境人民币资金池业务流出8 047亿元,流入8 721亿元,合计1.68万亿元,同比增长57%,净流入673亿元。(三)“熊猫债” 截至2018年末,“熊猫债”发债主体已涵盖国际开发机构、外国政府、境外非金融企业、金融机构等,累计注册/核准额度6 623亿元,累计发行规模超过3 147亿元。2018年全年,“熊猫债”新发行规模近747亿元,较上年增长23.8%。图2-620172018年资本项目人民币跨境收付数据来源:中国人民银行。亿元%直接投资 ( 左轴 )其他投资 ( 左轴 )证券投资 ( 左轴 )同比增速 (

    55、右轴 )200150100500-5012 00010 0008 0006 0004 0002 00002017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12第二部分2018年人民币国际使用13图2-720172018年直接投资人民币跨境收付月度情况数据来源:中国人民银行。对外直接投资外商直接投资亿元2 5002 0

    56、001 5001 00050002017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12数据来源:中国人民银行。亿元净流入收入支出图2-820172018年跨境人民币资金池业务收付月度情况2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.09201

    57、7.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.121 4001 2001 0008006004002000 -200-4002019年人民币国际化报告142018年以来,随着中国金融市场双向开放步伐的不断加快,“熊猫债”市场受到国际市场广泛关注,发债主体类型进一步扩展,发债规模也实现了大幅增长。从发债主体看,2018年非金融企业“熊猫债”增长最快,共有16个发债主体累计发行36只“熊猫债”,规模合计627亿元,发行规模较上年增长191.6%。

    58、外国政府类“熊猫债”包括菲律宾、阿联酋和匈牙利等3个主权发债主体发行3只主权“熊猫债”,发行规模近55亿元。截至2018年末,已有波兰、匈牙利、菲律宾、阿联酋、加拿大、韩国等6个主权发债主体发行8只主权“熊猫债”,发行规模近165亿元。其中菲律宾、阿联酋为2018年首次进入中国发债。金融机构“熊猫债”共有包括日本三菱日联银行、日本瑞穗银行、农银国际和中银投4个发债主体发行4只“熊猫债”,发行规模合计65亿元。总体来看,2018年非金融企业发债主体发行规模最大,占比84%,金融机构和外国政府类占比分别为8.7%和7.3%。 随着“熊猫债”市场发展,投资主体参与积极性逐步提升。2018年,市场参与

    59、“熊猫债”投资的机构类型增多,农村商业银行及城市商业银行逐专栏三 “熊猫债”受到市场欢迎图2-92018年“熊猫债”发行机构分布数据来源:中国人民银行。政府金融机构非金融机构8.71%7.31%83.98%第二部分2018年人民币国际使用15图2-102018年“熊猫债”投资机构结构数据来源:中国人民银行。国有商业银行股份制商业银行其他商业银行城市商业银行农村商业银行境外投资者基金资管券商59.06%3.87%2.39%17.68%0.92%12.89%1.77%0.38%1.03%步参与“熊猫债”投资。境外商业银行的境内机构,如汇丰中国、三菱日联中国、瑞穗中国等参与投资规模明显增长。2018

    60、年外资商业银行合计投资超过13亿元,投资规模为2017年的3倍。境外投资主体认购热情升温,在近年的“熊猫债”发行中,多只债券被境外投资主体认购,在匈牙利、加拿大及菲律宾的“熊猫债”项目中,境外投资主体获配量占比分别达55%、73%和88%,包括主权财富基金、境外央行在内的境外投资主体均有参与。“熊猫债”已成为中国债券市场连接境外发债主体、投资主体的重要纽带。2018年9月,人民银行和财政部联合下发全国银行间债券市场境外机构债券发行管理暂行办法(中国人民银行财政部公告2018第16号),系统规范了四类境外机构在中国发债的基本原则,并从“熊猫债”的发行审批、登记托管结算流程、信息披露等方面进行了规

    61、范,明确了市场普遍关注的会计准则和审计监管等问题。办法的实施对“熊猫债”市场的健康规范发展具有重要意义。随着人民币国际化进程的推进和中国债券市场对外开放的深化,后续将有更多的发债主体和投资主体进入中国债券市场,“熊猫债”市场将迎来更大的发展空间。2019年人民币国际化报告16(四)跨境证券投资 2018年,境外投资主体配置人民币资产需求显著增加,证券投资人民币跨境收付合计6.38万亿元,同比增长83.6%,净流入7 863亿元,同比增长171%,对资本项目增速贡献最大。债券投资。2018年,共计1 186家境外机构进入银行间债券市场,直接入市774家,通过“债券通”入市505家,其中93家为既

    62、通过直接入市渠道又通过“债券通”渠道进入银行间债券市场。全年流入2.12万亿元,流出1.52万亿元,净流入6 022亿元。其中“债券通”业务收支金额合计1.03万亿元,增长210%,净流入862亿元,与2017年基本持平;CIBM收支金额合计2.6万亿元,增长117%,净流入5 160亿元,增长125%。专栏四中国债券纳入全球重要指数2018年3月,彭博首次宣布将人民币计价的中国国债和政策性银行债券纳入彭博巴克莱全球综合指数(BBGA),纳入计划将从2019年4月开始,分20个月完成。2019年4月,彭博正式开始将中国债券纳入该指数,人民币债券成为继美元、欧元、日元之后该指数的第四大货币组成部

    63、分。这是人民币债券首次纳入全球三大重要债券国际指数。此外,富时罗素宣布已将中国列入其指数观察国名单,将于2019年9月对外公布是否将中国债券纳入富时世界国债指数。摩根大通也将在2019年夏季的指数管理会议期间征询将中国债券纳入相关指数的反馈意见。近年来,中国债券市场对外开放持续扩大。截至2018年末,中国债券市场存量规模达86万亿元人民币,其中境外主体持债规模1.71万亿元人民币,同比增长46%。此次中国债券纳入国际主要债券指数,充分反映了国际投资者对于中国经济的信心,也是中国金融市场对外开放取得新进展的体现,将有利于更好地满足国际投资者对人民币资产的配置需求。人民银行将继续完善相关制度规则安

    64、排,进一步提高中国债券市场对外开放水平,为国际投资者提供更加友好、便利的投资环境。“沪深港通”。2018年,“沪深港通”业务跨境收付金额合计8 415亿元,同比增长30%,资金净流入2 093亿元,2017年为净流出1 055亿元。其中,“沪股第二部分2018年人民币国际使用17通”和“深股通”净流入2 833亿元,内地投资者通过“港股通”累计持有香港股票市值5 475亿元,净流出740亿元。RQFII。截至2018年末,共有19个国家和地区获得RQFII投资额度合计1.94万亿元,205家境外机构备案或申请投资额度合计6 467亿元。2018年,RQFII资金流入总金额1 388亿元,流出总

    65、金额1 203亿元,净流入185亿元。2018年5月,经国务院批准,日本获2 000亿元RQFII额度。专栏五境外主体持有境内人民币资产情况图2-112018年末RQFII额度分布数据来源:中国人民银行。单位:亿元爱尔兰,500匈牙利,500瑞士,500澳大利亚,500卢森堡,500德国,800卡塔尔,300加拿大,500韩国,1 200马来西亚,500美国,2500泰国,500中国香港,5 000智利,500日本,2 000法国,800新加坡,1 000阿联酋,500(五)其他投资 2018年,包括跨境融资、项目贷款等的其他投资人民币跨境收付金额合计1.7万亿元,同比增长23.6%,净流入1

    66、 040亿元,同比下降19%。截至2018年末,境外主体持有境内人民币股票、债券、贷款以及存款等金融资产金额合计4.85万亿元,同比增长13.1%。其中,股票市值1.15万亿元,债券托管余额1.71万亿元,存款余额为1.06万亿元(包括同业往来账户存款),贷款余额9 247亿元。2019年人民币国际化报告18境内金融市场股票和债券成为境外主体增配人民币资产的主要品种。截至2018年末,境外主体持有境内人民币股票和债券规模同比增长27%,其中持有债券托管量占银行间债券市场债券托管总量的2.4%,持有股票市值占A股总流通市值的2.5%。2018年,境外主体新增的境内人民币资产中,债券占比为91%。

    67、表2-2非居民持有境内人民币金融资产情况2017年12月2018年3月2018年6月2018年9月2018年12月项目单位:亿元12 752.416 029.48 243.511 841.048 866.312 784.917 450.49 242.510 363.649 841.411 746.711 988.37 390.011 734.742 859.711 517.417 115.99 246.510 591.648 471.412 016.313 610.18 417.711 377.945 422.0股票债券贷款存款合计数据来源:中国人民银行。四、境内人民币外汇交易截至2018年末

    68、,中国境内银行间外汇交易市场交易主体进一步扩展。共有即期市场会员678家,远期、外汇掉期、货币掉期和期权市场会员各212家、207家、175家和124家,即期市场做市商32家,远掉期市场做市商27家。中国境内银行间外汇交易市场交易活跃,产品结构不断完善,全年人民币外汇成交折合24.8万亿美元,日均成交折合1 018亿美元,同比增长超过20%。其中,人民币外汇即期成交折合7.6万亿美元,同比增长19.3%;人民币外汇掉期交易成交折合16.4万亿美元,同比增长22.7%(隔夜美元掉期成交折合9.2万亿美元,占掉期总成交额的56.1%);货币掉期成交658亿美元,同比增长15%;远期成交折合875亿

    69、美元,同比减少15.3%;人民币期权成交6 111亿美元,同比增长64.6%。2018年,人民币对非美元外币直接交易平稳发展,即期成交金额1.6万亿元,在银行间外汇市场即期交易中占比为3.2%。2月,银行间外汇市场人民币对泰铢交易方式进一步完善,从区域交易发展为直接交易。9月,银行间外汇市场人民币对哈萨克斯坦坚戈区域交易引入新境外机构参加报价交易,并将交易时间延长。第二部分2018年人民币国际使用19五、人民币计价大宗商品(一)原油期货合约在上海期货交易所挂牌并运行 2018年3月,以人民币计价的原油期货在上海期货交易所子公司上海国际能源交易中心(INE)挂牌交易,同时引入境外交易者。交易品种

    70、主要是中质含硫原油,包括杜拜原油、上扎库姆原油、阿曼原油、卡塔尔海洋油、也门马西拉原油、伊拉克巴士拉轻油,以及国产的胜利原油7个可交割油种。交易单位为1 000桶/手。交易时间主要是上午9:0011:30、下午13:3015:00,晚上21:00到第二天2:30。目前,交割方式为现货交割,交易安排为净价交易,保税交割。净价交易是指计价不含关税和增值税,保税交割是指依托保税油库进行实物交割。目前,对INE原油期货交易暂免增值税。(二)大连商品交易所铁矿石期货引入境外交易者铁矿石是继原油之后世界第二大贸易额、中国第一大进口量商品。2013年10月,中国铁矿石期货上市,参与者为境内交易者,以人民币计

    71、价结算。目前大连商品交易所的铁矿石期货市场已发展成为全球最大的铁矿石期货市场,对国内钢厂锁定利润、稳定经营具有重要意义。为进一步推动期货市场对外开放,更好地服务实体经济,2018年5月,铁矿石作为特定品种期货,正式引入境外交易者。境外交易者的交易机制基本参照原油期货。(三)人民币计价的精对苯二甲酸期货引入境外交易者精对苯二甲酸(PTA)是重要的大宗纺织原料,中国是全球最大的PTA生产表2-32018年银行间外汇即期市场人民币对各币种交易量港元马来西亚林吉特波兰兹罗提越南盾英镑俄罗斯卢布丹麦克朗哈萨克斯坦坚戈(区域交易)柬埔寨瑞尔(区域交易)蒙古图格里克(区域交易)澳大利亚元南非南特瑞典克朗美元

    72、新加坡元阿联酋迪拉姆土耳其里拉新西兰元韩元挪威克朗欧元瑞士法郎沙特里亚尔墨西哥比索日元加拿大元匈牙利福林泰铢币种币种币种币种单位:亿元1 9203570.0082 7845814181516148470.02587961000.006491 907554862196218210.087 547296744交易量交易量交易量交易量数据来源:中国外汇交易中心。2019年人民币国际化报告20专栏六INE原油期货交易发展情况国和消费国,也是PTA上下游产品的主要贸易国。2006年12月,PTA期货上市,参与者为境内交易者。为提高PTA期货价格国际认可度,2018年11月,PTA期货正式引入境外交易者。

    73、境外交易者的交易机制与原油期货保持一致。原油、铁矿石和PTA等大宗商品期货交易引入境外交易者是我国扩大对外金融开放的重要举措,有利于提升期货市场服务实体经济的功能,推动人民币成为大宗商品的计价结算货币。境外交易者投资原油、铁矿石和PTA等大宗商品期货,可以使用人民币或美元等作为保证金,截至2019年2月末,折算成人民币计算,境外交易者共汇入保证金57.1亿元,汇出36.9亿元,其中人民币占比分别为59.2%和75.5%,体现了境外交易者对人民币的偏好。INE原油期货上市以来,市场规模不断扩大。截至2019年2月末,累计成交量(单边,下同)超过3 418万手,累计成交金额近16万亿元,日均持仓2

    74、.2万手。INE原油期货日均成交量已超过迪拜商业交易所阿曼原油期货品种,成为亚洲交易量最大的原油期货合约,仅次于美国西德克萨斯中质(WTI)原油期货和英国布伦特(BRENT)原油期货,跻身全球交易量前三。目前,INE原油期货已经完成我国香港地区、新加坡、英国、韩国、日本等52家境外中介机构的备案,境外交易者来自英国、澳大利亚、瑞士、新加坡、塞浦路斯和塞舌尔等国家及我国香港和台湾地区。随着INE原油期货的稳步发展,预计境外交易者参与数量和程度将逐渐提升。INE原油期货反映中国石油市场供需关系的功能初步显现。2018年3月,壳牌与联合石化签署原油贸易合同,这是第一笔以INE原油期货价格作为基准价计

    75、价交易的进出口现货贸易。10月,联合石化和山东京博石化签署原油贸易合同,这是第一笔以INE原油期货价格作为基准价计价交易的国内现货贸易。国际能源署(IEA)、石油输出国组织(OPEC)等国际机构对INE原油期货高度关注并进行了正面评价。普氏、阿格斯等报价机构已取得上期所授权,在其发布信息产品中增列INE原油期货价格数据,同时增加对上期所可交割油种亚洲到岸价的评估。第二部分2018年人民币国际使用21六、人民币国际储备货币根据IMF COFER数据,截至2018年第四季度末,人民币储备规模达2 027.9亿美元,占标明币种构成外汇储备总额的1.89%,排名超过澳大利亚元的1.62%和加拿大元的1

    76、.84%,居第6位,这是IMF自2016年开始公布人民币储备资产以来的最高水平。据不完全统计,目前全球已有60多个央行或货币当局将人民币纳入外汇储备。七、人民币跨境现钞调运 2018年,人民币跨境现钞调运平稳发展。银行跨境调运人民币现钞业务规模、净调入量稳中有升。年内,银行跨境调运人民币现钞金额总计1 171亿元,同比增长2.2%,其中出境95亿元,入境1 075亿元,人民币现钞净调入980亿元。海外人民币现钞供应回流业务规模持续下降,由连续三年净存入转为净提取。年内,海外人民币现钞供应回流业务金额总计2.4亿元,同比下降31.5%。其中,海外提取现钞1.9亿元,存入现钞0.5亿元,人民币现钞

    77、净提取1.4亿元。图2-1220162018年人民币在COFER中的规模和占比数据来源:国际货币基金组织。亿美元%规模 ( 左轴 )占比 ( 右轴 )2.001.801.601.401.201.000.800.600.400.200.002 5002 0001 5001 00050002016Q4 2017Q1 2017Q2 2017Q3 2017Q4 2018Q1 2018Q2 2018Q3 2018Q42019年人民币国际化报告22专栏七海外人民币现钞兑换情况调查2018年,境外人民币现钞兑换业务量上升较快,但总体规模有限。近年来,随着境内个人出境旅游的不断增加和人民币国际接受程度的明显提

    78、升,境外人民币现钞兑换业务量增长较快。2011年至2018年,中国内地居民进出境从1.4亿人次增至5.6亿人次。居民携带人民币现钞在境外兑换、消费,由于人民币现钞在境外流通和贮藏功能有限,多数经兑换后又通过银行体系回流境内。境外人民币现钞兑换业务,主要集中在境内个人出境游较多、现钞兑换需求较大的国家和地区。从便利性看,周边国家和地区现钞兑换较便利,我国港澳台地区、新加坡、泰国等地开展人民币现钞兑换业务的机构较多,现钞兑换场所覆盖面较全。欧美等国现钞兑换网点有限,如美国仅可在出入境口岸、中心城市的外币现钞兑换机构及大型国际银行进行小额外币现钞兑换。非洲国家开始出现少量现钞兑换业务,南非、纳米比亚

    79、等少数非洲国家的标准银行可提供个人人民币现钞兑换服务。从趋势看,境外人民币现钞兑换业务量将继续保持增长,但总体规模不会太大。目前,银联卡已可以在境外171个国家和地区使用,并可以在境外有银联标识的ATM提取当地货币现钞。伴随中国出境游客规模的快速增长,第三方支付境外业务也在不断增长。相比现钞,非现金支付更加安全便捷,已成为个人境外消费的首选支付方式。八、人民币跨境支付系统建设2018年,CIPS共处理各类业务144万笔,金额约26.45万亿元,同比分别增长14.6%和81.7%。日均处理业务5 724笔,金额约1 050亿元。其中,客户汇款业务107万笔,金额4.63万亿元;金融机构汇款业务3

    80、6万笔,金额21.24万亿元;双边业务4 300笔,金额5 758亿元;批量业务1.5万笔,金额5 700万元。2018年,CIPS共完成“债券通”资金结算7 478笔,金额8 931亿元。从债券买卖方向看,境外机构买券4 619笔,金额5 598亿元;境外机构卖券2 859笔,金额3 333亿元。从境内托管机构看,中央结算公司托管债券资金结算4 721笔,合计金额4 414亿元,上海清算所托管债券资金结算2 757笔,合计金额4 516亿元。第二部分2018年人民币国际使用23九、人民币利率和汇率变动 (一)利率变动情况2018年,境内货币市场人民币利率中枢整体下行,年末略有回升。年末,隔图

    81、2-132018年上海银行间同业拆放利率走势(1)数据来源:中国货币网。5.04.54.03.53.02.52.01.51.00.502018.01.012018.01.162018.01.302018.02.122018.03.022018.03.162018.03.302018.04.162018.04.282018.05.152018.05.292018.06.122018.06.272018.07.112018.07.252018.08.082018.08.222018.09.052018.09.192018.10.092018.10.232018.11.062018.11.20201

    82、8.12.042018.12.18隔夜1 周1 个月图2-142018年上海银行间同业拆放利率走势(2)数据来源:中国货币网。65432102018.01.022018.01.152018.01.262018.02.082018.02.262018.03.092018.03.222018.04.042018.04.182018.05.022018.05.152018.05.282018.06.082018.06.222018.07.052018.07.182018.07.312018.08.132018.08.242018.09.062018.09.192018.10.082018.10.19

    83、2018.11.012018.11.142018.11.272018.12.102018.12.213 个月6 个月1 年%2019年人民币国际化报告24夜、1个月、3个月、6个月和1年期上海银行间同业拆放利率(SHIBOR)分别较年初下降10个、127个、146个、153个和123个基点,收于2.55%、3.47%、3.35%、3.3%和3.52%,7天期SHIBOR较年初小幅上升6个基点,收于2.9%。 (二)汇率变动情况 2018年,人民币对一篮子货币总体先升后贬。年末,中国外汇交易中心(CFETS)人民币汇率指数为93.28,较2017年末下跌1.7%。根据国际清算银行(BIS)数据,

    84、2005年人民币汇率形成机制改革以来,截至2018年末,人民币名义有效汇率和实际有效汇率分别升值34.3%和45.1%。2018年,境内人民币汇率双向浮动,弹性显著增强。人民币兑美元等全球主要货币有升有贬,其中人民币兑美元、日元和欧元的中间价分别较2017年末贬值4.8%、6.5%和0.6%,人民币兑英镑中间价较2017年末升值1.2%。全年,人民币对美元汇率中间价最高为6.2764元,最低为6.9670元,波动幅度达6 906个基点,年化波动率为4.2%,较2017年明显提升。在243个交易日中,104个交易日升值、139个交易日贬值,最大单日升值幅度为0.7%(492点),最大单日贬值幅度

    85、为0.9%(605点)。年末,人民币对美元汇率中间价为6.8632元,较上年末贬值4.8%,对美元汇率收盘价为6.8658元,较上年末贬值5.2%。图2-152018年境内人民币汇率走势数据来源:万得数据库。7.27.06.86.66.46.26.05.82018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.11.022018.12.02USD/CNY:即期汇率中间价:美元兑人民币第二部分2018年人民币国际使用25十、央行合作 (一)双边

    86、本币互换2018年,人民银行与日本银行、尼日利亚央行新签署双边本币互换协议,总金额2 150亿元;与英国、智利、南非、马来西亚、白俄罗斯、印度尼西亚、哈萨克斯坦、巴基斯坦、澳大利亚、乌克兰、阿尔巴尼亚等11国央行续签双边本币互换协议,总金额1.03万亿元。(二)境外清算机制安排继2016年与美国联邦储备委员会签署合作备忘录并授权中国银行纽约分行担任人民币清算行后,人民银行于2018年2月授权美国摩根大通银行担任美国人民币清算行。10月,人民银行与日本银行签署合作备忘录,在日本建立人民币清算机制安排,并授权中国银行东京分行担任人民币清算行。11月,人民银行与菲律宾央行签署合作备忘录,在菲律宾建立

    87、人民币清算机制安排。此外,人民银行于2018年1月和4月分别与中国银行台北分行、中国工商银行新加坡分行续签关于人民币业务的清算协议。2019年人民币国际化报告262018年,跨境人民币业务政策实现全覆盖。凡是外币能做的,人民币都能做,而且更为便利。跨境人民币业务管理方式逐步优化,宏观审慎管理不断完善,市场自律规则体系基本形成。在守住风险底线的同时,金融市场开放力度不断加大,投融资业务流程不断优化,境内金融市场风险对冲功能不断强化,汇率形成机制进一步完善,人民币资本项目可兑换程度稳步提升。一、优化跨境人民币业务政策 2018年1月,人民银行发布关于进一步完善人民币跨境业务政策促进贸易投资便利化的

    88、通知(银发20183号),进一步完善跨境人民币政策:一是明确凡依法可使用外汇结算的跨境交易,企业都可以使用人民币结算。二是满足个人项下雇员报酬、社会福利、赡家款等人民币跨境收付需要,便利境内个人将境外合法收入汇回境内使用,以及境外个人将境内合法人民币收入汇出境外。三是践行绿色发展理念,支持境外投资者以人民币参与境内碳排放权交易。四是便利境外投资者以人民币进行直接投资,优化业务办理流程,取消相关账户开立和资金使用等有关方面的限制,确保境外投资者的人民币利润、股息等投资收益依法自由汇出。五是明确了境内企业境外发行债券、股票募集的人民币资金可按实际需要调回境内使用。至此,人民币跨境使用政策实现全覆盖

    89、。二、推动资本市场双向开放(一)推动RQDII业务规范健康发展2018年4月,人民银行发布关于进一步明确人民币合格境内机构投资者境外证券投资管理有关事项的通知(银办发201881号),进一步规范RQDII境外投资产品、信息报送和宏观审慎管理等要求。(二)优化“沪深港通”运行机制和香港离岸人民币市场流动性补充机制2018年5月,人民银行发布关于进一步完善跨境资金流动管理支持金融市场开放有关事宜的通知(银办发201896号),将港澳人民币业务清算行存第三部分政策及相关改革进展第三部分政策及相关改革进展27放人民银行清算账户人民币存款的准备金率调整为零;明确“沪深港通”境外投资者可通过香港结算行办理

    90、外汇资金兑换和外汇风险对冲业务,并纳入人民币购售业务管理。(三)完善RQFII境内证券投资管理2018年6月,人民银行会同外汇局发布关于人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资管理有关问题的通知(银发2018157号),进一步优化RQFII境内投资账户开立和使用管理要求,取消其他产品锁定期,满足外汇风险对冲需求。(四)完善跨境人民币购售业务管理2018年6月,人民银行发布关于完善人民币购售业务管理有关问题的通知(银发2018159号),为加强与金融市场互联互通机制的衔接,提高金融服务实体经济能力,将购售业务范围拓宽至经常项目、直接投资和经批准的证券投资等资本和金融项目,交易品种拓展至即期、远期、外

    91、汇掉期、货币掉期和期权等;同时,允许境外参加行和境外企业集团集中办理购售业务,进一步提高境外机构办理购售业务的便利性。 (五)规范“熊猫债”发行2018年9月,人民银行和财政部联合发布全国银行间债券市场境外机构债券发行管理暂行办法(中国人民银行财政部公告2018第16号),系统规范了“熊猫债”发行审批、登记托管结算流程、信息披露管理,明确市场普遍关注的会计准则和审计监管等问题。三、完善宏观审慎管理 2018年1月,为引导商业银行审慎管理跨境资金流动风险,人民银行对商业银行人民币跨境账户融资业务引入了逆周期调节系数,根据境内代理行上年末人民币存款余额确定账户融资上限。4月,人民银行完善了跨境人民

    92、币资金池管理,对资金池净流入和流出设定宏观审慎调节系数,加强了对资金池主办企业、成员企业和结算银行的管理,强化事中事后管理。同时,人民银行加强对跨境资金流动的日常监测分析预警,督促金融机构做好跨境人民币业务自律管理,促进跨境人民币业务持续健康发展。8月,为防范宏观金融风险,促进金融机构稳健经营,人民银行将远期售汇业务的外汇风险准备金率从0调整为20%,并重启人民币对美元中间价报价“逆周期因子”。2019年人民币国际化报告28专栏八完善自律机制取得阶段性成果2018年8月,全国外汇市场自律机制发布银行跨境人民币业务操作指引(以下简称操作指引)和银行跨境人民币业务展业规范(以下简称展业规范),标志

    93、较为完备的市场自律规则体系形成,有效推动银行落实“展业三原则”,提升真实性、合规性审核能力。操作指引和展业规范基本涵盖了目前所能开展的跨境人民币业务,从业务定义、政策依据、客户识别、客户分类、审核原则、审核及操作要点、风险提示等维度进行业务规范。为更贴近业务实践,便利业务人员操作,每项子规范根据所涉及业务的具体特征进行了细分。制定跨境人民币业务自律规范有助于银行贯彻落实“展业三原则”,提高真实性、合规性审核能力,防范相关风险,较好地解决了不同银行具体业务操作及审核标准不一、审核尺度不同的问题,有利于规范跨境人民币业务,培育银行审慎展业的意识,推动人民币国际化长远健康发展。四、完善人民币汇率形成

    94、机制 2018年以来,面对错综复杂的外部环境,人民银行坚持以我为主,适当兼顾国际因素,在多目标中把握好综合平衡。第一季度,在美元走弱、跨境资本流动和外汇供求基本平衡的背景下,人民银行发挥市场供求在汇率形成中的决定性作用,逐步推动前期逆周期调控政策回归中性。第二季度以后,人民币汇率有所贬值,人民银行继续稳步深化汇率市场化改革,保持人民币汇率弹性,发挥汇率调节宏观经济和国际收支“自动稳定器”的作用。同时,根据形势变化,采取宏观审慎政策等一系列有针对性措施,包括加强与市场沟通、提高远期售汇风险准备金率、重启中间价报价“逆周期因子”等,并创新和丰富了调控工具箱,引导和稳定市场预期。上述措施释放了积极信

    95、号,取得了积极效果。2018年,中国跨境资本流动、汇率预期和外汇市场运行基本平稳,人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上保持基本稳定。第四部分离岸人民币市场发展292018年,离岸人民币市场保持健康平稳发展,市场广度和深度不断增加,离岸在岸人民币市场联动增强。离岸市场对人民币信心增强,投资行为趋于理性,离岸人民币汇率围绕在岸价格变动,各项人民币业务指标回稳向好。“沪深港通”“债券通”机制持续优化,跨境投资渠道进一步疏通,对境内的投资快速增长。离岸市场对优质人民币资产需求增长,香港地区人民币央票发行受到欢迎。一、离岸人民币利率和汇率变动(一)利率变动情况2018年,离岸人民币利率总体回落,与往年相比波动下降

    96、,各期限出现分化,短期利率波动持稳,较长期限总体回落。2018年末,人民币香港银行同业拆借利率(HIBOR)隔夜拆借定盘利率为1.73%,较2017年末持平,7天、3个月和1年期利率分别为2.80%、3.58%和3.83%,分别较2017年末下降21个、122个和124个基点。第四部分离岸人民币市场发展图4-12018年香港离岸人民币拆借利率走势(1)数据来源:路透。8765432102018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.1

    97、1.022018.12.02隔夜1 周1 个月%2019年人民币国际化报告30图4-22018年香港离岸人民币拆借利率走势(2)数据来源:路透。3 个月6 个月1 年2018年,离岸市场利率水平整体高于在岸市场,HIBOR比SHIBOR平均高0.04个百分点。中美利差收敛,离岸人民币掉期价格整体跟随在岸人民币掉期震荡走低。上半年,1年期离岸在岸人民币掉期价差主要在100300PIPS区间,8月“债券通”“沪深港通”项下资金北上,叠加在岸远期售汇风险准备金率调整,离岸人民币掉期与在岸人民币掉期价差拉宽,HIBOR与SHIBOR利差由上半年的0.39%逆转至下半年的-0.29%,1个月期和3个月期

    98、利差则分别由上半年的0.10%和0.14%扩大至下半年的0.76%和0.90%。(二)汇率变动情况 2018年,离岸人民币汇率双向波动特征显著,与在岸人民币汇率走势基本一致,离岸在岸汇差略有收窄,贬值预期总体回落。2018年,上半年离岸人民币汇率较强势,一度升近6.25水平,下半年离岸人民币汇率走弱,全年报收6.88,即期汇率较上年末贬值5.33%,1年期NDF较年初贬值3.96%, 隐含贬值率从年初的1.86%收窄至年末的0.60%,人民币汇率贬值预期回落。离岸人民币汇率围绕在岸市场汇率波动,年内强于或弱于美元人民币中间价的交易日天数大致相同。全年离岸在岸平均汇差为102个基点,较2017年

    99、缩小27个基点,日均汇差128个基点,较2017年收窄13个基点。765432102018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.11.022018.12.02%第四部分离岸人民币市场发展31图4-32018年香港离岸人民币对美元汇率走势数据来源:路透。2018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.0220

    100、18.10.022018.11.022018.12.02USD/CNH: 即期汇率(左轴)隐含贬值率(右轴)USD/CNY: 1 年期 NDF(左轴)0.500.00-0.50-1.00-1.50-2.00-2.50-3.00-3.50-4.007.27.06.86.66.46.26.05.8%二、离岸人民币存贷款据不完全统计,截至2018年末,境外主要离岸市场人民币存款余额超过1.2万亿元(不包括银行同业存款)。其中我国香港地区人民币存款余额为6 150亿元,全球排名第1位,同比上升10%,占香港地区全部存款余额的5.4%,占外币存款的10.8%;我国台湾地区人民币存款余额近3 000亿元,

    101、全球排名第2位,同比下降7.4%,占台湾地区全部存款的3.9%,占外币存款的23.2%;英国超过562亿元,新加坡近500亿元,分别位列全球第3位和第4位。据不完全统计,截至2018年末,境外主要离岸市场人民币贷款余额合计超过3 810亿元。与2017年比较,降幅明显放缓。其中新加坡贷款余额1 109亿元,排名超过我国香港地区居全球第1位,香港地区1 056亿元排名全球第2位,英国贷款余额超过492亿元排名全球第3位。2019年人民币国际化报告32专栏九在香港发行人民币央行票据图4-420172018年香港地区人民币存贷款情况数据来源:香港金融管理局。三、离岸人民币证券融资2018年,离岸人民

    102、币债券市场回暖。据不完全统计,已建立清算行的国家和地区2018年当年共发行人民币债券1 719亿元,同比增长115.6%,其中香港人民币债券发行全年为419亿元,比2017年增长近七成。截至2018年12月,已建立清算行的国家和地区人民币债券未偿付余额4 151亿元,同比减少18.5%;人民币大额存单(CD)发行余额1 066亿元,同比增长1 211%;人民币基金发行余额262亿元,同比增长59.1%。人民币贷款人民币存款十亿元70060050040030020010002017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.1

    103、02017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12继2015年于伦敦首次海外发行人民币央行票据,人民银行先后于2018年11月和2019年2月在香港发行人民币央行票据。2018年9月,人民银行与香港金管局签署合作备忘录,便利人民银行在香港发行央行票据。11月,人民银行通过香港金管局债务工具中央结算系统(CMU)债券投标平台,在香港发行两期共200亿元央行票据,其中3个月和1年期品种各100亿元,中标利率分别为3.79%和4.20%。2019年2月,

    104、人民第四部分离岸人民币市场发展33银行再次通过CMU平台在香港发行两期共200亿元央行票据,其中3个月和1年期品种各100亿元,中标利率分别为2.45%和2.80%。发行吸引了涵盖商业银行、基金、投资银行、证券、央行、国际金融组织等众多机构投资者类型,两次认购倍数均超过6倍。香港人民币央行票据发行获得离岸市场投资者欢迎和积极认购,符合市场需求,丰富了香港高信用等级人民币投资产品和人民币流动性管理工具,有利于完善香港人民币债券收益率曲线,有助于推动人民币国际使用。四、全球人民币外汇交易2018年,全球人民币外汇交易稳步增加。根据BIS 2016年4月发布的最新数据(三年一次),全球交易最活跃货币

    105、中人民币排名第8位,在新兴市场国家货币中排名第一。全球人民币日均交易量从2013年的1 200亿美元增至2 020亿美元,交易量占全球外汇市场份额从2013年的2%上升至4%。人民币交易增长主要来自人民币对美元交易增长,95%的人民币对外币交易由人民币对美元构成,对美元交易量从2013年的全球第9位增至第6位,日均交易量从2013年的1 130亿美元增至1 920亿美元。根据SWIFT数据,人民币是全球外汇市场最活跃的货币之一。目前英国、我国香港地区、美国和新加坡人民币外汇交易金额分别排在离岸市场前四位,合计占离岸人民币外汇交易金额超过八成。2018年,离岸人民币计价的权益类投资产品更加丰富,

    106、场外交易(OTC)产品包括即期、远期、掉期、货币掉期、无本金交割远期(NDFs)、期权、期货、人民币交易型开放式指数基金(ETF)、人民币房地产投资信托(REIT),交投活跃。离岸人民币交易所市场主要在新加坡以及我国香港和台湾地区,提供人民币兑美元期货和标准化人民币兑美元期权产品。2018年,港交所人民币兑美元期货日均成交7 135张合约,同比增长138%;人民币兑美元期权日均成交122张合约,较2017年增长125%。截至2018年12月,人民币兑美元期货未平仓合约超过3万张,人民币兑美元期权未平仓合约5 625张。各种货币兑人民币期货年内均创日成交量新高。五、离岸人民币清算截至2018年末

    107、,境外清算行人民币清算量合计 316.61万亿元,同比增长2019年人民币国际化报告34专栏十香港以外其他主要离岸市场发展情况11%。其中,代客清算量29.41万亿元,同比增长8.3%;银行同业清算量287.2万亿元,同比增长11.2%。截至2018年末,在境外清算行开立清算账户的参加行及其他机构数目达886个,同比增长3.1%。2018年,香港人民币实时支付结算系统(RTGS)处理的清算金额达241万亿元,同比增长11.8%,达到历史最高水平。英国。根据SWIFT数据,伦敦是全球最大的人民币外汇交易中心,是除香港地区以外使用人民币最多的市场,也是离岸人民币债券发行和交易最活跃的市场之一。伦敦

    108、人民币外汇交易包括即期、远期、掉期、期权。根据英格兰银行信息,2018年12月末,伦敦人民币外汇交易金额占全球总金额的36.1%,比第二名的香港高约6.5个百分点,日均人民币外汇交易规模达766亿英镑。截至2018年末,伦敦市场未到期的人民币债券共计114只,规模达336亿元。2018年当年,伦敦证券交易所新发行人民币债券42只,总规模125亿元,发行主体和发行数量均比2017年有显著增长。新加坡。2018年,新加坡与中国跨境收付金额超过1.4万亿元,仅次于我国香港地区。根据SWIFT统计,新加坡是除香港地区以外使用人民币第二图4-520152018年伦敦离岸人民币日均外汇交易数据来源:英格兰

    109、银行。即期远期掉期期权其他亿英镑90080070060050040030020010002015Q12015Q22015Q32015Q42016Q12016Q22016Q32016Q42017Q12017Q22017Q32017Q42018Q12018Q22018Q32018Q4第四部分离岸人民币市场发展35多的市场,外汇及衍生品市场活跃,也是离岸人民币债券发行和交易最活跃的市场之一。新加坡交易所(SGX)可交易人民币期货和证券两个品种。截至2018年末,新交所人民币外汇期货交易5 300亿美元。在人民币证券方面,新交所可提供上市、报价、交易、清算及结算服务,并通过双币种报价机制为投资者在人民

    110、币、新加坡元及其他外币间交易提供便利。截至2018年末,未到期人民币债券87只,规模476亿元。2018年当年,新加坡市场新发行人民币债券35只,规模206亿元。美国。根据SWIFT数据,2018年,美国人民币外汇交易量在全球排名第三位,市场份额为8.5%,仅次于英国和我国香港地区。2018年2月,美国摩根大通银行被人民银行授权担任美国人民币清算行,成为第一家被授权的外资人民币清算行。卢森堡。卢森堡在全球人民币投融资中日益发挥重要作用。根据卢森堡央行信息,2018年,卢森堡证交所上市的人民币债券占全球市场份额的26%,已超越香港市场成为全球最大的离岸人民币债券发行中心。卢森堡还是全球第一大投资

    111、中国基金注册地,超过29%投资中国市场的投资基金选择注册在卢森堡,人民币计价的投资基金管理规模超过3 300亿元,约78%投资于中国的欧洲基金注册在卢森堡。德国。2018年,德国与中国跨境人民币收付金额近6 630亿元,仅次于我国香港地区和新加坡。德国实体企业特别是与中国有贸易往来的大中型跨国企业对人民币接受程度较高,较早开始持有和投资人民币产品,其中包括集团内人民币计价结算、发行“熊猫债”和境外人民币债券、搭建跨境人民币资金池等。韩国。2018年,韩国与中国跨境人民币结算金额超过6 115亿元,仅次于我国香港地区、新加坡和德国。2014年末,韩国推出银行间人民币对韩元直接兑换市场,2018年

    112、首尔直兑市场日均成交量(单边)约120亿元、2 300笔。韩国外汇市场交易包括人民币即期、远期、掉期、期货。韩国交易所可为人民币计价证券提供上市、报价、交易、清算及结算服务,并通过双币种报价机制为投资者在人民币、韩元及其他外币间交易提供便利。阿联酋。自2016年当地建立人民币清算机制安排后,阿联酋人民币业务快速增长,同比增长率达144%。根据SWIFT数据,2018年阿联酋人民币业2019年人民币国际化报告36务量合计7 477亿元,居阿拉伯国家之首,占比58%。目前,中阿两国央行间人民币业务合作种类最为齐全,包括RQFII试点、央行双边本币互换协议、在当地建立人民币清算机制安排、两国货币直接

    113、交易。为进一步拓展当地及中东地区人民币业务,阿联酋央行于2018年12月联合当地人民币清算行在首都阿布扎比举办人民币专题论坛,取得良好反响。第四部分离岸人民币市场发展37第五部分全球主要经济体相关经济金融形势2018年,全球经济总体延续增长态势但增势放缓,经济增长同步性总体下降。国际贸易增速放缓,国际直接投资下滑,全球金融市场波动加大。除美国等少数经济体外,全球大部分经济体增速回落。根据IMF于2019年4月发布的世界经济展望,2018年全球经济增速3.6%,较上年下降0.2个百分点,其中发达经济体增速2.2%,新兴市场和发展中经济体增速4.5%。主要发达经济体继续推进货币政策正常化进程,新兴

    114、市场经济体货币政策多数跟随美国收紧或保持中性。一、美国 2018年,美国经济增长较强劲,通胀水平较上年回升,失业率低位下行,个人消费支出增长加快,全年经济增速2.9%,较上年提高0.7个百分点。货币政策正常化进程继续推进,继续提高联邦基金利率目标区间并持续缩表。受美联储连续加息等因素影响,伦敦同业拆借市场美元LIBOR略有上升,截至12月末,1年期LIBOR为3.0054%,全球美元融资成本和美元流动性收紧。2018年末,美元指数收于96.17,较上年末上涨4.4%。根据IMF最新公布数据,截至2018年第四季度末,全球官方外汇储备资产约为10.73万亿美元,其中美元资产占比为61.7%,已连

    115、续第三个季度下降。二、欧元区2018年,欧元区经济增长放缓,总体物价水平上升,核心通胀相对稳定,失业率持续下降,出口增速下滑,商业乐观情绪减弱,全年经济增速1.8%,较上年下降0.6个百分点。欧央行全年维持主要再融资操作利率、边际贷款便利利率和存款便利利率水平不变,维持资产购买规模不变。受欧央行货币政策收紧预期等因素影响,欧元区同业拆借利率EURIBOR略有上升,截至12月末,1年期EURIBOR为-0.117%。2018年末,欧元收于1.1469美元/欧元,较上年末贬值4.39%。根据IMF最新公布数据,截至2018年第四季度末,全球官方外汇储备资产中欧元资产占比为20.7%,是2014年第

    116、四季度以来最高水平。2019年人民币国际化报告38三、日本2018年,日本经济波动性增大,通胀预期低迷,劳动力市场接近充分就业,企业涨薪动力不足,全年经济增速0.8%,较上年下降1.1个百分点。日本银行继续实施收益率曲线管理下的量化和质化宽松货币政策,维持部分超额准备金利率不变,并维持资产购买规模不变。2018年末,日元收于109.56日元/美元,较上年末升值2.84%。根据IMF最新公布数据,截至2018年第四季度末,全球官方外汇储备资产中日元资产占比为5.2%。四、英国2018年,英国经济低速增长,通胀水平下降,劳动力市场趋紧,就业率升至历史新高,全年经济增速1.4%,较上年下降0.4个百

    117、分点。英格兰银行上调了基准利率并维持购买规模不变。2018年末,英镑收于1.2757美元/英镑,较上年末贬值5.59%。根据IMF最新公布数据,截至2018年第四季度末,全球官方外汇储备资产中英镑资产占比为4.4%。五、新兴市场2018年,新兴市场经济体表现继续分化,部分国家经济减速与通胀高企并存,汇市、股市、债市震荡加大,大规模资本外流再现。印度经济保持较快增长,第二季度GDP同比增长8.2%,第四季度放缓至6.6%。巴西经济增长动能复苏,全年经济增速1.1%。石油等大宗商品价格回升带动俄罗斯经济企稳,通胀得到控制,金融市场波动,全年经济增速2.3%。南非经济在第三季度略有起色,但失业率仍居

    118、高不下。阿根廷受金融市场动荡影响,GDP连续收缩。土耳其受经济制裁和货币危机影响经济形势明显恶化。面对全球金融环境收紧及本币贬值压力,印度、菲律宾、印度尼西亚、土耳其、阿根廷、俄罗斯、墨西哥等多国央行选择跟随美国加息或偏中性的货币政策。阿根廷比索、土耳其里拉、巴西雷亚尔、印度卢比对美元较上年末分别贬值50.6%、28.3%、14.7%和8.2%;俄罗斯卢布对美元全年贬值17.3%,墨西哥比索对美元全年基本持平。第五部分全球主要经济体相关经济金融形势39专栏十一更多国家出台人民币结算政策2018年1月,巴基斯坦央行宣布在七国集团国家货币之外,将人民币纳入贸易项下结算可使用的货币篮子,明确在中巴双

    119、边贸易和投资活动中,公共和私人部门均可选择使用人民币,并将人民币指定为唯一可进行远期套期保值的避险货币。这一举措促使当地银行纷纷寻求启动人民币业务。2018年4月,人民银行和尼日利亚央行签署本币互换协议,尼央行允许本国进口商在进口中国机械设备等商品时使用人民币结算,并以购售形式定期向当地商业银行提供人民币流动性,满足当地市场的人民币资金需求。为此,尼央行专门制定了人民币授权交易商交易规则,对人民币使用的购售条件、支付方式、央行干预手段作了详细规定。2018年8月,越南央行公布中越边境贸易外汇管理指引并于10月正式实施。该指引明确中越边贸可使用人民币进行结算,试点范围从原边境线以内20公里扩大至

    120、7个边境省份,允许越南边贸企业和个人开立人民币账户,边境银行可开立人民币同业账户开展贸易项下本币结算业务。允许非边境地区银行授权边境地区越南银行代理边贸人民币结算。2019年1月,缅甸央行公布新的外汇政策,允许持有外汇交易业务牌照的银行使用人民币进行国际结算。外汇交易银行可开立人民币同业账户,贸易和投资项下人民币汇款可通过银行结汇成缅币,客户对外支付也可由银行直接兑换人民币汇出。2019年人民币国际化报告40第六部分趋势展望人民币国际化是市场驱动和水到渠成的市场化过程。过去十年,人民币国际化的功能主要体现在国际支付和结算方面,今后的方向将是使人民币成为可自由使用货币。一是坚持市场驱动。不断消除

    121、限制人民币使用的障碍,探索推进更高水平的贸易投资便利化试点。二是继续推动国内金融市场双向开放,进一步便利境外投资者使用人民币投资境内债券和股票。三是引导离岸人民币市场健康发展。提升人民币可自由使用水平,促进离岸与在岸市场良性互动、深度整合。四是完善宏观审慎管理。做好逆周期调节,防范跨境资金流动风险。一、人民币支付货币功能将继续增强随着中国涉外贸易投资规模的持续扩大,人民币跨境使用政策实现全覆盖,各项改革不断推进,将有更多的市场主体接受以人民币进行支付结算。“一带一路”倡议逐步落地,将带动沿线国家使用人民币继续稳步增长;随着人民币在更多国家使用障碍的逐步消除,跨境人民币结算有望继续稳定增长;自贸

    122、区、粤港澳大湾区将成为使用人民币跨境支付新的增长点。二、人民币投融资货币功能将不断深化随着中国金融市场双向开放的广度和深度不断拓展,“沪深港通”“债券通”等投资国内金融市场渠道的不断完善,粤港澳大湾区金融市场互联互通的有序推进,以及中国债券纳入全球重要指数,境外主体参与境内金融市场交易有望继续快速增长。三、人民币储备货币功能将继续实现人民币加入SDR后,人民币国际地位不断提升。中国对外货币合作持续加深,境外央行类机构投资中国金融市场渠道继续拓宽,人民银行和境内金融机构代理服务能力不断增强,各国央行和货币当局持有人民币储备资产的意愿有望明显上升。第六部分趋势展望41四、人民币计价货币功能将有更多

    123、发展人民币在政府涉外统计、核算、管理中的计价职能进一步增强,石油、铁矿石等大宗产品交易以境内期货价格作为定价基准初步显现,发展成熟的期货市场陆续引入境外交易者,人民币的计价货币功能有望进一步增强。五、继续推动双边货币合作 人民银行将继续稳步推进与全球其他央行或货币当局的货币合作,优化货币合作框架,推动全球主流金融机构更多提供人民币产品和服务,并继续发挥双边货币合作在便利双边贸易和投资、维护金融稳定方面的积极作用。专栏十二年度人民币国际使用市场调查2018年,中国银行对使用人民币的主要国家和地区的3 274家境内外工商企业和94家金融机构进行了市场调查,调查主要结论包括:一是境内外主体继续保持对

    124、人民币国际使用的积极预期。约77%的境内外受访企业预期,人民币的国际货币地位将接近美元、欧元、日元、英镑等国际货币,这一比例较2017年微升1个百分点。其中,50%的境内外受访企业认为人民币将成为与美元、欧元比肩的国际货币,这一比例也达到了历史新高。超过三成的受访境外金融机构认为,人民币的国际货币地位将接近日元和英镑,超过三成的受访境外金融机构预期人民币的国际地位接近美元和欧元,对人民币国际地位持乐观预期的受访境外金融机构合计超过六成。二是境外金融机构已逐渐将自身的人民币服务从跨境结算、清算、即期兑换等基础产品,扩展到人民币贷款、债券投资、衍生品等领域。调查结果显示,45%的受访境外金融机构能

    125、够提供3项或以上的跨境人民币产品或服务,这一比例较2017年的调查结果提升了12个百分点。三是七成以上受访境内企业反馈,其境外交易对手能够接受人民币计价结算的合同。调研结果显示,18%的受访境内企业反映,即使面临汇率波动,境内企业仍能说服交易对手坚持以人民币作为计价货币,这一比例近三年基本保持稳定。境内受访企业反馈,境内企业议价能力不足、境外人民币来源不足以及人民币投资渠道相对有限,是制约当前人民币计价功能实现的主要因素。2019年人民币国际化报告42图6-2境外金融机构对人民币国际地位的预期数据来源:中国人民银行。图6-1境内外企业对人民币国际地位的预期接近英镑和日元接近美元和欧元%9080

    126、706050403020100201320142015201620172018312941234429423047295027数据来源:中国人民银行。接近美元和欧元接近英镑和日元不及英镑和日元不好评估34%21%12%33%第六部分趋势展望43图6-4境内企业的境外交易对手对人民币接受情况%454035302520151050顺利接受协商可接受未关注不接受3440817数据来源:中国人民银行。图6-3境外金融机构可提供人民币产品和服务的种类20172018%504030201004324201515631022341 项2 项3 项4 项5 项6 项及以上数据来源:中国人民银行。522019年

    127、人民币国际化报告44图6-5面临汇率波动时境内企业坚持人民币计价的比例%201816141210864202013201420152016201720181918181632数据来源:中国人民银行。图6-6考虑将人民币作为融资货币的境外企业和金融机构占比20172018%8070605040302010073766162境外企业境外金融机构数据来源:中国人民银行。第六部分趋势展望45四是当面临市场形势变化难以获得美元等主要国际货币融资时,76%的受访境外企业、62%的受访境外金融机构表示愿意考虑将人民币作为融资货币,上述比例均较2017年的调查结果有所提升。五是境外金融机构相较企业配置人民币资

    128、产意愿更高。调查结果显示,约77%的受访境外企业将取得的人民币收入兑换为本国货币,约14%的受访境外企业以存款的形式继续持有人民币,用于贸易支付等用途,另有9%的受访境外企业投资人民币计价的债券或股票等产品。调查结果显示,约有43%的受访境外金融机构考虑增加人民币资产配置,这一比例较2017年提升了5个百分点。在计划增持人民币资产的金融机构中,约有69%的受访金融机构表示将投资人民币债券资产,这一比例较2017年的调查结果提升了9个百分点。从债券投资的类型来看,约75%的受访境外金融机构计划增持中国国债。与美欧日等发达国家相比,中国国债不仅具有安全性好、流动性高等特点,且收益水平更具吸引力,成

    129、为境外金融机构投资境内债券市场的首选。从债券的期限结构来看,受访境外金融机构更偏好期限在3年期以下的短期债券。计划投资期限为1年以内、13年期的受访对象占比均为28%;而计划投资期限为35年期、5年期以上的中长期投资者占比仅分别为14%和7%。图6-7境外企业获得人民币收入后的交易行为20172018%90807060504030201007713108212578149兑换成本币持有人民币存款投资人民币产品数据来源:中国人民银行。20162019年人民币国际化报告46图6-8境外金融机构计划增持各类人民币金融资产的占比20172018%8070605040302010029112656069

    130、其他类型资产债券资产股票和权益类资产数据来源:中国人民银行。图6-9境外金融机构对人民币债券类型的投资偏好%80706050403020100企业债金融债未限定债券类型国债752140数据来源:中国人民银行。第六部分趋势展望47图6-10境外金融机构对人民币债券期限的投资偏好%3025201510501 3 年3 5 年5 年以上未限定债券期限1 年以内282814723数据来源:中国人民银行。2019年人民币国际化报告48第七部分人民币国际化大事记2009年1月20日,中国人民银行与香港金融管理局签署了规模为2 000亿元人民币/2 270亿港元的双边本币互换协议。2月8日,中国人民银行与马

    131、来西亚国家银行签署了规模为800亿元人民币/400亿林吉特的双边本币互换协议。3月11日,中国人民银行与白俄罗斯共和国国家银行签署了规模为200亿元人民币/8万亿白俄罗斯卢布的双边本币互换协议。3月23日,中国人民银行与印度尼西亚银行签署了规模为1 000亿元人民币/175万亿印度尼西亚卢比的双边本币互换协议。4月2日,中国人民银行与阿根廷中央银行签署了规模为700亿元人民币/380亿阿根廷比索的双边本币互换协议。4月20日,中国人民银行与韩国银行签署了规模为1 800亿元人民币/38万亿韩圆的双边本币互换协议。6月29日,中国人民银行与香港金融管理局就内地与香港跨境贸易人民币结算试点业务签订

    132、补充合作备忘录 (三) 。月日,中国人民银行、财政部、商务部、海关总署、国家税务总局和中国银行业监督管理委员会联合发布跨境贸易人民币结算试点管理办法(中国人民银行 财政部 商务部 海关总署 国家税务总局 中国银行业监督管理委员会公告2009第10号)。月日,中国人民银行与中国银行(香港)有限公司签署了修订后的香港人民币业务清算协议,配合跨境贸易人民币结算试点工作的开展。月日,为贯彻落实跨境贸易人民币结算试点管理办法,中国人民银行发布跨境贸易人民币结算试点管理办法实施细则(银发2009212号)。7月6日,上海市办理第一笔跨境贸易人民币结算业务;人民币跨境收付信息管理系统(RCPMIS)正式上线

    133、运行。7月7日,广东省4个城市启动跨境贸易人民币结算试点工作。第七部分人民币国际化大事记497月14日,中国人民银行、财政部、商务部、海关总署、国家税务总局、中国银行业监督管理委员会联合向上海市和广东省政府发布了关于同意跨境贸易人民币结算试点企业名单的函(银办函2009472号),第一批试点企业正式获批开展出口货物贸易人民币结算业务,共计365家。9月10日,中国人民银行和国家税务总局签署跨境贸易人民币结算试点信息传输备忘录。9月15日,财政部首次在香港发行人民币国债,债券金额共计60亿元人民币。12月22日,中国人民银行发布跨境贸易人民币结算试点相关政策问题解答。2010年2月11日,香港金

    134、融管理局发布香港人民币业务的监管原则及操作安排的诠释。3月8日,中国人民银行发布人民币跨境收付信息管理系统管理暂行办法(银发201079号)。3月19日,中国人民银行和海关总署签署关于跨境贸易以人民币结算协调工作合作备忘录。3月24日,中国人民银行与白俄罗斯共和国国家银行签署了中白双边本币结算协议。6月9日,中国人民银行与冰岛中央银行签署了规模为35亿元人民币/660亿冰岛克朗的双边本币互换协议。6月17日,中国人民银行、财政部、商务部、海关总署、国家税务总局和中国银行业监督管理委员会联合发布关于扩大跨境贸易人民币结算试点有关问题的通知(银发2010186号),扩大跨境贸易人民币结算试点范围。

    135、7月19日,中国人民银行与香港金融管理局在香港签署补充合作备忘录(四),与中国银行(香港)有限公司签署修改后的关于人民币业务的清算协议。7月23日,中国人民银行与新加坡金融管理局签署了规模为1 500亿元人民币/300亿新加坡元的双边本币互换协议。8月17日,中国人民银行发布关于境外人民币清算行等三类机构运用人民币投资银行间债券市场试点有关事宜的通知(银发2010217号)。2019年人民币国际化报告508月19日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对马来西亚林吉特的交易方式,发展人民币对马来西亚林吉特直接交易。8月31日,中国人民银行发布境外机构人民币银行结算账户

    136、管理办法(银发2010249号)。11月22日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对俄罗斯卢布的交易方式,发展人民币对俄罗斯卢布直接交易。2011年1月6日,中国人民银行发布境外直接投资人民币结算试点管理办法(中国人民银行公告2011第1号),允许跨境贸易人民币结算试点地区的银行和企业开展境外直接投资人民币结算试点,银行可以按照有关规定向境内机构在境外投资的企业或项目发放人民币贷款。4月18日,中国人民银行与新西兰储备银行签署了规模为250亿元人民币/50亿新西兰元的双边本币互换协议。4月19日,中国人民银行与乌兹别克斯坦共和国中央银行签署了规模为7亿元人民币/1

    137、670亿乌兹别克斯坦苏姆的双边本币互换协议。5月6日,中国人民银行与蒙古银行签署了规模为50亿元人民币/1万亿蒙古图格里克的双边本币互换协议。6月3日,中国人民银行发布关于明确跨境人民币业务相关问题的通知(银发2011145号)。6月9日,昆明富滇银行与老挝大众银行共同推出人民币与老挝基普的挂牌汇率。6月13日,中国人民银行与哈萨克斯坦国家银行签署了规模为70亿元人民币/1 500亿坚戈的双边本币互换协议。6月23日,中国人民银行与俄罗斯联邦中央银行签订了新的双边本币结算协定,规定两国经济活动主体可自行决定用自由兑换货币、人民币和卢布进行商品和服务的结算与支付。6月28日,中国工商银行广西分行

    138、和中国银行新疆分行相继推出人民币兑越南盾、哈萨克斯坦坚戈挂牌交易。6月30日,交通银行青岛分行、韩国企业银行青岛分行推出人民币对韩圆的柜台挂牌交易。第七部分人民币国际化大事记517月27日,中国人民银行、财政部、商务部、海关总署、国家税务总局、中国银行业监督管理委员会发布关于扩大跨境贸易人民币结算地区的通知(银发2011203号),明确将跨境贸易人民币结算境内地域范围扩大至全国。10月13日,中国人民银行发布外商直接投资人民币结算业务管理办法(中国人民银行公告2011第23号)。10月24日,中国人民银行发布关于境内银行业金融机构境外项目人民币贷款的指导意见(银发2011255号)。10月26

    139、日,中国人民银行与韩国银行续签双边本币互换协议,互换规模由原来的1 800亿元人民币/38万亿韩圆扩大至3 600亿元人民币/64万亿韩圆。11月4日,根据中国人民银行公告2003第16号确定的选择香港人民币业务业务清算行的原则和标准,中国人民银行授权中国银行(香港)有限公司继续担任香港人民币业务清算行(中国人民银行公告2011第25号)。11月22日,中国人民银行与香港金融管理局续签双边本币互换协议,互换规模由原来的2 000亿元人民币/2 270亿港元扩大至4 000亿元人民币/4 900亿港元。12月16日,中国证券监督管理委员会、中国人民银行、国家外汇管理局联合发布基金管理公司、证券公

    140、司人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资试点办法(证监会令第76号)。12月22日,中国人民银行与泰国银行签署了中泰双边本币互换协议,互换规模为700亿元人民币/3 200亿泰铢。12月23日,中国人民银行与巴基斯坦国家银行签署了中巴双边本币互换协议,互换规模为100亿元人民币/1 400亿卢比的双边本币互换协议。12月29日,人民币对泰铢银行间市场区域交易在云南省成功推出,这是我国首例人民币对非主要国际储备货币在银行间市场的区域交易。12月31日,中国人民银行发布关于实施基金管理公司、证券公司人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资试点办法有关事项的通知(银发2011321号)。2019年人民币国

    141、际化报告522012年1月17日,中国人民银行与阿联酋中央银行在迪拜签署了规模为350亿元人民币/200亿迪拉姆的双边本币互换协议。2月6日,中国人民银行、财政部、商务部、海关总署、国家税务总局和中国银行业监督管理委员会联合发布关于出口货物贸易人民币结算企业管理有关问题的通知(银发201223号)。2月8日,中国人民银行与马来西亚国家银行续签了中马双边本币互换协议,互换规模由原来的800亿元人民币/400亿林吉特扩大至1 800亿元人民币/900亿林吉特。2月21日,中国人民银行与土耳其中央银行签署了规模为100亿元人民币/30亿土耳其里拉的双边本币互换协议。3月20日,中国人民银行与蒙古银行

    142、签署了中蒙双边本币互换补充协议,互换规模由原来的50亿元人民币/1万亿图格里克扩大至100亿元人民币/2万亿图格里克。3月22日,中国人民银行与澳大利亚储备银行签署了规模为2 000亿元人民币/300亿澳大利亚元的双边本币互换协议。4月3日,经国务院批准,香港地区人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点额度扩大500亿元人民币。6月1日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对日元的交易方式,发展人民币对日元直接交易。6月26日,中国人民银行与乌克兰国家银行签署了规模为150亿元人民币/190亿格里夫纳的双边本币互换协议。6月29日,中国人民银行发布关于明确外商直接投

    143、资人民币结算业务操作细则的通知(银发2012165号)。7月31日,中国人民银行发布境外机构人民币银行结算账户开立和使用有关问题的通知(银发2012183号)。8月31日,中国人民银行与台湾方面货币管理机构签署海峡两岸货币清算合作备忘录。9月24日,中国人民银行与中国银行澳门分行续签关于人民币业务的清算协议。第七部分人民币国际化大事记5311月13日,经国务院批准,香港地区人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点额度扩大2 000亿元人民币。12月11日,中国人民银行授权中国银行台北分行担任台湾人民币业务清算行。2013年1月25日,中国人民银行与中国银行台北分行签订关于人民币业务的清算协议

    144、。2月8日,中国人民银行授权中国工商银行新加坡分行担任新加坡人民币业务清算行,并于4月与其签订关于人民币业务的清算协议。3月1日,中国证券监督管理委员会、中国人民银行、国家外汇管理局联合发布人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资试点办法(证监会令第90号)。3月7日,中国人民银行与新加坡金融管理局续签了规模为3 000亿元人民币/600亿新加坡元的双边本币互换协议。3月13日,中国人民银行发布关于合格境外机构投资者投资银行间债券市场有关事项的通知(银发201369号)。3月26日,中国人民银行与巴西中央银行签署了规模为1 900亿元人民币/600亿巴西雷亚尔的双边本币互换协议。4月10日,经中国

    145、人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对澳元的交易方式,发展人民币对澳元直接交易。4月25日,中国人民银行发布关于实施人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资试点办法有关事项的通知(银发2013105号)。6月21日,两岸签署海峡两岸服务贸易协议,允许台资金融机构以人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)方式投资大陆资本市场,投资额度考虑按1 000亿元掌握。6月22日,中国人民银行与英格兰银行签署了规模为2 000亿元人民币/200亿英镑的双边本币互换协议。7月9日,中国人民银行发布关于简化跨境人民币业务流程和完善有关政策的通知(银发2013168号)。8月23日,中国人民银行办

    146、公厅发布关于优化人民币跨境收付信息管理系统信息报送流程的通知(银办发2013188号)。2019年人民币国际化报告549月9日,中国人民银行与匈牙利中央银行签署了规模为100亿元人民币/3 750亿匈牙利福林的双边本币互换协议。9月11日,中国人民银行与冰岛中央银行续签了规模为35亿元人民币/660亿冰岛克朗的双边本币互换协议。9月12日,中国人民银行与阿尔巴尼亚银行签署了规模为20亿元人民币/358亿阿尔巴尼亚列克的双边本币互换协议。9月23日,中国人民银行发布关于境外投资者投资境内金融机构人民币结算有关事项的通知(银发2013225号)。10月1日,中国人民银行与印度尼西亚银行续签了规模为

    147、1 000亿元人民币/175万亿印度尼西亚卢比的双边本币互换协议。10月8日,中国人民银行与欧洲中央银行签署了规模为3 500亿元人民币/450亿欧元的双边本币互换协议。10月15日,第五次中英经济财金对话宣布给予英国800亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。10月22日,中新双边合作联合委员会第十次会议宣布给予新加坡500亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。12月31日,中国人民银行发布关于调整人民币购售业务管理的通知(银发2013321号)。2014年3月14日,中国人民银行、财政部、商务部、海关总署、国家税务总局和中国银行业监督管理委员会联合发布关于简化出口货物贸

    148、易人民币结算企业管理有关事项的通知(银发201480号)。3月19日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对新西兰元的交易方式,发展人民币对新西兰元的直接交易。3月26日,中法联合声明宣布给予法国800亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。3月28日,中国人民银行与德意志联邦银行签署了在法兰克福建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录。3月31日,中国人民银行与英格兰银行签署了在伦敦建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录。第七部分人民币国际化大事记554月25日,中国人民银行与新西兰中央银行续签了规模为250亿元人民币/50亿新西兰元的双边本币互换协议。6月11日,中国人民银

    149、行发布关于贯彻落实国务院办公厅关于支持外贸稳定增长的若干意见的指导意见(银发2014168号)。6月17日,中国人民银行授权中国建设银行(伦敦)有限公司担任伦敦人民币业务清算行。6月18日,中国人民银行授权中国银行法兰克福分行担任法兰克福人民币业务清算行。6月19日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对英镑的交易方式,发展人民币对英镑的直接交易。6月28日,中国人民银行与法兰西银行签署了在巴黎建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,与卢森堡中央银行签署了在卢森堡建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录。7月3日,中国人民银行与韩国银行签署了在首尔建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,给予韩

    150、国800亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度;4日,授权交通银行首尔分行担任首尔人民币业务清算行。7月7日,在德国总理默克尔来华访问期间,李克强总理宣布给予德国800亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。7月18日,中国人民银行与阿根廷中央银行续签了规模为700亿元人民币/900亿阿根廷比索的双边本币互换协议。7月21日,中国人民银行与瑞士国家银行签署了规模为1 500亿元人民币/210亿瑞士法郎的双边本币互换协议。8月21日,中国人民银行与蒙古银行续签了规模为150亿元人民币/4.5万亿蒙古图格里克的双边本币互换协议。9月5日,中国人民银行授权中国银行巴黎分行担任巴黎人民

    151、币业务清算行,授权中国工商银行卢森堡分行担任卢森堡人民币业务清算行。9月16日,中国人民银行与斯里兰卡中央银行签署了规模为100亿元人民币/2 250亿斯里兰卡卢比的双边本币互换协议。9月28日,中国人民银行办公厅发布关于境外机构在境内发行人民币债务融资工具跨境人民币结算有关事宜的通知(银办发2014221号)。9月30日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对欧元的交易方式,发展人民币对欧元的直接交易。2019年人民币国际化报告5610月11日,中国人民银行与韩国银行续签了规模为3 600亿元人民币/64万亿韩圆的双边本币互换协议。10月13日,中国人民银行与俄罗斯

    152、联邦中央银行签署了规模为1 500亿元人民币/8 150亿卢布的双边本币互换协议。11月1日,中国人民银行发布关于跨国企业集团开展跨境人民币资金集中运营业务有关事宜的通知(银发2014324号)。11月3日,中国人民银行与卡塔尔中央银行签署了在多哈建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,签署了规模为350亿元人民币/208亿里亚尔的双边本币互换协议,给予卡塔尔300亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度;4日,授权中国工商银行多哈分行担任多哈人民币业务清算行。11月4日,中国人民银行、中国证券监督管理委员会联合发布关于沪港股票市场交易互联互通机制试点有关问题的通知(银发2014336号)。11

    153、月5日,中国人民银行发布关于人民币合格境内机构投资者境外证券投资有关事项的通知(银发2014331号)。11月8日,中国人民银行与加拿大银行签署了在加拿大建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,签署了规模为2 000亿元人民币/300亿加元的双边本币互换协议,并给予加拿大500亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度;9日,授权中国工商银行(加拿大)有限公司担任多伦多人民币业务清算行。11月10日,中国人民银行与马来西亚国家银行签署了在吉隆坡建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录。11月17日,中国人民银行与澳大利亚储备银行签署了在澳大利亚建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,给予澳大利亚500亿元人民币合格

    154、境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度;18日,授权中国银行悉尼分行担任悉尼人民币业务清算行。11月22日,中国人民银行与香港金融管理局续签了规模为4 000亿元人民币/5 050亿港元的货币互换协议。12月14日,中国人民银行与哈萨克斯坦国家银行续签了规模为70亿元人民币/2 000亿哈萨克坚戈的双边本币互换协议;15日,经中国人民银行批准,中国外汇交易中心正式推出人民币对哈萨克斯坦坚戈银行间区域交易。12月22日,中国人民银行与泰国银行签署了在泰国建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,并续签了规模为700亿元人民币/3 700亿泰铢的双边本币互换协议。第七部分人民币国际化大事记5712月23日,中国人

    155、民银行与巴基斯坦国家银行续签了规模为100亿元人民币/1 650亿巴基斯坦卢比的双边本币互换协议。2015年1月5日,中国人民银行授权中国银行(马来西亚)有限公司担任吉隆坡人民币业务清算行,授权中国工商银行(泰国)有限公司担任曼谷人民币业务清算行。1月21日,中国人民银行与瑞士国家银行签署合作备忘录,就在瑞士建立人民币清算安排有关事宜达成一致。给予瑞士500亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。3月18日,中国人民银行与苏里南中央银行签署了规模为10亿元人民币/5.2亿苏里南元的双边本币互换协议。3月25日,中国人民银行与亚美尼亚中央银行签署了规模为10亿元人民币/770亿亚美尼亚德

    156、拉姆的双边本币互换协议。3月30日,中国人民银行与澳大利亚储备银行续签了规模为2 000亿元人民币/400亿澳大利亚元的双边本币互换协议。4月10日,中国人民银行与南非储备银行签署了规模为300亿元人民币/540亿南非兰特的双边本币互换协议。4月17日,中国人民银行与马来西亚国家银行续签了规模为1 800亿元人民币/900亿马来西亚林吉特的双边本币互换协议。4月29日,人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点地区扩大至卢森堡,初始投资额度为500亿元人民币。5月10日,中国人民银行与白俄罗斯共和国国家银行续签了规模为70亿元人民币/16万亿白俄罗斯卢布的双边本币互换协议。5月15日,中国人民

    157、银行与乌克兰国家银行续签了规模为150亿元人民币/540亿乌克兰格里夫纳的双边本币互换协议。5月25日,中国人民银行与智利中央银行签署了在智利建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,并签署了规模为220亿元人民币/2.2万亿智利比索的双边本币互换协议。给予智利500亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。同日,授权中国建设银行智利分行担任智利人民币业务清算行。2019年人民币国际化报告586月1日,中国人民银行发布关于境外人民币业务清算行、境外参加银行开展银行间债券市场债券回购交易的通知(银发2015170号)。6月11日,中国人民银行发布人民币国际化报告(2015)。6月27日,中国人民银行

    158、与匈牙利中央银行签署了在匈牙利建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录和中国人民银行代理匈牙利中央银行投资中国银行间债券市场的代理投资协议。给予匈牙利500亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度;28日,授权中国银行匈牙利分行担任匈牙利人民币业务清算行。7月7日,中国人民银行与南非储备银行签署了在南非建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录;8日,授权中国银行约翰内斯堡分行担任南非人民币业务清算行。7月14日,中国人民银行印发关于境外央行、国际金融组织、主权财富基金运用人民币投资银行间市场有关事宜的通知(银发2015220号),对境外央行类机构简化了入市流程,取消了额度限制,允许其自主选择中国人民银行或银

    159、行间市场结算代理人为其代理交易结算,并拓宽其可投资品种。7月24日,发布中国人民银行公告2015第19号,明确境内原油期货以人民币为计价货币,引入境外交易者和境外经纪机构参与交易等。8月11日,中国人民银行发布关于完善人民币兑美元汇率中间价报价的声明。自2015年8月11日起,做市商在每日银行间外汇市场开盘前,参考上日银行间外汇市场的收盘汇率,综合考虑外汇供求情况以及国际主要货币汇率变化向中国外汇交易中心提供中间价报价。9月3日,中国人民银行与塔吉克斯坦中央银行签署了规模为30亿元人民币/30亿索摩尼的双边本币互换协议。9月7日,中国人民银行印发关于进一步便利跨国企业集团开展跨境双向人民币资金

    160、池业务的通知(银发2015279号)。9月17日,中国人民银行与阿根廷中央银行签署了在阿根廷建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录;18日,授权中国工商银行(阿根廷)股份有限公司担任阿根廷人民币业务清算行。9月21日,中国人民银行批复同意香港上海汇丰银行有限公司和中国银行(香港)有限公司在银行间债券市场发行金融债券,这是国际性商业银行首次获准在银行间债券市场发行人民币债券。9月26日,中国人民银行与土耳其中央银行续签了规模为120亿元人民币/50亿土耳其里拉的双边本币互换协议。9月27日,中国人民银行与格鲁吉亚国家银行签署了双边本币互换框架协议。第七部分人民币国际化大事记599月29日,中国人民银行与

    161、赞比亚中央银行签署了在赞比亚建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录;30日,授权赞比亚中国银行担任赞比亚人民币业务清算行。9月29日,中国人民银行与吉尔吉斯共和国国家银行签署了加强合作的意向协议。9月30日,发布中国人民银行公告2015第31号,开放境外央行(货币当局)和其他官方储备管理机构、国际金融组织、主权财富基金依法合规参与中国银行间外汇市场。10月8日,人民币跨境支付系统(一期)成功上线运行。10月20日,中国人民银行在伦敦采用簿记建档方式成功发行了50亿元人民币央行票据,期限1年,票面利率3.1%。这是中国人民银行首次在中国以外地区发行以人民币计价的央行票据。10月20日,中国人民银行与英格

    162、兰银行续签了规模为3 500亿元人民币/350亿英镑的双边本币互换协议。11月2日,为满足境外中央银行、货币当局、其他官方储备管理机构、国际金融组织以及主权财富基金在境内开展相关业务的实际需要,中国人民银行办公厅发布关于境外中央银行类机构在境内银行业金融机构开立人民币银行结算账户有关事项的通知(银办发2015227号)。11月6日,中国人民银行、国家外汇管理局发布内地与香港证券投资基金跨境发行销售资金管理操作指引(中国人民银行,国家外汇管理局公告2015第36号)。11月9日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心宣布在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对瑞士法郎直接交易。11月18日,中欧国际交易所股份

    163、有限公司举行成立仪式,并挂牌首批人民币计价和结算的证券现货产品。11月23日,人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点地区扩大至马来西亚,投资额度为500亿元人民币。11月25日,首批境外央行类机构在中国外汇交易中心完成备案,正式进入中国银行间外汇市场。11月27日,中国银行间市场交易商协会接受加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省在中国银行间债券市场发行60亿元人民币主权债券的注册。11月30日,国际货币基金组织执董会决定将人民币纳入特别提款权(SDR)货币篮子,SDR货币篮子相应扩大至美元、欧元、人民币、日元、英镑5种货币,2019年人民币国际化报告60人民币在SDR货币篮子中的权重为10.92%,新的

    164、SDR货币篮子将于2016年10月1日生效。同日,中国人民银行授权中国建设银行苏黎世分行担任瑞士人民币业务清算行。12月7日,中国银行间市场交易商协会接受韩国政府在中国银行间债券市场发行30亿元人民币主权债券的注册。12月14日,中国人民银行与阿联酋中央银行续签了规模为350亿元人民币/200亿阿联酋迪拉姆的双边本币互换协议。同日,双方签署了在阿联酋建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,并同意将人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点地区扩大至阿联酋,投资额度为500亿元人民币。12月17日,人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点地区扩大至泰国,投资额度为500亿元人民币。2016年1月20日

    165、,中国人民银行办公厅印发关于调整境外机构人民币银行结算账户资金使用有关事宜的通知(银办发201615号)。1月22日,中国人民银行印发关于扩大全口径跨境融资宏观审慎管理试点的通知(银发201618号)。2月24日,中国人民银行发布2016年第3号公告,便利符合条件的境外机构投资者投资银行间债券市场(中国人民银行公告2016第3号)。3月7日,中国人民银行与新加坡金管局续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为3 000亿元人民币/640亿新加坡元,有效期为3年。4月29日,中国人民银行印发关于在全国范围内实施全口径跨境融资宏观审慎管理的通知(银发2016132号)。5月11日,中国人民银行与摩洛哥中央银

    166、行签署双边本币互换协议,协议规模为100亿元人民币/150亿迪拉姆,有效期为3年。6月7日,中国人民银行与美国联邦储备委员会签署了在美国建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录,并给予美国2 500亿元人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)额度。6月17日,中国人民银行与塞尔维亚中央银行签署双边本币互换协议,协议规模为15亿元人民币/270亿塞尔维亚第纳尔,有效期为3年。6月20日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人第七部分人民币国际化大事记61民币对南非兰特的交易方式,发展人民币对南非兰特直接交易。6月25日,中国人民银行与俄罗斯中央银行签署了在俄罗斯建立人民币清算安排的合作备

    167、忘录。6月27日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民币对韩圆的交易方式,发展人民币对韩圆直接交易。7月11日,中国银行(香港)有限公司以直接参与者身份接入人民币跨境支付系统(CIPS),这是CIPS的首家境外直接参与者;同日,中信银行、上海银行、广东发展银行、江苏银行、三菱东京日联银行(中国)有限公司、瑞穗银行(中国)有限公司、恒生银行(中国)有限公司等以直接参与者身份接入CIPS,CIPS直接参与者数量增加至27家。8月10日,中国人民银行办公厅印发关于波兰共和国在银行间债券市场发行人民币债券有关事项的批复,同意受理波兰共和国在银行间债券市场发行人民币债券的注册申请

    168、(银办函2016378号)。8月30日,中国人民银行、国家外汇管理局联合发布关于人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资管理有关问题的通知(银发2016227号)。9月12日,中国人民银行与匈牙利央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为100亿元人民币/4 160亿匈牙利福林,有效期为3年。9月20日,中国人民银行发布2016年第23号公告,授权中国银行纽约分行担任美国人民币业务清算行(中国人民银行公告2016第23号)。9月23日,中国人民银行发布2016年第24号公告,授权中国工商银行(莫斯科)股份有限公司担任俄罗斯人民币业务清算行(中国人民银行公告2016第24号)。9月26日,经中国人民银行授

    169、权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对沙特里亚尔直接交易。9月26日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对阿联酋迪拉姆直接交易。9月27日,中国人民银行与欧洲中央银行签署补充协议,决定将双边本币互换协议有效期延长三年至2019年10月8日。互换规模仍为3 500亿元人民币/450亿欧元。2019年人民币国际化报告6211月4日,中国人民银行、中国证券监督管理委员会联合发布关于内地与香港股票市场交易互联互通机制有关问题的通知(银发2016282号)。12月5日,正式启动深港通。11月14日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心在银行间外汇市场完善人民

    170、币对加拿大元的交易方式,开展人民币对加拿大元直接交易。11月29日,中国人民银行印发中国人民银行关于进一步明确境内企业境外放款业务有关事项的通知(银发2016306号)。12月6日,中国人民银行与埃及中央银行签署双边本币互换协议,协议规模为180亿元人民币/470亿埃及镑,有效期为3年。12月9日,中国人民银行发布2016年第30号公告,授权中国农业银行迪拜分行担任阿联酋人民币业务清算行(中国人民银行公告2016第30号)。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对墨西哥比索直接交易。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场

    171、开展人民币对土耳其里拉直接交易。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对波兰兹罗提直接交易。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对丹麦克朗直接交易。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对匈牙利福林直接交易。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对挪威克朗直接交易。12月12日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开始在银行间外汇市场开展人民币对瑞典克朗直接交易。12月21日,中国人民银行与冰岛央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规

    172、模为35亿元人民币/660亿冰岛克朗,有效期为3年。12月26日,中国人民银行办公厅印发中国人民银行办公厅关于境外机构境内发行人民币债券跨境人民币结算业务有关事宜的通知(银办发2016258号)。第七部分人民币国际化大事记632017年1月13日,中国人民银行发布关于全口径跨境融资宏观审慎管理有关事宜的通知(银发20179号)。3月20日,中国人民银行与中国银行纽约分行签署关于人民币业务的清算协议。3月20日,中国人民银行与中国工商银行(莫斯科)股份有限公司签署关于人民币业务的清算协议。3月20日,中国人民银行与中国农业银行迪拜分行签署关于人民币业务的清算协议。5月19日,中国人民银行与新西兰

    173、央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为250亿元人民币/50亿新西兰元,有效期为3年。5月23日,中国人民银行发布关于印发人民币跨境收付信息管理系统管理办法的通知(银发2017126号)。5月27日,中国人民银行办公厅发布关于完善人民币跨境收付信息管理系统银行间业务数据报送流程的通知(银办发2017118号)。6月29日,中国人民银行与中国银行(香港)有限公司续签关于人民币业务的清算协议。7月4日,经国务院批准,香港RQFII额度扩大至5 000亿元人民币。7月6日,中国人民银行与蒙古国中央银行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为150亿元人民币/5.4万亿蒙古国图格里克,有效期为3年。7月18日,

    174、中国人民银行与阿根廷央行续签双边本币互换协议,规模为700亿元人民币/1 750亿阿根廷比索,有效期为3年。7月21日,中国人民银行与瑞士中央银行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为1 500亿元人民币/210亿瑞士法郎,有效期为3年。8月11日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开展人民币对蒙古图格里克银行间市场区域交易。9月13日,经中国人民银行授权,中国外汇交易中心开展人民币对柬埔寨瑞尔银行间市场区域交易。9月21日,中国人民银行与中国银行澳门分行续签关于人民币业务的清算协议。10月11日,中国人民银行与韩国央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为3 600亿元人民币/64万亿韩圆,有效期为3

    175、年。2019年人民币国际化报告6411月2日,中国人民银行与卡塔尔央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为350亿元人民币/208亿里亚尔,有效期为3年。11月8日,中国人民银行与加拿大央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为2 000亿元人民币/300亿加元,有效期为3年。11月22日,中国人民银行与香港金管局续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为4 000亿元人民币/4 700亿港元,有效期为3年。11月22日,中国人民银行与俄罗斯央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为1 500亿元人民币/13 250亿卢布,有效期为3年。12月22日,中国人民银行与泰国央行续签双边本币互换协议,协议规模为700亿元人民

    176、币/3 700亿泰铢,有效期为3年。2018年1月4日,中国人民银行与中国银行台北分行续签关于人民币业务的清算协议。1月5日,中国人民银行印发关于进一步完善人民币跨境业务政策促进贸易投资便利化的通知(银发20183号),明确凡依法可使用外汇结算的跨境交易,企业都可以使用人民币结算。1月5日,中国外汇交易中心发布关于境外银行参与银行间外汇市场区域交易有关事项的公告,同意符合条件的境外银行参与银行间外汇市场区域交易。2月9日,中国人民银行授权美国摩根大通银行担任美国人民币业务清算行。3月26日,人民币跨境支付系统(CIPS)二期投产试运行。3月26日,以人民币计价结算的原油期货在上海国际能源交易中

    177、心挂牌交易。3月30日,中国人民银行与澳大利亚中央银行续签规模为2 000亿元人民币/400亿澳大利亚元的双边本币互换协议。4月3日,中国人民银行与阿尔巴尼亚中央银行续签规模为20亿元人民币/342亿阿尔巴尼亚列克的双边本币互换协议。4月11日,中国人民银行与南非中央银行续签规模为300亿元人民币/540亿南非兰特的双边本币互换协议。4月20日,为进一步规范人民币合格境内机构投资者境外证券投资活动,中国人民银行办公厅印发关于进一步明确人民币合格境内机构投资者境外证券投资管理有关事项的通知(银办发201881号)。第七部分人民币国际化大事记654月27日,中国人民银行与尼日利亚中央银行签署规模为

    178、150亿元人民币/7 200亿奈拉的双边本币互换协议。5月1日,将“沪股通”及“深股通”每日额度扩大4倍,北上每日额度从130亿元调整为520亿元,南下每日额度从105亿元调整为420亿元。5月2日,人民币跨境支付系统(二期)全面投产,符合要求的直接参与者同步上线。5月4日,以人民币计价的大连商品交易所铁矿石期货正式引入境外交易者。5月9日,人民币合格境外机构投资者(RQFII)试点地区扩大至日本,投资额度为2 000亿元。5月10日,中国人民银行与白俄罗斯中央银行续签规模为70亿元人民币/22.2亿白俄罗斯卢布的双边本币互换协议。5月16日,为进一步完善跨境资金流动管理,推进金融市场开放,中

    179、国人民银行办公厅印发关于进一步完善跨境资金流动管理支持金融市场开放有关事宜的通知(银办发201896号)。5月23日,中国人民银行与巴基斯坦中央银行续签规模为200亿元人民/3 510亿巴基斯坦卢比的双边本币互换协议。5月25日,中国人民银行与智利中央银行续签规模为220亿元人民币/22 000亿智利比索的双边本币互换协议。5月28日,中国人民银行与哈萨克斯坦中央银行续签规模为70亿元人民币/3 500亿哈萨克斯坦坚戈的双边本币互换协议。6月1日,中国A股股票正式纳入明晟(MSCI)新兴市场指数和全球基准指数,有利于吸引境外投资者配置人民币股票资产。6月11日,为规范人民币合格境外机构投资者境

    180、内证券投资管理,中国人民银行、国家外汇管理局发布关于人民币合格境外机构投资者境内证券投资管理有关问题的通知(银发2018157号)。6月13日,为进一步完善人民币购售业务管理,人民银行发布关于完善人民币购售业务管理有关问题的通知(银发2018159号),开放了证券投资项下跨境人民币购售业务。8月20日,中国人民银行与马来西亚中央银行续签规模为1 800亿元人民币/1 100亿马来西亚林吉特的双边本币互换协议。9月3日,中国外汇交易中心正式引入中国工商银行(阿拉木图)股份公司与2019年人民币国际化报告66工银标准银行公众有限公司参与银行间外汇市场人民币对坚戈区域交易,并决定延长人民币对坚戈区域

    181、交易时间,由10:3016:30调整为10:3019:00。9月8日,为促进全国银行间债券市场对外开放,规范境外机构债券发行,保护债券市场投资者合法权益,人民银行和财政部联合下发全国银行间债券市场境外机构债券发行管理暂行办法(中国人民银行财政部公告2018第16号)。10月13日,中国人民银行与英格兰银行续签规模为3 500亿元人民币/400亿英镑的双边本币互换协议。10月22日,中国人民银行与日本银行签署了在日本建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录;26日,授权中国银行东京分行担任日本人民币业务清算行。10月26日,中国人民银行与日本银行签署规模为2 000亿元人民币/34 000亿日元的双边本币

    182、互换协议。11月16日,中国人民银行与印度尼西亚中央银行续签规模为2 000亿元人民币/440万亿印尼卢比的双边本币互换协议。11月20日,中国人民银行与菲律宾中央银行签署了在菲律宾建立人民币清算安排的合作备忘录。11月30日,以人民币计价的精对苯二甲酸期货正式引入境外交易者。12月10日,中国人民银行与乌克兰中央银行续签规模为150亿元人民币/620亿乌克兰格里夫纳的双边本币互换协议。2019年1月31日,彭博公司正式确认将于2019年4月起将中国债券纳入彭博巴克莱债券指数。2月11日,中国人民银行与苏里南中央银行续签规模为10亿元人民币/11亿苏里南元的双边本币互换协议。2月28日,明晟(

    183、MSCI)宣布,大幅提升A股在其全球指数中的权重,分三阶段将纳入因子由5%增加至20%。PART ONE Ten-year Development of RMB Internationalization67回顾十年来中国金融改革开放的历史,人民币国际化是最大亮点之一。为更好地研究人民币国际化发展,从2015年开始,人民银行货币政策二司组织人员编写人民币国际化的发展情况并出版年度中英文双语报告,供国内外市场参与者和研究人士参考。报告涉及面广,涵盖人民币国际使用的各方面表现、相关政策及改革进展、全球主要经济体相关情况、趋势展望等主要内容,数据翔实并附有重要内容专栏介绍。2019年人民币国际化报告由

    184、人民银行宏观审慎管理局会同货币政策司、支付结算司、货币金银局及济南分行、西安分行、呼和浩特中心支行、合肥中心支行、长沙中心支行、银川中心支行跨境人民币业务相关工作人员共同撰写和翻译。其间,得到中国银行及中国金融出版社相关工作人员的大力支持。在此,对所有关心和支持本报告出版的单位和人员表示衷心感谢。由于水平有限,本报告的编辑和翻译难免有不当之处,恳请读者批评指正。 编者 二一九年六月后记2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT68ASEANATMB&RBIS BOECBRC CDs CFETS CGSDTC CIBMCIFCIPS CIRC CMUCOFER CP

    185、PCC CSDC CSRC DNSDVPECBETFsEURIBORFDI FXHIBORHKEXHKMAAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsAutomated Teller MachineThe Belt and RoadBank for International SettlementsBank of EnglandChina Banking Regulatory CommissionCertificates of DepositsChina Foreign Exchange Trade SystemChina Government Securiti

    186、es Depository Trust & ClearingChinas Interbank Bond MarketCost, Insurance and FreightCross-border Interbank Payment SystemChina Insurance Regulatory CommissionCentral Money Market Unit Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange ReservesChinese Peoples Political Consultative ConferenceChina Se

    187、curities Depository and ClearingChina Securities Regulatory CommissionDeferred Net SettlementDelivery Versus Payment European Central BankExchange Traded FundsEuropean Interbank Offered RateForeign Direct InvestmentForeign ExchangeHong Kong Interbank Offered RateHong Kong Stock ExchangeHong Kong Mon

    188、etary Authority KEY ABBREVIATIONSPART ONE Ten-year Development of RMB Internationalization69IEAIMF INEKRXLIBORLUXSEMOFMOUMRFMSCINDFNEER NPC NRA ODIOPECOTCPBC PTAPVPQFIIRCPMIS REER REITRMBRQDIIRQFII RTGSInternational Energy AgencyInternational Monetary FundInternational Energy ExchangeThe Korea Excha

    189、ngeLondon Interbank Offered RateLuxembourg Stock Exchange Ministry of FinanceMemorandum of UnderstandingMutual Recognition of FundsMorgan Stanley Capital InternationalNon-deliverable ForwardsNominal Effective Exchange RateNational Peoples CongressNon-resident AccountOutward Direct InvestmentOrganiza

    190、tion of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesOver-the-CounterThe Peoples Bank of ChinaPure Terephthalic AcidPayment Versus PaymentQualified Foreign Institutional InvestorRMB Cross-border Payment Management Information SystemReal Effective Exchange RateReal Estate Investment Trust RenminbiRenminbi Qualif

    191、ied Domestic Institutional InvestorRenminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional InvestorReal Time Gross SettlementKEY ABBREVIATIONS2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT70SAFE SAR SCH SDR SGXSHFESHIBOR SWIFT UAEUNIPECWGBIState Administration of Foreign Exchange Special Administrative RegionShanghai Cleari

    192、ng HouseSpecial Drawing RightSingapore ExchangeShanghai Futures ExchangeShanghai Interbank Offered RateSociety for Worldwide Interbank Financial TelecommunicationUnited Arab EmiratesChina International United Petroleum & Chemicals Co., Ltd.Worlds Government Bond IndexPART ONE Ten-year Development of

    193、 RMB Internationalization71Over the past four decades of reform and opening-up, Chinas economic strength had significantly enhanced, and a new system of an open economy had been gradually improved. China was playing an increasingly important role in the global economy. With the continuous improvemen

    194、t of Chinas opening-up, Chinas economy had been fully integrated into the world economic system, and renminbi (RMB) had gradually gone globally. Since 2008, the Peoples Bank of China (PBC) together with market institutions, had promoted the international use of RMB in an orderly manner in accordance

    195、 with the principles of respecting market demands, serving the real economy and ensuring risk control. Over the past decade, the policy framework for cross-border RMB business had been basically established, the infrastructure had been gradually improved, and the international use of RMB had develop

    196、ed steadily. Especially since the 18th National Congress, RMB had joined the Special Drawing Right (SDR), its status of international currency had been preliminarily established, the convertibility of capital account of the RMB had been promoted orderly, and the opening of financial market had achie

    197、ved remarkable results. At present, RMB had been the 2nd ranked cross-border settlement currency for eight consecutive years in China, and ranked the 5th for payment, the 3rd for trade financing, the 8th for foreign exchange trading and the 6th for reserves around the world. More than sixty central

    198、banks or monetary authorities around the world had incorporated the RMB into their foreign exchange reserves. More than three hundred and twenty thousand enterprises and two hundred and seventy banks had carried out cross-border RMB business, and two hundred and forty two countries and regions had c

    199、onducted cross-border RMB settlement with China. The settlement function of RMB had been strengthened continuously, and its investment and financing as well as trading function had also been deepened constantly. It had made a breakthrough regarding to the pricing function, and its function as a rese

    200、rve currency had gradually emerged.PART ONE Ten-year Development of RMB Internationalization2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT72I. Policy Evolution and Achievements in DevelopmentIn the early stage of the reform and opening up, RMB flowed out to Chinas neighboring countries, as well as Hong Kong,

    201、Macau and Taiwan regions of China on a small scale through channels such as personnel exchanges, border trade and border tourism. Since the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, the exchange rates of major international reserve currencies, such as USD, EUR, and JPY, had fluctuated

    202、significantly and the demand for cross-border use of RMB by enterprises and individuals had been increasing. The internationalization of RMB was launched following voice of the market. Over the past decade, the policy restrictions on the cross-border use of RMB had been gradually lifted. The interna

    203、tional use of RMB had undergone a gradual development from current account to capital account, from banks and enterprises to individuals, and from simple businesses to complex ones. The function of RMB, as an international currency, had also been expanded from the single settlement function to funct

    204、ions of investment and financing, trading and pricing, and international reserve.1. From Pilot Program for Trade Settlement to Current Account SettlementAfter the international financial crisis in 2008, in order to reduce the exchange cost and obtain stable trade financing, domestic import and expor

    205、t enterprises put forward the demands on RMB settlement in cross-border trade. In July 2009, RMB settlement pilot program for cross-border trade were launched in Shanghai and other four cities in Guangdong province, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Dongguan, and the geographical scope of ov

    206、erseas counterparties was limited to Hong Kong SAR of China, Macau SAR of China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. In June 2010, the six ministries and commissions including the PBC jointly expanded the pilot areas to twenty provinces (including autonomous regions and muni

    207、cipalities directly under the central government) such as Beijing and Tianjin, and lifted the restriction on the geographical scope of the overseas counterparties. The scope of pilot businesses covered settlements for cross-border trade in goods and services and other settlements under current accou

    208、nt. In August 2011, the pilot program was expanded to the nationwide with the business scope covering settlements of cross-border trade in goods and services and other settlements under current account. Since 2009, the annual amount of cross-border RMB settlements PART ONE Ten-year Development of RM

    209、B Internationalization73under current account had grown rapidly, which was less than RMB 400 billion yuan in the initial stage, and in 2015, reached RMB 7 trillion yuan, and then entered into a steady growth path.2. From Current Account Settlement to Capital Account SettlementWith the further develo

    210、pment of the pilot program of RMB settlement for cross-border trade, the demand of domestic and foreign institutions for using RMB in direct investment had been increasing. In October 2010, the PBC launched a pilot program in Xinjiang to conduct RMB outward direct investment (ODI) by domestic enterp

    211、rises. In January 2011, the PBC allowed the pilot regions of RMB settlement for cross-border trade to conduct RMB settlement for ODI. In August, RMB settlement pilot program for cross-border trade was expanded nationwide, as were the businesses of RMB ODI. In October, the policy on foreign direct in

    212、vestment (FDI) business was introduced. The cross-border RMB settlement for ODI and FDI emerged from scratch, and their share in the whole cross-border settlements for direct investment continued to expand, rising from less than 5% in 2010 to over 50% in 2018. Policies on RMB cross-border trade fina

    213、ncing, RMB loans for overseas projects, overseas RMB lending by domestic enterprises and cross-border RMB cash pool business were also launched and improved.3. Continuously Promoting Two-way Opening of Financial MarketsWith the accumulation of offshore RMB, the demand of using RMB for investment and

    214、 asset allocation had been increasing. At the same time, the process of two-way opening of Chinas financial markets had been accelerating, and investment channels such as Chinas Interbank Bond Market (CIBM), Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investment (RQFII), Renminbi Qualified Domestic Ins

    215、titutional Investment (RQDII), the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect, Mutual Recognition of Funds (MRF), Bond Connect and International Board of Gold Exchange had been opened. The types of domestic entities issuing RMB bonds abroad and offshore entities issuin

    216、g RMB bonds in China (Panda Bonds) had become more diversified. From scratch, cross-border RMB settlement under securities investment grew from RMB 100 billion yuan in 2011 to over RMB 6 trillion yuan in 2018, and the growth rate in 2018 reached 84%.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT744. RMBs Incl

    217、usion into SDR Laid an Initial Foundation for its International Currency RoleIn October 2016, the RMB officially joined the SDR currency basket, with a weight of 10.92%, ranking the 3rd among the basket currencies. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the size of RMB reserves in the IMFs Currency Composit

    218、ion of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER) equaled to USD 90.78 billion, which was the first time for the IMF to release the information of RMB reserves. By the end of the fourth quarter of 2018, the size of RMB reserves in COFER had equaled to USD 202.79 billion, accounting for 1.89% of the

    219、total, ranking the 6th among major reserve currencies. According to incomplete statistics, more than sixty central banks or monetary authorities had included the RMB in their foreign exchange reserves.II. Achievements in Infrastructure Construction1. RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment SystemThe PBC

    220、started the construction of RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) in 2012. In these years, the functions of CIPS had been constantly improved, the number of participants had been increasing, and the business volume had been rising. The efficiency of clearing and settling had been widely r

    221、ecognized by participants. In October 2015, CIPS (phase I) was put into operation, introducing the real-time gross settlement mode to support payment businesses such as remittance of customers and financial institutions, which fulfilled the settlement needs of cross-border RMB trade, investment and

    222、financing businesses in major time zones around the world. In October 2017, Bond Connect was launched and CIPS fulfilled the settlement needs accordingly. CIPS connected Chinas mainland with a number of different economies market by using Hong Kong as a node, and it supported an internationally prev

    223、alent settlement mode of delivery versus payment (DVP) and covered business scope of spot trading, underwriting and repurchase of bonds, which met the needs of international investors to invest in the mainland bond market without changing their business habits. In May 2018, CIPS (phase II) was launc

    224、hed and the deferred net settlement (DNS) mode was introduced. The operating hours were extended from 512 to 524+4 hours, fully covering the working hours of all financial markets in every time zone around the globe and supporting intraday settlement. CIPS added a night session for the interbank mon

    225、ey market, which met the needs of domestic and PART ONE Ten-year Development of RMB Internationalization75foreign direct participants for liquidity adjustment at night. In addition to DVP, CIPS also launched the payment versus payment (PVP) mode for RMB against foreign currencies, and centralized cl

    226、earing mode for the central counterparty. By the end of 2018, CIPS had involved thirty-one direct participants and eight hundred and eighteen indirect participants, covering eighty-nine countries and regions in six continents. The business actually had covered one hundred and sixty-one countries and

    227、 regions and two thousand six hundred and fifty-nine incorporated financial institutions. As of the end of 2018, CIPS had handled more than 3.42 million cross-border payment transactions with an amount of RMB 45.84 trillion yuan.2. RMB Cross-border Payment Management Information System In July 2009,

    228、 the PBC launched the RMB Cross-border Payment Management Information System (RCPMIS) to support the orderly development of the pilot business of cross-border RMB settlements. RCPMIS was currently the only nationwide information management system in China that specialized in monitoring the cross-bor

    229、der flows of RMB funds.Since its launch, system performance of the RCPMIS had been continuously optimized to meet the needs of business development. After several times of upgrading and reconstruction, the information collected by the system had covered business information, flow information and sto

    230、ck information related to RMB cross-border receipts and payments. The statistic and monitoring function had been gradually improved to meet the needs of the PBC for the analysis, monitoring, evaluation and macro-control decision-making regarding RMB cross-border settlement. By the end of 2018, four

    231、hundred and twenty-four incorporated banking institutions and clearing banks in Hong Kong and Macau regions had connected to RCPMIS, with sixty-nine thousand two hundred and forty-nine effective users, and more than 33.78 million pieces of data and information had been collected.3. The Operation of

    232、Cross-border Transportation of RMB Banknotes Since 2009, the business scale of cross-border RMB banknotes transportation had continued to grow. The amount of cross-border RMB banknotes transportation by banks had increased from the initial RMB 10.9 billion yuan in 2009 to RMB 117.1 billion yuan in 2

    233、018, with an average annual growth rate of 28.9%. 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT76Before 2009, RMB banknotes transportation mainly took place in Hong Kong, Macau regions of China, as well as Mongolia, Vietnam and other neighboring countries. Since 2010, the clearing bank in Hong Kong, relying

    234、on the depository vault of Bank of China (Hong Kong), had provided the channel of supply and backflow of offshore RMB banknotes, which had gradually extended globally. There had been three ways of cross-border RMB banknotes transportation used by banks: the overseas depository vault mode, the overse

    235、as clearing bank mode and the correspondent bank mode. With the continuous optimization of the overseas RMB clearing mechanism, transportation, and deposit and withdrawal environment, the secondary market of overseas RMB banknotes had continued to develop, and it had been increasingly convenient to

    236、obtain RMB banknote abroad.III. Achievements of Central Bank Cooperation1. Bilateral Local Currency Swap In 2008, when the international financial crisis broke out, the global financial system experienced severe liquidity difficulties, and some trading and investment partners needed liquidity suppor

    237、ts. Approved by the State Council, the PBC had signed bilateral local currency swap agreements with central banks or monetary authorities of thirty-eight countries and regions, with a total amount of over RMB 3.7 trillion yuan since 2008. Local currency swap arrangements had played a positive role i

    238、n facilitating trade and investment between China as well as relevant countries and regions, maintaining financial stability and promoting the international use of the RMB. By the end of 2018, there had been thirty valid agreements with a total amount of RMB 3.48 trillion yuan.2. RMB Clearing Arrang

    239、ement Approved by the State Council, the PBC allowed banks in Hong Kong and Macau regions to provide clearing arrangements for personal RMB business in 2003 and 2004, and authorized Bank of China (Hong Kong) and Macau Branch of Bank of China to act as RMB clearing banks in Hong Kong and Macau region

    240、s respectively. In 2009, the pilot program of RMB settlement for cross-border trade was launched, and the business scope of RMB clearing banks in Hong Kong and Macau regions was expanded accordingly. In order to comply with the development of the overseas RMB markets and expand the two-way opening o

    241、f financial markets, the PBC had signed PART ONE Ten-year Development of RMB Internationalization77MOU with overseas central banks or monetary authorities, established RMB clearing arrangements in twenty-five countries and regions, and authorized twenty-five local banks to act as RMB clearing banks,

    242、 including twenty-four Chinese-funded banks and one foreign-funded bank. At present, overseas RMB clearing banks had covered Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan regions of China, as well as Southeast Asia, Europe, North and South America, Oceania, the Middle East and Africa.2018 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION RE

    243、PORT78PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 2018In 2018, against the backdrop of complex and volatile economic and financial situations at home and abroad, greater capital outflow pressure, and increased fluctuation of RMB exchange rate featuring first appreciating and then depreciating, RMB

    244、cross-border settlement maintained a relatively rapid growth, the share of cross-border RMB settlements in total cross-border settlements reached a record high, and the overall balance of settlement showed a small net inflow.The main features of the international use of RMB in the whole year were as

    245、 follows: first, the amount of settlement under current account rebounded year on year, net outflows of trade in goods decreased, settlement of service trade increased significantly, while the net outflows of service trade and income increased. Second, the opening of financial markets continued to d

    246、eepen. For the first time, the amount of settlement under the capital account was double the amount under the current account, among which securities investment increased significantly, and the direct investment in Chinas interbank bond market (CIBM) attracted the highest net inflows. Third, the off

    247、shore RMB market had maintained a steady development. The onshore RMB exchange rate had played a leading role in forming the offshore RMB exchange rate. The linkage between the offshore and onshore markets had gradually increased, and the breadth and depth of the offshore market continued to expand.

    248、I. General Situation of Cross-border Use of RMBIn 2018, RMB cross-border settlement amounted to RMB 15.85 trillion yuan, increasing 46.3% year on year. Total receipts were RMB 8 trillion yuan, up 51.6% year on year, and total payments were RMB 7.85 trillion yuan, up 41.3% year on year, with a receip

    249、t to payment ratio of 1:0.98, which resulted in a net inflow of RMB 154.4 billion yuan, compared with a net outflow of RMB 276.5 billion yuan in 2017. RMB cross-border settlement accounted for 32.6% of the total cross-border settlement during the same PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 201

    250、879Figure 2-1 Monthly RMB Settlement during 2017-2018Source: PBC.Current account (LHS)Capital account (LHS)RMB settlement ratio (RHS)Billion yuan%4540353025201510501,8001,6001,4001,2001,0008006004002000 2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.0

    251、22018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12Figure 2-2 Proportion of RMB in Total Cross-border Receipts and Payments during 2010-2018Source: PBC.Current account (LHS)Capital account (LHS)RMB settlement ratio (RHS)Billion yuan%Year2010201120122013201420152016201720184035302

    252、52015105018,00016,00014,00012,00010,0008,0006,0004,0002,0000 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT80period, which was a record high with an increase of about 7 percentage points over the previous year. The RMB had been Chinas 2nd largest cross-border settlement currency for eight consecutive years. A

    253、ccording to SWIFT, by the end of 2018, the RMB had been the 5th largest payment currency in the world, only next to USD, EUR, GBP and JPY, with a share of 2.07% in the total global payment amount, up from 1.61% in 2017. 79% of the offshore settlement occurred in Hong Kong.In 2018, Shanghai, Beijing

    254、and Shenzhen ranked top three in terms of annual cross-border RMB settlement volume, with a share of 45.8%, 14.1% and 10.3% of the total cross-border RMB settlements respectively. There were nine provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities directly controlled by the central government

    255、), two more than last year, each enjoying more than RMB 200 billion yuan cross-border RMB settlements. Furthermore, the total amount of RMB settlements in eight border provinces (including autonomous regions) reached approximately RMB 471.8 billion yuan, up17.6% year on year.专栏1.1国际金融中心的界定Table 2-1

    256、Cross-border RMB Settlement by Provinces in 2018Capital and financial accountShare (%)TotalCurrent accountRankingRegion Unit: billion yuan1,133.30697.36677.59771.76400.48325.2453.231,047.925,106.876,132.061,533.99962.71756.20225.54202.56184.04749.5110,746.627,265.362,231.341,640.301,527.96626.02527.

    257、80237.271,797.4215,853.49 12345678945.814.110.39.63.93.31.511.3100.0ShanghaiBeijingShenzhenJiangsuZhejiangFujianOthersTotalSource: PBC.Guangdong(Excluding Shenzhen)In 2018, the amount of cross-border RMB settlements with Hong Kong SAR of China accounted for 40.5% of all the cross-border RMB settleme

    258、nts in terms of volume, followed by Singapore with a share of 9%, Germany of 4.2%, and South Korea of nearly 4%. The share of Singapore, South Korea, UK, Switzerland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, as well as Taiwan and Macau regions of China saw a significant increase compared with 2017. PART TWO The Int

    259、ernational Use of the RMB in 201881In 2018, China and the countries along the Belt and Road (hereinafter referred to as the countries along the B&R) handled cross-border RMB settlements amounted to over RMB 2.07 trillion yuan, accounting for 13.1% of the total cross-border RMB settlements during the

    260、 same period, among which trade in goods accounted for RMB 613.4 billion yuan, direct investment for RMB 224.4 billion yuan, other investment for RMB 333.1 billion yuan, and cross-border financing for RMB 313.2 billion yuan. By the end of 2018, China had signed bilateral local currency swap agreemen

    261、ts with twenty-one countries along the B&R and established RMB clearing arrangements in eight countries and RQFII pilot programs in six countries. The RMB had been directly traded with nine currencies, and regionally traded with three currencies of countries along the B&R.Figure 2-3 Distribution of

    262、RMB Cross-border Receipts and Payments by Country and Region in 2018Source: PBC.HK SAR of China, 40.5%Luxembourg, 1.03%UK, 2.38%South Korea, 3.86%Japan, 3.49%Germany, 4.18%Macau SAR of China, 2.05%Netherland, 1.16%Australia, 1.06%Cayman Islands, 1.10%Taiwan, China, 3.39%Ohters, 23.62%Singapore, 8.99

    263、%USA, 1.89%Switzerland, 1.29%Box 1 The Use of RMB in Neighboring CountriesIn 2018, the cross-border RMB settlements between China and neighboring countries amounted to RMB 3.1 trillion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 46.3%, higher than the average increase rate. Among them, the RMB settlements

    264、 under the current account 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT82amounted to RMB 1.1 trillion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 13%. The amount of cross-border RMB settlements for direct investment reached RMB 282.8 billion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 68.1%. The total amount of cross-b

    265、order RMB settlement for trade and investment accounted for more than 40% of the total cross-border RMB settlement volume. Among them, the cross-border RMB settlements with Nepal increased by nine times and with Belarus by seven times year on year, and that with thirteen countries such as Singapore,

    266、 South Korea, Russia and Thailand increased by more than 50% year on year. Fifteen foreign central banks including Singapore, South Korea, Russia and Cambodia had included RMB assets into their foreign exchange reserves.Currently, China had established RMB clearing arrangements in six neighboring co

    267、untries, signed bilateral local currency settlement agreements with nine neighboring countries such as Vietnam, Kazakhstan, and signed bilateral local currency swap agreements with central banks or monetary authorities of fourteen neighboring countries such as Mongolia and Japan.In February 2018, re

    268、gional trading of RMB against Thai Baht was extended to the national interbank foreign exchange market. In September, the direct quotation and position squaring mechanism of RMB against Kazakhstani Tenge was launched, and the first batch of overseas banks was introduced to join the regional trading

    269、in the interbank foreign exchange market. Thus a listing trading system of RMB against Kazakhstani Tenge was initially formed based on the bank-counter listing and supported by regional trading in the interbank foreign exchange market.In addition, China launched the Port Interconnection Information

    270、Service Platform and the China (Xinjiang)-Silk Road Currency Regional Trading Information Platform in 2018, as well as developed and completed the bank account service platform for overseas border residents, which greatly facilitated border residents to participate in border trade.PART TWO The Inter

    271、national Use of the RMB in 201883In 2018, China established a China-Laos land transportation route for bilateral banknotes, set up a new Yunnan-Laos transportation channelthe Mohan-Boten route, opened a land transportation route with Russia for cross-border RMB banknotes, and completed the transport

    272、ation of Kazakhstani Tenge banknotes for the first time.The use of RMB in neighboring countries was conducive to promoting economic and trade exchanges between China and neighboring countries, which would bring Chinas development achievements to benefit neighboring countries and facilitate the forma

    273、tion of a new pattern of Chinas overall opening up.II. Current AccountIn 2018, the total amount of cross-border RMB settlements under the current account was RMB 5.11 trillion yuan with a year-on-year increase of 19%, among which the receipts amounted to RMB 2.06 trillion yuan, up 19% year on year,

    274、and the payments amounted to RMB 3.05 trillion yuan, up 17% year on year, with net payments amounted to about RMB 0.99 trillion yuan, increasing 14% year on year. The share Figure 2-4 Monthly RMB Settlements under the Current Account during 2017-2018Source: PBC.Trade in goods (LHS)Income (LHS)Monthl

    275、y YOY growth rate (RHS)Trade in services (LHS)Current transfer (LHS)Billion yuan%6040200-20-40-606005004003002001000 2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.122019 RMB INTERN

    276、ATIONALIZATION REPORT84of cross-border RMB settlements under the current account in total cross-border settlements by both RMB and foreign exchange moderately increased to a ratio of 14% in 2018, one percentage point higher compared with 2017.1. Trade in GoodsIn 2018, the total amount of cross-borde

    277、r RMB settlement for trade in goods reached RMB 3.66 trillion yuan, up 13.2% year-on-year, with a share of 11.7% in total cross-border settlements by both RMB and foreign exchange, which was 0.3 percentage point higher compared with 2017. The net outflow of RMB funds under trade in goods was RMB 396

    278、.2 billion yuan, down 15% year on year. Among them, RMB cross-border settlement for general trade totaled RMB 2.21 trillion yuan, basically unchanged year on year, and RMB settlements for offshore transit trade and imported materials processing trade decreased by 71.7% and 31% year on year respectiv

    279、ely. With the continuous improvement of cross-border RMB business management, the RMB settlements of offshore transit transactions had dropped significantly, from a record high of RMB 1.88 trillion yuan in 2015 to more than RMB 100 billion yuan in 2018. The cross-border RMB business of trade in good

    280、s had been developing in a more sound way.Figure 2-5 The Share of RMB Settlement in Total Cross-border Settlement under Current Account during 2017-2018Source: PBC.Current account Trade in servicesTrade in goodsIncome and current transfer6050403020100%2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.0

    281、72017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 2018852. Trade in ServicesIn 2018, RMB cross-border settlement for trade in services totaled RMB 768.8 billion yuan, up 32.9% year on y

    282、ear and accounting for 20.4% of total cross-border settlement by both RMB and foreign exchange during the same period, up 4.4 percentage points year on year. The net outflow of RMB funds under trade in services was RMB 93.3 billion yuan, up by RMB 90.9 billion yuan year-on-year. Cross-border settlem

    283、ent of trade in services mainly focused on overseas hotels, air tickets, tuition fees, tourism and computer services. Among them, the RMB cross-border settlement by third-party payment companies totaled RMB 179 billion yuan, up 171.8% year on year.3. Income and Current TransferIn 2018, RMB cross-bor

    284、der settlement under income totaled RMB 651.5 billion yuan, increasing 32% year on year, while that under current transfer totaled RMB 29.4 billion yuan, up 23% year on year. Under the income and current transfer, the share of RMB cross-border settlement in total cross-border settlements by both RMB

    285、 and foreign exchange accounted for 43.4%, increasing 10.2 percentage points year-on-year. The net outflow of RMB funds under income reached RMB 515 billion yuan, up 27% year on year, while the net inflow of RMB under current transfer totaled RMB 24.4 billion yuan, increasing 74% year on year.Box 2

    286、Multinational Enterprises Prefer RMB in Cross-border Receipt and PaymentWith the improvement of Chinas comprehensive national strength, China was playing an increasingly important role in the global layout of multinational enterprises. Taking Shanghai as an example, eighty three of the top five hund

    287、red companies in the world had set up regional headquarters in Shanghai to undertake various functions such as fund management, procurement, sales and settlements in China. In 2018, a total volume of RMB 174.2 billion yuan of cross-border RMB settlement was conducted by multinational enterprises in

    288、Shanghai, accounting for 54% of their total cross-border receipts and payments in RMB and foreign exchange during the same period. The cross-border RMB settlement volume exceeded that of foreign exchange settlement for the first time. Among these, there were twenty enterprises whose share of RMB cro

    289、ss-2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT86border receipts and payments in total cross-border settlements reached above 90%. Many multinational enterprises had considered to settle all the cross-border businesses related to China in RMB.Cross-border RMB businesses had brought tangible benefits to mult

    290、inational enterprises. First, it was conducive to avoiding exchange rate risks and reducing exchange costs. Second, it was conducive to reducing operating costs of supply chain and making upstream and downstream enterprises focus on their main businesses. Third, it was conducive to improving the eff

    291、iciency of cross-border fund settlement. Fourth, it was conducive to enhancing the discourse power of the regional headquarters of multinational enterprises in China. Many multinational enterprises in China had actively sought to persuade their parent companies to use RMB for their China-related bus

    292、inesses and hand the groups global RMB assets over to domestic companies for centralized operations. Since 2018, the RMB exchange rate had shown some fluctuations, but multinational enterprises had not reduced the cross-border use of RMB, which shows that multinational enterprises had formed a certa

    293、in path dependence on the use of RMB cross-border settlement. The survey shows that multinational enterprises expect to maintain the current sound business environment, keep the stability and continuity of cross-border RMB policies. And they also wish to further improve policy convenience and enhanc

    294、e the convertibility and free usability of RMB.III. Capital AccountIn 2018, the cross-border RMB settlement under the capital account totaled RMB 10.75 trillion yuan, with a year on year increase of 65%, of which receipts stood at RMB 5.94 trillion yuan and payments stood at RMB 4.81 trillion yuan,

    295、with a net inflow of RMB 1.13 trillion yuan. The shares of direct investment, securities investment and cross-border financing in the net inflow of capital account were 21.7%, 69.3% and 7.6% respectively. PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 201887Figure 2-6 Cross-border RMB Settlement under

    296、 the Capital Account during 2017-2018Source: PBC.Billion yuan%200150100500-501,2001,00080060040020002017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12Direct investment (LHS)Other inv

    297、estment (LHS)Securities (LHS)Monthly YOY growth rate (RHS)1. Direct InvestmentIn 2018, the cross-border RMB settlement under the direct investment totaled RMB 2.66 trillion yuan with a year on year increase of 61.1%, accounting for 59.5% of Chinas total RMB and foreign currency cross-border settleme

    298、nts with a year on year increase of 10.2 percentage points. The net inflow was RMB 246.4 billion yuan, with a year on year increase of 51%. In 2018, the volume of RMB settlement in ODI transactions stood at RMB 804.8 billion yuan, increasing 76.2% year on year, of which capital outflows stood at RMB

    299、 53 billion yuan and principle inflows stood at RMB 11.8 billion yuan, with a net outflow of RMB 41.2 billion yuan. The volume of RMB settlement in FDI transactions was RMB 1.86 trillion yuan, increasing 57.5% year on year, of which principle inflows stood at RMB 287.4 billion yuan and principle out

    300、flows stood at RMB 131.6 billion yuan, with a net inflow of RMB 155.8 billion yuan. 2. The Cross-border RMB Cash Pooling Business By the end of 2018, one thousand two hundred and fifty-three cross-border RMB cash pools had been set up across the country. The volume of cross-border RMB cash pooling b

    301、usiness totaled RMB 1.68 trillion yuan with a year-on-year increase of 57%, 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT88of which payments and receipts stood at RMB 804.7 billion yuan and RMB 872.1 billion yuan respectively, resulting in a net inflow of RMB 67.3 billion yuan. Figure 2-7 Monthly Cross-borde

    302、r RMB Settlement of Direct Investmentduring 2017-2018Source: PBC.ODIFDIBillion yuan2502001501005002017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12Figure 2-8 Monthly Settlement of C

    303、ross-border RMB Cash Pooling Businessduring 2017-2018Source: PBC.Net inflowsInflowsOutflowsBillion yuan2017.012017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.072017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12140120100806040200 -20-40PART

    304、 TWO The International Use of the RMB in 2018893. Panda BondBy the end of 2018, the issuers of Panda Bonds had covered international development institutions, foreign governments, foreign non-financial enterprises and financial institutions. The total registered or approved amount of Panda Bonds had

    305、 reached RMB 662.3 billion yuan and the total issuance reached RMB 314.7 billion yuan. In 2018, the new issuing scale of Panda Bonds had reached nearly RMB 74.7 billion yuan, increasing 23.8% from a year earlier. Box 3 Panda Bond was Welcome by the MarketSince 2018, with the accelerating development

    306、 of two-way opening-up of Chinas financial market, the market of Panda Bond had attracted extensive attention from international market. The type of bond issuers further expanded, and the scale of issuance also increased significantly.In terms of bond issuers, Panda Bond issued by non-financial ente

    307、rprises grew the fastest in 2018, with 16 issuers issuing thirty-six Panda Bond amounting to RMB 62.7 billion yuan in total increasing 191.6% year on year. The total amount of Panda Bond issued by GovernmentFinancial institutionNon-financial institution8.71%7.31%83.98%Figure 2-9 The Distribution of

    308、Panda Bond Issuers in 2018Source: PBC.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT90foreign governments of the Philippines, United Arab Emirates and Hungary was nearly RMB 5.5 billion yuan. By the end of 2018, six sovereign bond issuers respectively from Poland, Hungary, the Philippines, United Arab Emirate

    309、s, Canada and South Korea had issued eight sovereign Panda Bonds, with a total issuance volume of nearly RMB 16.5 billion yuan. It was the first time for the Philippines and United Arab Emirates to access China to issue bond in 2018. Four financial institutions including MUFG Bank, Mizuho Bank, ABC

    310、International and BOCGI issued four Panda Bonds, with the scale of issuance totaling RMB 6.5 billion yuan. Overall, the scale of non-financial enterprises bond issuance was the largest in 2018 accounting for 84%, while the scale of financial institutions and foreign governments bond issuance account

    311、ed for 8.7% and 7.3% respectively.With Panda Bond market developing, the enthusiasm of investment institutions had been gradually elevated. In 2018, the types of institutions that participated in Panda Bond investment increased, with rural commercial banks and urban commercial banks participating gr

    312、adually. The investment scale of domestic institutions of foreign commercial banks, such as HSBC (China), MUFJ (China) and Mizuho (China) had Figure 2-10 The Structure of Investment Institutions of Panda Bond in 2018State-owned commercial bankJoint-stock commercial bankOther commercial bankCity comm

    313、ercial bankRural commercial bankForeign investorFund companyAsset management incorporationSecurities companySource: PBC.59.06%3.87%2.39%17.68%0.92%12.89%1.77%0.38%1.03%PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 201891expanded significantly. In 2018, the total investment amount of foreign commercia

    314、l banks exceeded RMB 1.3 billion yuan that was three times as much as in 2017. The enthusiasm of foreign investors had risen. In recent years, a lot of Panda Bond had been subscribed by foreign investors. In Hungarys, Canadas and the Philippines issuance cases, foreign investors subscription account

    315、ed for 55%, 73% and 88% respectively, including sovereign wealth funds and foreign central banks. Panda Bond had played an important role in connecting Chinas bond market with foreign issuers and investors. In September 2018, the PBC and the MOF jointly issued the Interim Rules for the Administratio

    316、n of Bond Issuances by Overseas Institutions on the Chinas Interbank Bond Market (PBC and MOF Public Announcement 2018 No.16), which comprehensively standardized the procedure for issuance of bond by four types of foreign institutions in China, including issuance approval, registration, custody, set

    317、tlement process as well as information disclosure of Panda Bond, clarified the accounting standards, audit supervision and other issues concerning the market. The implementation of the Rules was significant for the Panda Bond markets sound and standardized development. With the progress of RMB inter

    318、nationalization and the deepening of the opening-up of Chinas bond market, more issuers and investors would enter the market and there would be greater opportunities for Panda Bond. 4. Cross-border Securities InvestmentIn 2018, the foreign investors demand to allocate RMB assets increased significan

    319、tly. The cross-border settlements under securities investment totaled RMB 6.38 trillion yuan with an increase of 83.6%, of which net inflow reached RMB 786.3 billion yuan with an increase of 171% and had the largest contribution to the growth of capital account.Bond investment. In 2018, one thousand

    320、 one hundred and eighty six foreign institutions entered interbank bond market. There were seven hundred and seventy four institutions entering the market directly, five hundred and five institutions entering via Bond Connect, while ninety three institutions entering via both channels. In 2018, the

    321、volume of inflow was RMB 2.12 trillion yuan, and the volume 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT92of outflow was RMB 1.52 trillion yuan, resulting in a net inflow of RMB 602.2 billion yuan. Among them, the volume of settlements under Bond Connect totaled RMB 1.03 trillion yuan that increased 210%, w

    322、ith a net inflow of RMB 86.2 billion yuan which was basically the same as 2017. The settlements under CIBM totaled RMB 2.6 trillion yuan that increased 117%, with a net inflow of RMB 516 billion yuan that increased 125%.Box 4 Chinese Bond were Included in Important International IndexesIn March 2018

    323、, Bloomberg announced the inclusion of Chinese government bonds and policy bank bonds in the Bloomberg Barclays Global Composite Index from April 2019 in twenty months. In April 2019, Bloomberg officially included Chinese bonds in the index, and RMB bonds became the fourth currency component of the

    324、index after the USD, EUR and JPY, which was the first time that RMB bonds were included in the worlds three important international bond indexes.In addition, FTSE Russell announced that it had added China to its index watch list and would publish whether to include Chinese bonds in the FTSE Worlds G

    325、overnment Bond Index (WGBI) in September 2019. JP Morgan Chase & Co. would also seek feedback on the inclusion of Chinese bonds during the index management meeting in the summer of 2019. In recent years, the opening up of Chinas bond market had successively broadened. By the end of 2018, the scale o

    326、f Chinas bond market had reached RMB 86 trillion yuan, of which the holdings by foreign entities were RMB 1.71 trillion yuan, increasing 46% year on year. This inclusion of Chinese bonds in important international bond indexes fully reflected the confidence of international investors in Chinas econo

    327、my and the new progress made in the opening up of Chinas financial market, which would better meet their need for allocation of RMB assets. The PBC would continue to improve relevant institutional arrangements, further open Chinas bond market and provide a more friendly and convenient investment env

    328、ironment for international investors. PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 201893The Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect business. In 2018, the cross-border settlements under Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect totaled R

    329、MB 841.5 billion yuan with an increase of 30% and the net inflow stood at RMB 209.3 billion yuan, while there had been a net outflow of RMB 105.5 billion yuan in 2017. Among them, the net inflow through Shanghai Stock Connect and Shenzhen Stock Connect reached RMB 283.3 billion yuan and the cumulati

    330、ve market value of Hong Kong stocks held by mainland investors through Hong Kong Stock Connect reached RMB 547.5 billion yuan, with a net outflow of RMB 74 billion yuan. RQFII. By the end of 2018, nineteen countries or regions had been granted with RQFII quotas for RMB 1.94 trillion yuan and two hun

    331、dred and five foreign institutions had registered or applied investment quotas for RMB 646.7 billion yuan. In 2018, the volume of receipts through RQFII stood at RMB 138.8 billion yuan and the volume of payments stood at RMB 120.3 billion yuan, resulting in a net inflow of RMB 18.5 billion yuan. In

    332、May 2018, Japan obtained a RQFII quota for RMB 200 billion yuan approved by the State Council.Hong Kong SAR of China, 500Unit: Billion yuanIreland, 50Hungray, 50Swtizerland, 50Australia, 50Luxembourg, 50Germany, 80Qatar, 30Canada, 50South Korea, 120Malaysia, 50USA, 250Thailand, 50Chile, 50Japan, 200

    333、France, 80Singapore, 100UAE, 50Figure 2-11 Allocation of RQFII Quotas, End-2018Source: PBC.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT945. Other Investments In 2018, the total cross-border settlements under other investments such as cross-border financing and project loans reached RMB 1.7 trillion yuan tha

    334、t increased 23.6%, with a net inflow of RMB 104 billion yuan that decreased 19%. Box 5 Domestic RMB Financial Assets Held by Foreign EntitiesBy the end of 2018, the volume of financial assets including domestic RMB stocks, bonds, loans, deposits held by foreign traders reached RMB 4.85 trillion yuan

    335、, increasing 13.1% year on year. Among them, the market value of stock was RMB 1.15 trillion yuan, the balance of bond custody was RMB 1.71 trillion yuan, the balance of deposits was RMB 1.06 trillion yuan (including deposits from interbank accounts) and the balance of loans was RMB 924.7 billion yu

    336、an. Stocks and bonds in the domestic financial market had become the major options for foreign traders to increase the allocation of RMB assets. By the end of 2018, the scale of domestic RMB stocks and bonds held by foreign traders had increased 27% year on year, among which the volume of bond custo

    337、dy accounted for 2.4% of the total amount of bond custody in the interbank bond market and the market value of stocks accounted for 2.5% in total outstanding market value of A-stock. In 2018, bonds accounted for 91% in domestic RMB assets increment held by foreign entities.Table 2-2 Domestic RMB Fin

    338、ancial Assets Held by Non-residents Dec. 2017Mar.2018Dec. 2018June.2018Sept.2018InstrumentsUnit: billion yuan1,174.67 1,198.83 739.001,173.47 4,285.97 1,201.63 1,361.01 841.771,137.79 4,542.20 1,275.24 1,602.94 824.35 1,184.10 4,886.63 1,278.49 1,745.04 924.25 1,036.36 4,984.14 1,151.74 1,711.59924.

    339、65 1,059.16 4,847.14StocksBondsLoansDepositsTotalSource: PBC. PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 201895IV. Domestic RMB Foreign Exchange TradingBy the end of 2018, the domestic trading entities of Chinas interbank foreign exchange market had been further expanded. The volume of spot market

    340、 members had reached six hundred and seventy eight. Forward, foreign exchange swap, currency swap and option market members had reached two hundred and twelve, two hundred and seven, one hundred and seventy five and one hundred and twenty four respectively. The volume of market makers in the spot ma

    341、rket and forward/swap market had reached thirty two and twenty seven respectively. The trading of Chinas interbank foreign exchange market were active and the product structure had constantly improved. In 2018, the turnover of RMB interbank foreign exchange market was equivalent to USD 24.8 trillion

    342、, and the average daily volume was equivalent to USD 101.8 billion, increasing 20% year on year. Among them, the accumulated turnover in the spot foreign market was equivalent to USD 7.6 trillion, increasing 19.3% year on year. The trading amount of RMB swaps equaled to USD 16.4 trillion, increasing

    343、 22.7% year on year, in which the trading amount of USD overnight swaps equaled to USD 9.2 trillion, which accounted for 56.1% in total amount of swap transactions. The trading amount of currency swaps was USD 65.8 billion, increasing 15% year on year. The trading amount of forwards was USD 87.5 bil

    344、lion, decreasing 15.3% year on year. The trading amount of RMB options was USD 611.1 billion, increasing 64.6% year on year. In 2018, the direct trading between RMB and non-USD foreign currencies developed steadily, with the spot transactions amounting to RMB 1.6 trillion yuan and accounting for 3.2

    345、% of the total foreign exchange spot trading volume in Chinas interbank market. In February, the trading mode of RMB against Thai Baht in the interbank foreign exchange market was further improved, from regional trading to direct trading. In September, new foreign institutions were introduced to par

    346、ticipate in quotation trading between RMB and Kazakhstani Tenge (regional trading). The trading hour was also extended.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT96V. RMB-denominated Commodities1. Crude Oil Futures Contracts were Listed on Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) In March 2018, Chinas crude oil fu

    347、tures denominated and settled in RMB was officially listed on Shanghai International Energy Exchange (INE), a subsidiary of Shanghai Futures Exchange, and foreign traders were introduced. The trading variety was mainly medium sour crude oils, including seven deliverable crude oil as following: Dubai

    348、 crude oil, Upper Zakum crude oil, Oman crude oil, Qatar marine oil, Yemen Masilla crude oil, Iraqi Basra light oil and domestic Shengli crude oil. The trading unit was 1,000 barrels/hand and the trading hours were mainly 9:00-11:30, 13:30-15:00 and 21:00-2:30 (the next day). For now, the delivery m

    349、ethod was spot delivery, and the transaction arrangement was net price transaction and bonded delivery. Net price transaction refers to the valuation excluding tariffs and value-added taxes. Bonded delivery refers to physical delivery relying on bonded oil depot. Currently, INE crude oil futures tra

    350、ding was temporarily exempt from value-added taxes.2. Foreign Traders were Introduced into Iron Ore Futures on Dalian Commodity Exchange Iron ore was Chinas largest imported commodity and its trade volume was the worlds second largest after crude oil. In October 2013, Chinas iron ore futures was lis

    351、ted and settled in RMB, of which the participants were domestic traders. At present, HKDVNDGBPRUBAUDUSDSGDNZDKRWEURCHFJPYCADTHBCurrencyCurrencyCurrencyCurrency192.03.50.70.0008278.458.10.418.151.614.84.70.002587.90.610.00.000649,190.755.48.60.219.621.82.10.008754.729.67.40.4Trading VolumeTrading Vol

    352、umeTable 2-3 The Trading Volume of RMB against Currencies in the Interbank Foreign Exchange Spot Market in 2018 Unit: billion yuanTrading VolumeTrading VolumeSource: CFETS. MYRZARAEDTRYMXNKZT(regional trade)KHR(regional trade)MNT(regional trade)SARHUFPLNDKKSEKNOKPART TWO The International Use of the

    353、 RMB in 201897iron ore futures market on Dalian Commodity Exchange had developed into the worlds largest iron ore futures market, which was of great significance for domestic steel mills to lock in profits and stabilize operations. To further open up the futures market and better serve the real econ

    354、omy, iron ore futures, as a specific variety, officially introduced foreign traders in May 2018. The trading mechanism of foreign traders basically referred to that of crude oil futures. 3. Foreign Traders were Introduced into RMB-denominated PTA FuturesPure terephthalic acid (PTA) was an important

    355、textile raw material. China was the worlds largest PTA producer and consumer, as well as the major trading country of PTA upstream and downstream products. In December 2006, PTA futures were listed, of which the participants were domestic traders. In order to improve the international recognition of

    356、 PTA futures prices, PTA futures officially introduced foreign traders in November 2018. The trading mechanism of foreign traders was consistent with that of crude oil futures. The introduction of foreign traders into commodity futures such as crude oil, iron ore and PTA was an important move to exp

    357、and Chinas financial opening, which was conducive to improving the function of futures market to serve the real economy and promoting RMB to become the pricing and settlement currency of commodities. Foreign traders who invest in crude oil, iron ore, PTA and other commodity futures can use RMB or US

    358、D as margin. By the end of February 2019, the inward and outward margin remittance of foreign traders was RMB 5.71 billion yuan and RMB 3.69 billion yuan, among which RMB accounted for 59.2% and 75.5% respectively. This reflected the preference of foreign traders for RMB.Box 6 Developments of INE Cr

    359、ude Oil Futures TradingSince the listing of INE crude oil futures, the market size had continuously expanded. By the end of February 2019, the accumulative trading volume (unilateral, the same below) had exceeded 34.18 million hands, with the accumulative trading amount reaching nearly RMB 16 trilli

    360、on yuan and an average daily holding of 22,000 hands. The average daily trading volume of INE crude oil futures had surpassed that of Oman crude oil 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT98futures on Dubai Mercantile Exchange, becoming the largest trading volume of crude oil futures in Asia and the th

    361、ird in the world, next to the trading volume of WTI crude oil futures in the US and BRENT crude oil futures in the UK. Currently, INE crude oil futures had been filed with 52 foreign intermediaries in Hong Kong SAR of China, Singapore, Britain, South Korea and Japan. The foreign traders come from th

    362、e United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland, Singapore, Cyprus and Seychelles, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan regions of China. With the steady development of INE crude oil futures, the number and degree of participation of foreign traders were expected to increase gradually.The function of INE crude

    363、oil futures that reflects the supply and demand relationship in Chinas oil market had initially emerged. In March 2018, Shell signed a crude oil trading contract with China International United Petroleum & Chemicals Co., Ltd. (UNIPEC), which was the first spot import-export trading priced at INE cru

    364、de oil futures price as the benchmark. In October, UNIPEC signed a crude oil trading contract with Shandong Jingbo Petroleum & Chemicals Co., Ltd., which was the first domestic spot trading priced at INE crude oil futures price as the benchmark. International institutions such as International Energ

    365、y Agency (IEA), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had paid close attention to INE crude oil futures and offered positive reviews. Quotation agencies such as Platts and Argus had obtained the authorization of SHFE to add INE crude oil futures price data to their information pro

    366、ducts and increase the assessment on Asian cost insurance and freight (CIF) of the SHFEs deliverable oil. VI. RMB as an International Reserve CurrencyBased on IMF COFER data, the scale of RMB reserves had reached USD 202.79 billion, accounting for 1.89% of the total foreign exchange reserves of desi

    367、gnated currencies by the end of the fourth quarter of 2018, ranking 6th and surpassing 1.62% of AUD and 1.84% of CAD, which had been the highest level since the IMF publish RMB reserve assets in 2016. According to incomplete statistics, more than sixty central banks or monetary authorities had incor

    368、porated RMB into their foreign exchange reserves. PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in 201899Figure 2-12 The Scale and Ratio of RMB in COFER during 2016-2018Source: IMF.Billion dollars%Scale (LHS)Ratio of RMB in COFER (RHS)2.001.801.601.401.201.000.800.600.400.200.002502001501005002016Q4 201

    369、7Q1 2017Q2 2017Q3 2017Q4 2018Q1 2018Q2 2018Q3 2018Q4VII. The Operation of Cross-border Transportation of RMB BanknotesIn 2018, the cross-border transportation of RMB banknotes developed steadily. Both the scale of cross-border transportation of RMB banknotes and the net volume of inbound transportat

    370、ion steadily increased. In 2018, the total amount of cross-border RMB banknotes transportation by banks reached RMB 117.1 billion yuan, an increase of 2.2% year on year, among which the outbound volume stood at RMB 9.5 billion yuan, and the inbound volume stood at RMB 107.5 billion yuan, resulting i

    371、n a net inbound transportation of RMB 98 billion yuan. The scale of offshore RMB banknotes supply and backflow continued to decline, changing from three consecutive years of net deposit to net withdrawal. In 2018, the volume of offshore RMB banknotes supply and backflow reached RMB 240 million yuan,

    372、 decreasing 31.5% year on year, of which the volume of banknotes withdrawal stood at RMB 190 million yuan, and that of banknotes deposit stood at RMB 50 million yuan, resulting in a net withdrawal of RMB 140 million yuan. 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT100Box 7 Survey on Offshore RMB Banknotes

    373、ExchangeIn 2018, the business volume of offshore RMB banknotes exchange increased rapidly with a limited scale in total yet. In recent years, the outbound tourism of domestic individuals had continuously increased and the international acceptance of RMB had obviously improved, resulting in a rapid g

    374、rowth of the offshore RMB banknotes exchange business. Between 2011 and 2018, the border entry and exit number of Chinese mainland residents increased from 140 million to 560 million, RMB banknotes could be taken to abroad by those residents for exchange and consumption, but as RMB banknotes had a l

    375、imited function of circulation and storage abroad, most of them flowed back to China through the banking system after conversion. Offshore RMB banknotes exchange business mainly conducted in the countries and regions where attracted more Chinese visitors and had greater demand for banknotes exchange

    376、. In terms of convenience, it was relatively convenient to exchange banknotes in neighboring countries and regions. A lot of institutions offer RMB banknote exchange service in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan regions of China, as well as Singapore and Thailand, providing relatively full coverage over these

    377、 regions and countries. While in Europe and the United States, there were a limited number of financial branches to conduct banknotes exchange services. In the United States, one could only exchange a small scale of banknotes from foreign currency banknotes exchange institutions at entry-exit ports

    378、or in some major cities and large-scale international banks. In African countries, there were a small amount of banknotes exchange business, Standard Banks in a few African countries such as South Africa and Namibia could provide RMB banknotes exchange services for individuals. The volume of offshor

    379、e RMB banknotes exchange business would continue to grow, but the overall scale would be limited. Currently, UnionPay cards could be used in 171 foreign countries and regions, and holders could withdraw local currency banknotes from ATMs with the logo of UnionPay. As the number of Chinese outbound v

    380、isitors increased rapidly, domestic third-party payment offshore business was also increasing. Compared with banknotes, non-cash payment would be safer and more convenient, which had become the preferred payment method for individuals overseas consumption.PART TWO The International Use of the RMB in

    381、 2018101VIII. RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment SystemIn 2018, the CIPS settled 1.44 million payments in total, amounted to RMB 26.45 trillion yuan, with a year on year increase of 14.6% and 81.7% respectively. The average daily volume reached 5,724 payments, amounted to RMB 105 billion yuan, among

    382、 which the customer remittance business reached 1.07 million payments, amounted to RMB 4.63 trillion yuan; the financial institution remittance business reached 0.36 million payments, amounted to RMB 21.24 trillion yuan; the bilateral business reached 4,300 payments, amounted to RMB 575.8 billion yu

    383、an, and the batch business reached 15,000 payments, amounted to RMB 57 million yuan.In 2018, the CIPS completed 7,478 payments of Bond Connect funds settlement in total, amounted to RMB 893.1 billion yuan. From the perspective of bond trading direction, overseas institutions made 4,619 payments of b

    384、ond purchase, amounted to RMB 559.8 billion yuan and made 2,859 payments of bond sale amounting to RMB 333.3 billion yuan. From the perspective of domestic custodian institutions, China Central Depository & Clearing Co., Ltd. settled 4,721 payments of custody funds amounting to RMB 441.4 billion yua

    385、n, and Shanghai Clearing House settled 2,757 payments of custody funds amounting to RMB 451.6 billion yuan.IX. RMB Interest Rate and Exchange Rate1. RMB Interest RateIn 2018, the RMB interest rate hub in the domestic currency market displayed a decreasing tendency overall, and increased slightly at

    386、the end of the year. At the end of 2018, overnight, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 1-year Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate (SHIBOR) decreased by 10, 127, 146, 153 and 123 basis points respectively from the beginning of the year, closing at 2.55%, 3.47%, 3.35%, 3.3% and 3.52% respectively. The 7-day SH

    387、IBOR increased slightly by 6 basis points from the beginning of the year and closed at 2.9%.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT102Figure 2-13 Tendency of Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate in 2018 (1)Figure 2-14 Tendency of Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate in 2018 (2)Source: .Source: .5.04.54.03.53.02.

    388、52.01.51.00.502018.01.012018.01.162018.01.302018.02.122018.03.022018.03.162018.03.302018.04.162018.04.282018.05.152018.05.292018.06.122018.06.272018.07.112018.07.252018.08.082018.08.222018.09.052018.09.192018.10.092018.10.232018.11.062018.11.202018.12.042018.12.18Overnight3-month1-week6-month1-month

    389、1-year6543210%2018.01.022018.01.152018.01.262018.02.082018.02.262018.03.092018.03.222018.04.042018.04.182018.05.022018.05.152018.05.282018.06.082018.06.222018.07.052018.07.182018.07.312018.08.132018.08.242018.09.062018.09.192018.10.082018.10.192018.11.012018.11.142018.11.272018.12.102018.12.21PART T

    390、WO The International Use of the RMB in 20181032. RMB Exchange RateIn 2018, the exchange rate of RMB against a basket of currencies appreciated first and then depreciated overall. At the end of 2018, CFETS RMB exchange rate index closed at 93.28, decreasing 1.7% from the end of 2017. According to BIS

    391、 statistics, since the RMB exchange-rate regime reform started in 2005 to the end of 2018, the RMB nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) and real effective exchange rate (REER) appreciated by 34.3% and 45.1% respectively. In 2018, the domestic RMB exchange rate fluctuated in both directions with fl

    392、exibility significantly enhanced. The exchange rate of RMB against USD and other international currencies experienced both appreciation and depreciation. The central parity rate of RMB against USD, JPY and EUR depreciated by 4.8%, 6.5% and 0.6% respectively and appreciated by 1.2% against GBP from t

    393、he end of 2017.Throughout the year, the highest and lowest central parity rate of RMB against USD were RMB 6.2764 yuan and RMB 6.9670 yuan per USD respectively with a fluctuation range of 6,906 basis points, and the annualized volatility was 4.2%, significantly Figure 2-15 Tendency of Domestic RMB E

    394、xchange Rate against USD in 2018Source: Wind.7.27.06.86.66.46.26.05.82018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.11.022018.12.02USD/CNY: spot exchange rateCentral parity: USD against CNY2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT104higher than th

    395、at in 2017. Among the 243 trading days, the central parity rate of RMB against USD appreciated on 104 trading days and depreciated on 139 trading days. The biggest intra-day appreciation and depreciation were 0.7 percent (492 bps) and 0.9 percent (605 bps). At the end of the year, the central parity

    396、 rate and closing price of RMB against USD were RMB 6.8632 yuan and RMB 6.8658 yuan per USD, depreciating 4.8% and 5.2% respectively from the end of the previous year.X. Central Banks Cooperation1. Bilateral Local Currency SwapIn 2018, the PBC signed new bilateral local currency swap agreements with

    397、 the Bank of Japan and the Central Bank of Nigeria, totaling RMB 215 billion yuan, and renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreements with central banks of eleven countries including the United Kingdom, Chile, South Africa, Malaysia, Belarus, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Australia, Ukraine

    398、 and Albania, totaling RMB 1.03 trillion yuan. 2. Overseas Clearing Mechanism ArrangementAfter signing the MOU with Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and authorizing New York Branch of the Bank of China as the RMB clearing bank in 2016, the PBC authorized JP Morgan Chase & Co. as the

    399、RMB clearing bank in the United States in February 2018. In October, the PBC signed the MOU with the Bank of Japan to establish RMB clearing mechanism arrangement in Japan and authorized Tokyo Branch of the Bank of China as the RMB clearing bank. In November, the PBC signed the MOU with the Central

    400、Bank of Philippines to establish RMB clearing mechanism arrangement in Philippines. In addition, the PBC renewed the RMB Clearing Agreement with Taipei Branch of the Bank of China and Singapore Branch of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China respectively in January and April 2018. PART THREE P

    401、olicies and Relevant Reforms105In 2018, the cross-border RMB policies had covered all aspects. All cross-border business allowed by law to be settled in foreign exchange could also be settled in RMB by enterprises, furthermore, settled in RMB would be more convenient. The management of cross-border

    402、RMB business was gradually optimized, the macro-prudential management was improved unceasingly, and the market self-disciplinary mechanism was basically formed. Based on risk control, the financial market was further opened, the procedure of investment and financing was optimized, the risk hedging f

    403、unction of the domestic financial market was strengthened, the RMB exchange rate formation regime was perfected, and the convertibility of RMB capital account was promoted.I. Optimization of Policies on Cross-border RMB Business In January 2018, in order to further improve the cross-border RMB polic

    404、ies, the PBC issued the Notice on Further Improving the Policies on Cross-border RMB Business to Facilitate Trade and Investment (PBC Document 2018 No.3). First, it clarified that all the cross-border business allowed by law to be settled in foreign exchange could also be settled in RMB by enterpris

    405、es. Second, it met the demand for RMB cross-border payment and receipt of individuals, such as employee compensation, social welfare, family allowance etc., and facilitated domestic individuals to repatriate their legitimate overseas income and overseas individuals to remit their legitimate domestic

    406、 RMB income abroad. Third, it implemented the concept of green development and supported cross-border RMB settlement on carbon emission trading by overseas investors. Fourth, it facilitated foreign investors direct investment with RMB by further optimizing procedures, eliminating limitations on rele

    407、vant account opening and fund use, and ensuring the free remittance of RMB profits, dividends and other investment income of overseas investors according to law. Fifth, it clarified that RMB funds raised by domestic enterprises through overseas issuance of bonds or shares may be transferred back to

    408、China while there PART THREE Policies and Relevant Reforms2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT106was real demand. With this, the policies of RMB cross-border payment had covered all aspects of the cross-border business.II. Promotion of the Two-way Opening up of Capital Market1. Promotion of the Stan

    409、dardized and Healthy Development of RQDII Business In April 2018, in order to further standardized the requirements for RQDII overseas investment products, information submission and macro-prudential management, the PBC issued the Notice on Further Clarifying the Rules on Overseas Security Investmen

    410、t by RMB Qualified Domestic Institutional Investors (PBC General Administration Department Document 2018 No.81).2. Optimization of the Operation Mechanism of Shanghai & Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connection and the Liquidity Supplement Mechanism of Hong Kong Offshore RMB MarketIn May 2018, the PBC iss

    411、ued the Notice on Further Perfecting the Management of Cross-border Capital Flow to Support the Opening-up of Financial Market (PBC General Administration Department Document 2018 No.96), adjusted the reserve ratio of RMB deposits in the PBC clearing accounts of RMB clearing banks in Hong Kong and M

    412、acau regions to zero, and clarified that the overseas investors who invested in Shanghai & Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect could conduct foreign currency exchange and foreign exchange risk hedging business through the Hong Kong settlement banks, and subject these business to the RMB purchase and sa

    413、le business.3. Improvement of the Management for Domestic Securities Investment of RQFIIIn June 2018, in order to further optimized the management requirements for RQFII to open and use domestic investment accounts, canceled the lock-up period of other products, and met the demand for foreign exchan

    414、ge risk hedging, the PBC and SAFE jointly issued the Notice on the Rules of Domestic Security Investment by RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (PBC Document 2018 No.157). 4. Improvement of the Cross-border RMB Purchases and Sales BusinessesIn June 2018, the PBC issued the Notice on Improv

    415、ing the Management of RMB Purchases and Sales Businesses (PBC Document 2018 No.159), expanded the scope of purchases PART THREE Policies and Relevant Reforms107and sales businesses to current account, capital and financial account such as direct investment and the approved securities investment, and

    416、 expanded the trading varieties to spot, forward, foreign exchange swaps, currency swaps and options so as to strengthen the coordination with financial market interconnection mechanism and improve the capacity of financial services to support the real economy. At the same time, the notice allowed o

    417、verseas participating banks and overseas groups to centralize purchase and sales businesses, further facilitating overseas institutions to handle purchases and sales businesses.5. Standardization of the Issuance of Panda BondsIn September 2018, the PBC and MOF jointly issued the Interim Rules for th

    418、e Administration of Bond Issuances by Overseas Institutions on Chinas Interbank Bond Market (PBC, MOF Public Announcement 2018 No.16), comprehensively standardized the issuance approval, the registration procedure, custody and settlement, and information disclosure management of Panda Bond, and clar

    419、ified the issues of accounting standards and audit supervision that were widely concerned by the market.III. Improvement of Macro-prudential ManagementIn January 2018, in order to guide commercial banks to prudently manage the risk of cross-border capital flow, the PBC introduced the counter-cyclica

    420、l adjustment coefficient in the RMB cross-border account financing business of commercial banks, and set the upper limit of account financing according to the RMB deposit balance of domestic agents at the end of last year. In April, the PBC improved the management of cross-border RMB cash pooling bu

    421、siness by setting macro-prudential adjustment coefficients of the net inflow and outflow of the cash pools, strengthening the management of host enterprises, member enterprises and settlement banks of the cash pools, and reinforcing operational and post-operational management. At the same time, the

    422、PBC strengthened the daily monitoring, analyzing and early warning for cross-border capital flow, urged financial institutions to implement self-discipline management of cross-border RMB business, and promoted the sustained and healthy development of cross-border RMB business. In August, to prevent

    423、macro financial risks and promote sound operation of financial institutions, the PBC adjusted the 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT108foreign exchange risk reserve ratio of forward foreign exchange sales from 0 to 20%, and re-introduce the “counter-cyclical factor” in central parity quotation of

    424、RMB against USD.Box 8 The Interim Achievement in the Foreign Exchange Self-disciplinary MechanismIn August 2018, the Foreign Exchange Self-disciplinary Mechanism released the Operational Guidelines for Commercial Banks on Cross-border RMB Business (hereinafter referred to as the Operational Guidelin

    425、es) and the Business Principles for Commercial Banks to Conduct Cross-border RMB Business (hereinafter referred to as the Business Principles), which marked the formation of a relatively complete market self-disciplined mechanism, effectively promoted banks to implement the principles of knowing you

    426、r customer, knowing your business and due diligence, and enhanced banks capacity to verify authenticity and compliance. The Operational Guidelines and the Business Principles basically covered all the cross-border RMB business carried out at present, including business definition, policy basis, cust

    427、omer identification, customer classification, verification, key points of verification and operation and risk hints etc. In order to facilitate detailed operation, the Operational Guidelines and the Business Principles went into details according to different business scope. The formulation of cross

    428、-border RMB business self-disciplinary mechanism was conducive for banks to implementing the principles of knowing your customer, knowing your business and due diligence, enhancing their capacity to verify authenticity and compliance, and preventing related risks. It well solved the problem that spe

    429、cific business operations, auditing standards and auditing dimensions might vary from bank to bank, and was conducive to standardizing cross-border RMB business, cultivating banks awareness of prudence in the conduct of business, and promoting the long-term and healthy development of RMB internation

    430、alization.PART THREE Policies and Relevant Reforms109IV. Improvement of the RMB Exchange Rate Formation RegimeSince 2018, in the face of the complicated external environment, the PBC insisted to focus on the domestic situations while giving due consideration to international factors, thereby achievi

    431、ng a comprehensive balance among multiple objectives. In the first quarter, under the background of a weaker USD and a basic balance of cross-border capital flow and supply and demand of foreign exchange, the PBC allowed market supply and demand play the decisive role in the formation of exchange ra

    432、te, and gradually made the earlier counter-cyclical regulatory policy return to neutrality. Since the second quarter, despite the RMB exchange rate depreciation, the PBC continued to steadily deepen the market-oriented reform of the RMB exchange rate, maintain the flexibility of the RMB exchange rat

    433、e, and make the exchange rate work as an automatic stabilizer in adjusting the macroeconomy and the balance of international payments. At the same time, macro-prudential policy and a series of other targeted measures had been taken according to the changing situation, including strengthening communi

    434、cation with the market, raising the risk reserve ratio for forward sale of foreign exchange, as well as reapplying the counter-cyclical factor in central parity quotation. The PBC had also innovated and enriched the toolbox of regulation to guide and stabilize market expectations. The above measures

    435、 had released positive signals and achieved positive results. In 2018, the cross-border capital flows, exchange rate expectations and the operation of foreign exchange market were basically stable, and the RMB exchange rate remained basically stable at a reasonable and balanced level.2019 RMB INTERN

    436、ATIONALIZATION REPORT110PART FOUR Development of the Offshore RMB MarketIn 2018, the offshore RMB market maintained healthy and steady development with its width and depth constantly increasing and the interaction between onshore and offshore market further improving. Confidence of the offshore mark

    437、et in RMB was enhanced, investment behavior turned out to be more rational, offshore RMB exchange rate moved around the onshore price, and various indicators of RMB business stabilized and improved. With further improvement of Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Bo

    438、nd Connect mechanisms, channels for cross-border investment were further dredged with the investment in domestic RMB assets growing rapidly. Offshore markets demand for high-quality RMB-denominated assets increased, and RMB-denominated central bank bills were welcome in Hong Kong.I. Offshore RMB Int

    439、erest Rate and Exchange Rate 1. Interest RateIn 2018, offshore RMB interest rate fell overall with less volatility compared with the previous years, and different maturities showed divergence: the fluctuation of short-term interest rates remained stable while that of longer-term interest rates fell

    440、overall. At the end of 2018, Hong Kong Interbank Offered Rate (HIBOR) for overnight lending fixing rate of RMB was 1.73%, the same as the end of 2017, and the 7-day, 3-month and 1-year HIBOR were 2.80%, 3.58% and 3.83% respectively, dropping 21, 122 and 124 basis points from the end of 2017 respecti

    441、vely. In 2018, the interest rate of offshore market was holistically higher than that of the onshore market, with HIBOR averagely 0.04 percentage point higher than SHIBOR. The interest rate spread between China and the United States narrowed and the offshore RMB-swap prices fell with fluctuation fol

    442、lowing the onshore RMB-swap PART FOUR Development of the Offshore RMB Market111Figure 4-1 Movement of Hong Kongs Offshore RMB Lending Rate in 2018 (1)Figure 4-2 Movement of Hong Kongs Offshore RMB Lending Rate in 2018 (2)Source: Reuters.Source: Reuters.1- month1-weekOvernight1-year6-month3-month8765

    443、432102018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.11.022018.12.02765432102018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.11.022018.12.02%2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT112prices.

    444、 In the first half year, the price spread of one-year RMB-swap between offshore and onshore markets mainly remained between 100 and 300 PIPS. As the northbound capital under Bond Connect, Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect in August, and onshore foreign exchange ri

    445、sk reserves ratio of forward foreign exchange sales was adjusted, the price spread between offshore and onshore RMB-swap widened, the spread between HIBOR and SHIBOR turned from 0.39% in the first half year to -0.29% in the latter half year, and the spread of 1-month and 3-month rates expanded from

    446、0.10% and 0.14% in the first half year to 0.76% and 0.90% in the latter half year respectively. 2. Exchange RateIn 2018, the exchange rate of offshore RMB saw larger two-way fluctuations and remained generally consistent with the exchange rate of onshore RMB, and the exchange rate of onshore and off

    447、shore RMB slightly narrowed with the depreciation expectation declining in general. In 2018, the exchange rate of offshore RMB performed strongly in the first half year and once appreciated to 6.25, then weakened Figure 4-3 Movement of Hong Kong Offshore RMB Exchange Rate against USD in 2018Source:

    448、Reuters.2018.01.022018.02.022018.03.022018.04.022018.05.022018.06.022018.07.022018.08.022018.09.022018.10.022018.11.022018.12.02USD/CNH: spot rate (LHS)Rate of implies depreciation (RHS)USD/CNY: NDF: 1-year (LHS)0.500.00-0.50-1.00-1.50-2.00-2.50-3.00-3.50-4.007.27.06.86.66.46.26.05.8%PART FOUR Devel

    449、opment of the Offshore RMB Market113in the latter half year and closed at 6.88 at the end of the year. Spot rate depreciated by 5.33% compared with the end of 2017, one-year Non-deliverable Forwards (NDF) depreciated by 3.96% from the beginning of 2018, and the rate of implied depreciation narrowed

    450、from 1.86% in early 2018 to 0.60% at the end of 2018, with a declining deprecation expectation of RMB exchange rate. The exchange rate of offshore RMB fluctuated around that of onshore market, with the number of trading days when the exchange rate of offshore RMB was stronger than the central parity

    451、 rate of the RMB against the USD roughly the same as that when the offshore RMB was weaker. The average exchange rate spread between offshore and onshore RMB of the year was 102 basis points, narrowed by 27 basis points from 2017, and the average daily exchange rate spread was 128 basis points, narr

    452、owed by 13 basis points from 2017. II. Offshore RMB Deposits and Loans According to incomplete statistics, by the end of 2018, the amount of outstanding RMB deposits in major offshore markets exceeded RMB 1.2 trillion yuan (interbank deposits excluded). Among which the amount of outstanding RMB depo

    453、sits in Hong Kong was RMB 615 billion yuan, ranking the first of the world, with a year on year increase of 10%, accounting for 5.4% of the total amount of outstanding deposits in Hong Kong SAR of China and 10.8% of foreign currencies deposits in Hong Kong. The amount of outstanding RMB deposits in

    454、Taiwan, China was nearly RMB 300 billion yuan, ranking the second of the world, with a year on year decrease of 7.4%, accounting for 3.9% of the total deposits of Taiwan and 23.2% of foreign currencies deposits in Taiwan. The amount of outstanding RMB deposits was over RMB 56.2 billion yuan in the U

    455、nited Kingdom and was nearly RMB 50 billion yuan in Singapore, ranking the third and fourth of the world respectively. According to incomplete statistics, by the end of 2018, the amount of outstanding RMB loans in major offshore markets exceeded RMB 381 billion yuan. Compared with 2017, the decline

    456、significantly slowed. Among which the amount of outstanding RMB loans in Singapore was RMB 110.9 billion yuan, exceeding Hong Kong SAR of China and ranking the first of the world; Hong Kong SAR of China ranked the second with the amount of RMB 105.6 billion yuan, and UK ranked the third with the amo

    457、unt of over RMB 49.2 billion yuan.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT114III. Offshore RMB Security FinancingIn 2018, the offshore RMB-denominated bonds market rebounded. According to incomplete statistics, the total issuing scale of RMB-denominated bonds by countries and regions with established RM

    458、B clearing banks amounted to RMB 171.9 billion yuan in 2018, with a year on year increase of 115.6%, among which RMB-denominated bonds issued in Hong Kong amounted to RMB 41.9 billion yuan over the year, increasing by nearly 70% from 2017. As of December 2018, the total balance of outstanding RMB-de

    459、nominated bonds in countries and regions with RMB clearing banks amounted to RMB 415.1 billion yuan, with a year on year decrease of 18.5%; the balance of issued RMB-denominated Certificate of Deposits (CDs) amounted to RMB 106.6 billion yuan, with a year on year increase of 1,211%; and the balance

    460、of issued RMB-denominated funds amounted to RMB 26.2 billion yuan, with a year on year increase of 59.1%. Figure 4-4 Hong Kongs RMB Deposits and Loans during 2017-2018Source: Hong Kong Monetary Authority.RMB loansRMB depositsBillion yuan70060050040030020010002017.022017.032017.042017.052017.062017.0

    461、72017.082017.092017.102017.112017.122018.012018.022018.032018.042018.052018.062018.072018.082018.092018.102018.112018.12PART FOUR Development of the Offshore RMB Market115After the first overseas issuance of RMB-denominated central-bank bills in London in 2015, the PBC issued RMB-denominated central

    462、-bank bills in Hong Kong successively in November 2018 and February 2019.In September 2018, the PBC signed a MOU with Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) to facilitate issuance of central-bank bills in Hong Kong. In November, the PBC issued RMB 20 billion yuan of RMB-denominated central-bank bills b

    463、y HKMAs Central Money Market Unit (CMU) bond tendering platform, among which the three-month and one-year bills accounted for RMB 10 billion yuan respectively and the bid rates were 3.79% and 4.20% respectively. In February 2019, the PBC issued another RMB 20 billion yuan of central-bank bills denom

    464、inated in RMB with the same maturity structure, and the bid rates for three-month and one-year bills stood at 2.45% and 2.80% respectively. The issuance attracted active subscriptions by a large number of investors in the offshore market, ranging from commercial banks, funds, investment banks, secur

    465、ities traders, central banks, and international financial organizations. The bid-to-cover ratio exceeded 6 times for both issuances.Welcome and actively subscribed by offshore market investors, the issuance of RMB-denominated central-bank bills in Hong Kong was in line with the market demand, expand

    466、s the spectrum of RMB investment products with high credit ratings in Hong Kong and diversifies the tools for RMB liquidity management. It was also conducive to improving the yield curve of RMB bonds in Hong Kong and promoting the internationalization of the RMB.Box 9 Issuance of RMB-denominated Cen

    467、tral-bank Bills in Hong KongIV. Global RMB Foreign Exchange TradingIn 2018, RMB foreign exchange trading around the world increased steadily. According to statistics released by Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in April 2016 (released on a triennial basis), RMB ranked eighth among the most a

    468、ctive currencies for global trading, and ranked the first among emerging-market currencies. The average daily trading volume of RMB around the world increased from USD 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT116120 billion in 2013 to USD 202 billion, while the share of RMB trading volume in the global f

    469、oreign exchange market rose from 2% in 2013 to 4%. Growth of RMB trading was mainly from growth of trading of RMB against USD, which accounts for 95% of the total trading amount of RMB against all foreign currencies. The total trading volume of RMB against USD increased from the ninth in 2013 to the

    470、 sixth in the global ranking, and the average daily trading amount increased from USD 113 billion in 2013 to USD 192 billion. According to SWIFT statistics, RMB was one of the most active currencies in global foreign exchange market. At present, RMB foreign exchange trading volumes in the United Kin

    471、gdom, Hong Kong SAR of China, the United States and Singapore rank the top four in the offshore market, accounting for over 80% of the RMB offshore foreign exchange trading in total.In 2018, varieties of offshore RMB-denominated equity investment products were more diversified. Over-the-counter (OTC

    472、) products included spot, forward, swap, currency swap, NDFs, options, futures, ETF and REIT, with active trading and investment. Offshore RMB OTC markets mainly concentrated in Hong Kong SAR of China, Singapore and Taiwan, China, providing futures of RMB against USD and standardized options of RMB

    473、against USD. In 2018, the average daily trading volume of futures of RMB against USD in Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited was 7,135 contracts, a year on year increase of 138%. The average daily trading volume of options of RMB against USD in Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited was 122 co

    474、ntracts, increasing by 125% over 2017. As of December 2018, the turnover of open interest for futures of RMB against USD exceeded 30,000 contracts and for options of RMB against USD reached 5,625 contracts. Average daily trading volumes of futures of all currencies against RMB reached new highs. V.

    475、Offshore RMB ClearingAs of the end of 2018, the clearing amount of offshore RMB clearing banks reached RMB 316.61 trillion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 11%. Among which, the amount of valet clearing was RMB 29.41 trillion yuan with a year on year increase of 8.3%, and the amount of interban

    476、k clearing was RMB 287.2 trillion yuan with a year on year increase of 11.2%. As of the end of 2018, altogether 886 participating banks and other institutions opened clearing accounts in overseas clearing banks, increasing PART FOUR Development of the Offshore RMB Market1173.1% year on year. In 2018

    477、, RMB clearing amount conducted by RTGS reached RMB 241 trillion yuan with a year on year increase of 11.8% in Hong Kong, reaching the highest level in history.United Kingdom. According to SWIFT, London was the largest RMB foreign exchange trading center of the world, the region with the most use of

    478、 RMB other than Hong Kong, as well as one of the most active markets for the issuance and trading of offshore RMB-denominated bonds. RMB foreign exchange trading in London includes spot, forward, swap and options. According to the Bank of England, by the end of December 2018, the volume of RMB forei

    479、gn exchange trading in London accounted for 36.1% of the global total, 6.5 percentage points higher than Hong Kong (ranking second), with the average daily trading volume reaching GBP 76.6 billion. As of the end of 2018, there were 114 undue RMB-denominated Box 10 Development of Major Offshore RMB M

    480、arkets Other than Hong Kong FX spotForwardsFX swapsFX optionsOthersMillion pounds90,00080,00070,00060,00050,00040,00030,00020,00010,00002015Q12015Q22015Q32015Q42016Q12016Q22016Q32016Q42017Q12017Q22017Q32017Q42018Q12018Q22018Q32018Q4Figure 4-5 Average Daliy RMB Foreign Exchange Trading Volume in Lond

    481、on during 2015-2018Source: Bank of England.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT118bonds and the volume reached RMB 33.6 billion yuan in London market. In 2018, the London Stock Exchange newly issued 42 RMB-denominated bonds with a total amount of RMB 12.5 billion yuan, both issuers and issuing amoun

    482、t grew significantly from 2017.Singapore. In 2018, the volume of cross-border RMB settlements between China and Singapore exceeded RMB 1.4 trillion yuan, ranking second, Hong Kong ranked first. According to SWIFT statistics, Singapore was the market with the second most use of RMB other than Hong Ko

    483、ng; it had an active foreign exchange and derivative market, and served as one of the most active markets for the issuance and trading of offshore RMB-denominated bonds. Singapore Exchange (SGX) provided trading of RMB-denominated futures and securities. As of the end of 2018, the volume of RMB-deno

    484、minated foreign exchange futures trading in SGX totaled USD 530 billion. For RMB-denominated securities, SGX provided services of listing, quotation, transaction, clearing and settlement, as well as convenience for investors transaction on RMB, Singapore Dollar and other foreign currencies through t

    485、he dual currency quotation mechanism. As of the end of 2018, Singapore market had in total 87 undue RMB-denominated bonds amounting to RMB 47.6 billion yuan. In 2018, Singapore market newly issued 35 RMB-denominated bonds with a total volume of RMB 20.6 billion yuan.United States. According to SWIFT

    486、 statistics, in 2018, the volume of RMB foreign exchange trading in the USA accounted for 8.5% of the global volume and ranked third of the world after the United Kingdom and Hong Kong SAR of China. In February 2018, the PBC authorized the JP Morgan Chase & Co. as the RMB clearing bank in the USA, t

    487、he first authorized foreign-funded RMB clearing bank.Luxembourg. Luxembourg was playing an increasingly important role in the global RMB investment and financing. According to the Central Bank of Luxembourg, in 2018, RMB-denominated bonds listed in the Luxembourg Stock Exchange (LuxSE) accounted for

    488、 26% of the global and had exceeded Hong Kong to be the largest offshore RMB-denominated bond issuance center of the world. Luxembourg was also PART FOUR Development of the Offshore RMB Market119the largest country for the registration of investment funds to China, over 29% of the investment funds t

    489、o China chose to register in Luxembourg, the management scale of RMB-denominated investment funds exceeded RMB 330 billion yuan, and about 78% of European funds that invested to China were registered in Luxembourg.Germany. In 2018, the volume of cross-border RMB settlements between China and Germany

    490、 approached RMB 663 billion yuan, ranking only next to Hong Kong SAR of China and Singapore. German real enterprises, especially large and medium-sized multinational enterprises which had traded with China, had high acceptance of RMB. They began to hold and invest in RMB products, including intragro

    491、up pricing and settlement in RMB, issuance of Panda Bonds and offshore RMB-denominated bonds, and building of cross-border RMB cash pools, in the earlier times.South Korea. In 2018, the volume of cross-border RMB settlements between China and South Korea exceeded RMB 611.5 billion yuan, ranking next

    492、 to Hong Kong SAR of China, Singapore and Germany. South Korea introduced the interbank RMB/KRW direct trading market at the end of 2014; in 2018, the average daily volume (unilateral) of the Seoul direct trading market was 2,300 transactions with the turnover of about RMB 12 billion yuan. Foreign e

    493、xchange trading products in South Korea include spot, forward, swap and futures. The Korea Exchange (KRX) provides services of listing, quotation, transaction, clearing and settlement for RMB-denominated securities, as well as convenience for investors transaction of RMB, KRW and other foreign curre

    494、ncies through the dual currency quotation mechanism. United Arab Emirates. Since the establishment of RMB clearing mechanism arrangements in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2016, the amount of RMB business in the UAE increased rapidly with a year on year growth rate of 144%. According to SWIFT sta

    495、tistics, the amount of RMB business in the UAE in 2018 totaled RMB 747.7 billion yuan, ranking the first among all Arab countries and accounting for 58% of the total. At present, central banks of China and the UAE had established a full range of cooperation including RQFII pilots, bilateral local cu

    496、rrency swap agreements, establishment of local RMB clearing mechanism 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT120arrangements, and direct trading of currencies of the two countries. To further expand RMB business in local and the Middle East, the Central Bank of the UAE held a specialized forum on RMB i

    497、n Abu Dhabi, capital of the country, in December 2018, together with the local RMB clearing bank, and the forum received good responses.PART FIVE Economic and Financial Status of Major Economies in the World121PART FIVE Economic and Financial Status of Major Economies in the WorldIn 2018 the global

    498、economy continued to grow but at a slower pace as growth turned to be less synchronized. The growth of global trade slowed down, the international direct investment decreased, and the global financial market volatility heightened. Growth rate of most economies in the world fell down, except a few of

    499、 economies such as the US. According to the World Economic Outlook issued by IMF in April 2019, the world economy grew by 3.6% in 2018, 0.2 percentage point lower than 2017, with the developed countries growing by 2.2% and the emerging market and developing countries growing by 4.5%. Major developed

    500、 economies continued to push forward monetary policy normalization process, while most emerging market economies tightened their monetary policies following the US or kept a stance of neutral monetary policy. I. United StatesIn 2018, the US experienced relatively strong economic growth, with a highe

    501、r inflation rate than 2017 and a falling unemployment rate from a low level. The consumer spending grew more quickly. The US economy grew by 2.9% in 2018, with an increase of 0.7 percentage point from 2017. Monetary policy normalization continued, with the raising of target range of the federal fund

    502、s rate and the on-going reduction of federal reserve balance sheet. Under the influence of the federal reserve rate hike and other factors, LIBOR for USD rose modestly, with 1-year LIBOR at 3.0054% as of the end of December 2018. The global financing cost and liquidity of the USD were tightened. The

    503、 USD index closed at 96.17 at the end of 2018, with a year-on-year increase of 4.4%. Based on the latest data released by IMF, the global official foreign reserve assets were USD 10.73 trillion as of the end of the fourth quarter of 2018, of which the USD assets accounted for 61.7%, declining for 3

    504、consecutive quarters. 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT122II. Euro ZoneIn 2018, Euro zone economic growth slowed, the overall consumer price rose, the core inflation remained relatively stable, and the unemployment rate continued to fall. Its export growth rate declined and business optimism weak

    505、ened. Euro zone economy grew by 1.8%, 0.6 percentage point less than 2017. The European Central Bank (ECB) maintained the interest rates on the main refinancing operations, the marginal lending facility and the deposit facility unchanged, and kept the asset purchase amount unchanged, too. Under the

    506、influence of factors such as the expectation that the ECB would tighten the monetary policy, EURIBOR rose modestly, with 1-year EURIBOR at the level of -0.117% as of the end of December 2018. The exchange rate of EURO against USD closed at 1.1469 dollars per euro at the end of 2018, depreciating 4.3

    507、9% year on year. According to the latest data released by IMF, as of the end of Q4 of 2018, the EURO accounted for 20.7% of the global official foreign reserve assets, which was the highest level since the fourth quarter of 2014. III. JapanThe Japanese economic fluctuation was aggravated in 2018, wi

    508、th low inflation expectations, nearly full employment in labor market, and inadequate impetus for enterprises to increase wages. The Japanese economy grew by 0.8% in 2018, 1.1 percentage points lower than 2017. The Bank of Japan continued to implement quantitative and qualitative monetary easing und

    509、er the yield curve control, and maintained unchanged both the excess reserve ratio and the asset purchase amount. At the end of 2018, the exchange rate of JPY against USD closed at 109.56 yen per dollar, appreciating 2.84% year on year. Based on the latest data released by IMF, as of the end of Q4 o

    510、f 2018, the JPY assets accounted for 5.2% of the global official foreign reserve assets. IV. United KingdomThe economy of the United Kingdom grew at a low rate in 2018, with inflation falling, labor market tightening and the employment rate rising to a record high. The UKs economy grew by 1.4% in 20

    511、18, 0.4 percentage point less than 2017. The Bank of England hiked the benchmark interest rate and maintained the asset purchase amount unchanged. The exchange rate of GBP against USD closed at 1.2757 dollars per pound PART FIVE Economic and Financial Status of Major Economies in the World123at the

    512、end of 2018, depreciating 5.59% year on year. According to the latest data released by IMF, as of the end of Q4 of 2018, the pound assets accounted for 4.4% of the global official foreign reserve assets. V. Emerging MarketsIn 2018, the economic performance of emerging market economies continued to b

    513、e diversified. Some of them experienced both slower economic growth and high inflation at the same time, with intensified shocks to their foreign exchange markets, stock markets and bond markets. And massive capital outflows re-emerged. India maintained relatively quick economic growth in 2018, with

    514、 a year-on-year growth rate of 8.2% in the second quarter and a slower growth rate of 6.6% in the fourth quarter. The Brazilian economic development impetus recovered with a economic growth rate of 1.1% for the whole year. Russian economy began to stabilize with the recovery of prices of commodities

    515、 such as oil, with inflation under control and financial market in fluctuation. Russian economy grew by 2.3% in 2018. The economy of South Africa showed slight improvement in the third quarter, while its unemployment rate was still high. The GDP of Argentina contracted continuously with the impact o

    516、f financial market turmoil. The economic status of Turkey worsened remarkably due to the economic sanction and monetary crisis. Under the tightening of global financial conditions and depreciation of local currencies, central banks from many countries, such as India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Turk

    517、ey, Argentina, Russia, and Mexico, hiked rates following the Federal Reserve or kept the stance of monetary policy toward neutrality. The Argentine Peso, the Turkish Lira, the Brazilian Real and the Indian Rupee depreciated 50.6%, 28.3%, 14.7% and 8.2% respectively against the USD. In 2018, the Russ

    518、ian Ruble lost 17.3% against the USD and the Mexican Peso against the USD at the end of 2018 stayed basically the same as the beginning of 2018. Box 11 More Countries Promulgated Policies for Settlement in RMBIn January 2018, The State Bank of Pakistan announced to include RMB in the currency basket

    519、 usable in trade settlement, besides the currencies of G7 nations. It specified that both public and private sectors could use RMB in bilateral trade and investment between China and Pakistan, and designated RMB as the currency that could be used for forward hedge. This measure promoted many local b

    520、anks to seek to start RMB business. 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT124In April 2018, the PBC and the Central Bank of Nigeria signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement. The Central Bank of Nigeria allowed Nigerian importers to settle payments in RMB when importing Chinese goods such as ma

    521、chineries, and provided RMB liquidity to local commercial banks by purchasing and selling regularly to satisfy the demand for RMB in local market. For the above purpose, the Central Bank of Nigeria specially formulated Regulations for Transactions with Authorized Dealers in RMB, making detailed stip

    522、ulation regarding the eligibility for purchasing and selling, the mode of payment, and the intervention conducted by the Central Bank of Nigeria in the use of RMB. In August 2018, the State Bank of Vietnam promulgated the Guidelines on Management of Foreign Exchange for Border Trade between Vietnam

    523、and China, which had come into effect since October 2018. The Guidelines specifies that RMB can be used in the settlement for border trade between China and Vietnam, and expands the pilot area from 20 kilometers along the borderline to seven border provinces. In the light of the Guidelines, Vietname

    524、se enterprises and individuals engaging in border trade can open RMB accounts, and banks in the border area can open RMB interbank accounts to carry out RMB settlement for the trade. As per the Guidelines banks outside the border area can authorize Vietnamese banks in border area as agent banks to c

    525、onduct RMB settlement for their border trade. In January 2019, the Central Bank of Myanmar issued new foreign exchange policies, permitting banks with foreign exchange trading license to make international settlement in RMB. Banks engaged in foreign exchange trading can open RMB interbank accounts.

    526、RMB remittance for trade and investment can be converted into kyat in banks, and clients can also convert kyat into RMB through banks for overseas payment. PART SIX Outlook125PART SIX OutlookRMB internationalization was determined by market force, and a natural process. Just as a Chinese saying goes

    527、, when water flows, a channel was formed. In the past decade, the function of RMB internationalization was mainly reflected in international payment and settlement, and the way forward would be to make RMB a freely usable currency. First, the PBC would insist on the principle of market-orientation,

    528、constantly remove restrictions on the cross-border use of RMB, and explore ways to promote a higher level of the pilot program to facilitate trade and investment. Second, the PBC would continuously promote the two-way opening up of domestic financial market, and further facilitate foreign investors

    529、to use RMB to invest in domestic bonds and stocks. Third, the PBC would guide a healthy development of RMB offshore market, increase the degree of free use of RMB, and promote a constructive interactions and deep integration between the offshore and onshore markets. Fourth, the PBC would improve mac

    530、ro-prudential management and deliver a good work on counter-cyclical adjustments to prevent cross-border capital flow risks.I. RMBs Function as a Payment Currency Would be StrengthenedAs the scale of Chinas foreign trade and investment continued to expand, the policy of RMB cross-border use covered

    531、all aspect, and various reforms continued to advance, there would be more market entities accepting RMB as payment and settlement currency. The initiative of “the Belt and Road” had been gradually implemented, which would lead to more use of RMB in countries along the Belt and Road. As the barriers

    532、on the use of RMB in more countries were gradually removed, cross-border RMB settlement was expected to continue to grow steadily. The Free Trade Zone and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area would become new source for the growth of RMB cross-border payment.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION R

    533、EPORT126II. RMBs Function as an Investment and Financing Currency Would be DeepenedWith the increasing width and depth of the two-way opening-up of Chinas financial market, the continuous improvement of Shanghai & Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect, Bond Connect and other investment channels in the do

    534、mestic financial market, the orderly progress of the financial market inter-connection in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, and the inclusion of Chinese bonds into internationally important indexes, there would be a rapid growth for foreign entities to participate in domestic financial mar

    535、kets.III. RMBs Function as a Reserve Currency Would be RealizedAfter RMBs inclusion into the SDR, the role of RMB had been rising. With the further deepening of Chinas currency cooperation with the foreign world, the continuously expanding of channels for foreign central banks and similar institutio

    536、ns investing in Chinas financial markets, and the constantly enhancing of the agency service of the PBC and domestic financial institutions, the willingness to hold the RMB as a reserve currency by foreign central banks and monetary authorities would obviously increase.IV. RMBs Function as a Pricing

    537、 Currency Would See More DevelopmentThe pricing function of RMB in governments foreign-related statistics, calculation and management had been further enhanced. The role of domestic futures prices as a pricing benchmark for trading of bulk commodities such as oil and iron ore had initially emerged.

    538、The increasingly matured futures market had been gradually introduced to foreign traders, RMBs function as a pricing currency would see more development.V. The Bilateral Monetary Cooperation Would be PromotedThe PBC would continue to steadily advance the cooperation with central banks and monetary a

    539、uthorities in other countries and regions, optimize the framework of monetary cooperation, promote global mainstream financial institutions to provide more RMB products and services, and continue to make the bilateral monetary cooperation play an active role in facilitating bilateral trade and inves

    540、tment and maintaining financial stability.PART SIX Outlook127In 2018, Bank of China conducted a market survey among 3,274 domestic and foreign industrial and commercial enterprises and 94 financial institutions in major countries and regions using RMB, with the following main findings:First, the dom

    541、estic and foreign entities continued to have positive anticipation on the international use of RMB. About 77% of domestic and overseas respondents, which was 1 percentage point higher than 2017, anticipated that the international monetary status of RMB would approach to the international currencies

    542、of USD, EUR, JPY and GBP. Furthermore, a new record high of 50% of respondents anticipated that RMB would be on a par with international currencies such as USD and EUR. Over 30% of foreign financial institution respondents held the viewpoint that the status of RMB as one of the international currenc

    543、ies would approach to JPY and GBP, and over 30% of foreign financial institution respondents thought that the status of RMB as one of the international currencies would approach to USD and EUR, and thus the proportion of foreign financial institution respondents optimistic about the international st

    544、atus of RMB amounted to over 60%.Box 12 Annual Market Survey on RMB International Usage Figure 6-1 Anticipation of Domestic and Foreign Enterprises on the International Role of RMBClose to GBP & JPYClose to USD & EUR%9080706050403020100201320142015201620172018312941234429423047295027Source: PBC.2019

    545、 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT128Second, foreign financial institutions had gradually expanded their own RMB related services from the fundamental products such as cross-border settlement, clearing, spot exchange to the fields of RMB loans, bond investments and derivatives. The survey showed that

    546、45% of foreign financial institution respondents, which was 12 percent points higher than 2017, were able to provide three or more cross-border RMB products or services.Figure 6-2 Anticipation of Foreign Financial Institutions on the International Role of RMBThird, more than 70% of domestic enterpri

    547、se respondents responded that their foreign counterparties accepted the contracts priced and settled in RMB. The research results revealed that 18% of them, which remained steady in recent three years, responded that they could still persuade their foreign counterparties to accept RMB as the pricing

    548、 currency even in the situation of exchange rate volatility. They thought that the main restrictions to the pricing function of RMB were the insufficient competence of bargaining for domestic enterprises, the shortage of source of overseas RMB and the relatively limited channels for RMB investments.

    549、Close to USD & EURClose to GBP & JPYInferior to GBP & JPYHard to evaluate34%21%12%33%PART SIX Outlook129%454035302520151050Accept smoothly344081720172018%50403020100432420151563102234123456 & more than 652Figure 6-3 RMB Products and Services Provided by Foreign Financial InstitutionsFigure 6-4 Accep

    550、tance of RMB by Foreign Trade Counterparties of Domestic EnterprisesSource: PBC.Source: PBC.Accept by negotiationNot concernNot accept 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT130Figure 6-5 Proportion of Domestic Enterprises Sticking to RMB Pricing in the Situation of FX VolatilityFigure 6-6 Proportion o

    551、f Foreign Enterprises and Financial Institutions Considering RMB as a Financing Currency%201816141210864202013201420152016201720181918181632Source: PBC.20172018%8070605040302010073766162Foreign enterprisesForeign financial institutionsSource: PBC.PART SIX Outlook131Fourth, in the difficulty of acces

    552、sing to financing in USD and other international currencies due to the change of market situation, 76% of foreign enterprise respondents and 62% of foreign financial institution respondents expressed their willingness to consider RMB as the financing currency, both of which were higher than 2017. Fi

    553、fth, foreign financial institutions were more inclined to RMB assets allocation than enterprises. The survey showed that about 77% of foreign enterprise respondents exchanged the RMB they received into local currencies, and around 14% of them held RMB in the form of deposit for certain purposes such

    554、 as paying for trade, and 9% of them invested in bonds or shares and other financial products. The survey also showed that about 43% of foreign financial institution respondents considered to increase the weight of RMB assets in their portfolios, which was 5 percentage points higher than 2017. Among

    555、 the financial institution respondents planning to increase the weight of RMB in their assets, 69% said that they would invest in RMB bond assets, which was 9 percentage points higher than 2017. In terms of the types of bond investments, about 75% of foreign financial institution respondents were pl

    556、anning to increase the weight of Chinese government bonds. Compared with the bonds issued by developed countries such as the US, European countries and Japan, Chinese government bonds featured with more safety, more liquidity, and with higher yield. Chinese government bonds became the first choice w

    557、hen the foreign financial institutions invested in Chinese mainland bond market. In terms of the maturity structure, the foreign financial institution respondents preferred the short-term bonds with maturity less than three years. The respondents planning to invest in bonds with maturity less than o

    558、ne year and from 1 to 3 years both accounted for 28%, while the respondents planning to invest in bonds with maturity from three to five years and more than five years accounted for 14% and 7% respectively.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT13220172018%90807060504030201007713108212578149Exchanging

    559、to local currenciesHolding inform of RMB depositInvesting in RMB assets2016Figure 6-7 Trading Behaviors of Foreign Enterprises When Receiving RMBFigure 6-8 Proportion of Foreign Financial Institutions Planning to Increase RMB Financial AssetsSource: PBC.20172018%8070605040302010029112656069Other typ

    560、e of assetsShares & equity assetsBonds assetsSource: PBC.PART SIX Outlook133Figure 6-9 The Foreign Financial Institutions Investment Preference as to the Type of RMB BondFigure 6-10 The Foreign Financial Institutions Investment Preference as to the Maturity of RMB Bond%302520151050Bonds with unspeci

    561、fic duration282814723%80706050403020100Corporate bondsFinancialbondsBonds of unspecific typesGovernment bonds752140Source: PBC.Source: PBC.More than 5 yearsLess than 1 year3 to 5 years1 to 3 years2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT134PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization 2009On January

    562、20, The PBC and the Monetary Authority of Hong Kong (HKMA) signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/HKD 227 billion.On February 8, The PBC and the Bank Negara Malaysia signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 80 billion yuan/MYR 40 billion.On March 11,

    563、The PBC and the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 20 billion yuan/BYR 8 trillion.On March 23, The PBC and Bank Indonesia signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 100 billion yuan/IDR 175 trillion.On April 2, The PBC and th

    564、e Central Bank of Argentina signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 70 billion yuan/ARS 38 billion.On April 20, The PBC and the Bank of Korea signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 180 billion yuan/KRW 38 trillion.On June 29, The PBC and the HKMA signed the Supplemen

    565、tary Memorandum III of Cooperation on the Pilot Program of RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions between Mainland and Hong Kong.On July 1, Upon the approval of the State Council, the PBC, Ministry of Finance (MOF), Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM), General Administration of Customs (GAC), P

    566、ART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization135State Administration of Taxation (SAT) and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the Administrative Rules on the Pilot Program of RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions. (PBC, MOF, MOFCOM, GAC, SAT, CBRC Public Announc

    567、ement2009No.10)On July 3, The PBC and the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Ltd. signed the revised RMB Clearing Agreement, to support pilot program of RMB settlement of cross-border trade transactions.On July 3, The PBC issued the Regulations for Implementing the Administrative Rules of the Pilot Program o

    568、f RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions. (PBC Document 2009No.212)On July 6, The first transaction of RMB cross-border trade settlement was conducted in Shanghai. And the RMB Cross-border Payment Information Management System (RCPMIS) was put into operation.On July 7, The pilot program o

    569、f RMB settlement of cross-border trade transactions was launched in four cities of Guangdong.On July 14, The PBC, MOF, MOFCOM, GAC, SAT and CBRC jointly issued the notice to the Shanghai municipal government and Guangdong provincial government the approval of Enterprises list for the Pilot Program o

    570、f RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions. (PBC General Administration Reply letter2009No.472) The first batch of 365 enterprises was officially approved to conduct RMB Settlement of export transactions.On September 10, The PBC and the SAT signed the Memorandum on data and information tran

    571、smission on the RMB settlement of cross-border trade transactions.On September 15, The MOF issued the first sovereign RMB-denominated bond in Hong Kong with the amount of RMB 6 billion yuan.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT136On December 22, The PBC issued Questions & Answers on relevant policies

    572、 of the pilot program of RMB settlement of cross-border trade transactions. 2010On February 11, The HKMA issued Elucidation of Supervisory Principles and Operational Arrangements Regarding the RMB Business in Hong Kong.On March 8, The PBC issued the Interim Administrative Rules for the RMB Cross-bor

    573、der Payment Management Information System. (PBC Document2010No.79)On March 19, The PBC and the GAC signed the Memorandum of Cooperation on the RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions.On March 24, The PBC and the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus signed a bilateral local currency set

    574、tlement arrangement.On June 9, The PBC and the Central bank of Iceland signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 3.5 billion yuan/ISK 66 billion.On June 17, The PBC, MOF, MOFCOM, GAC, SAT and CBRC jointly issued the Notice on Expanding the Pilot Program of RMB Settlement of Cross-borde

    575、r Trade Transactions, to expand the scope of the pilot program. (PBC Document2010No.186) On July 19, The PBC and the HKMA signed the Supplementary Memorandum IV of Co-operation on the Pilot Program of RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions. The PBC and BOC (Hong Kong) Ltd. signed the revi

    576、sed RMB Clearing Agreement.On July 23, The PBC and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 150 billion yuan/SGD 30 billion.On August 17, The PBC issued the Notice Concerning the Pilot Program on Investment in the Interbank Bond Market with RM

    577、B Funds by Three Types of Institutions Including PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization137Overseas RMB Clearing Banks. (PBC Document2010No.217)On August 19, With the authorization of the PBC, China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode of R

    578、MB against Malaysian ringgit and launch direct trading between the two currencies in the interbank foreign-exchange market. On August 31, The PBC issued the Administrative Rules for RMB Bank Settlement Accounts of Overseas Institutions. (PBC Document2010No.249)On November 22, With the authorization

    579、of the PBC, China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode of yuan against Russian ruble and launch direct trading between the two currencies in interbank foreign-exchange market. 2011On January 6, The PBC issued the Administrative Rules for the Pilot Pr

    580、ogram of Settlement for RMB-denominated Outward Direct Investment. (PBC Public Announcement2011No.1), allowing banking institutions and enterprises in the pilot areas to conduct the RMB settlement of foreign direct investment transactions, and banking institutions to grant loans to overseas projects

    581、 based on relative regulations.On April 18, The PBC and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 25 billion yuan/NZD 5 billion.On April 19, The PBC and the Central Bank of Republic of Uzbekistan signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 70

    582、0 million yuan/UZS 167 billion.On May 6, The PBC and the Bank of Mongolia signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 5 billion yuan/MNT 1 trillion.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT138On June 3, The PBC issued the Notice on Specifying the Issues Relating to Cross-border RMB Business.

    583、(PBC Document2011No.145)On June 9, Fudian Bank of Kunming and the Public Bank of Laos jointly launched the over-the-counter trading between RMB and LAK.On June 13, The PBC and the National Bank of Kazakhstan signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 7 billion yuan/KZT 150 billion.On Ju

    584、ne 23, The PBC and the Central Bank of Russian Federation renewed the agreement on Payment and Settlement, which extended the coverage of local currency settlement from transactions in the border areas to general trade transactions between the two countries. On June 28, ICBC Guangxi Branch launched

    585、the trading of RMB against Vietnamese Dong, while BOC Xinjiang Branch launched the trading of RMB against Kazakhstan Tenge on the same day. On June 30, Bank of Communications Qingdao Branch and Industrial Bank of Korea Qingdao Branch launched the over-the-counter (OTC) trading of RMB against Korea w

    586、on.On July 27, The PBC, MOF, MOFCOM, GAC, SAT and CBRC jointly issued the Circular on Geographical Expansion of the RMB Settlement of Cross-border Trade Transactions. (PBC Document2011No.203) It expanded the program to the entire mainland China. On October 13, The PBC issued the Administrative Rules

    587、 on Settlement of RMB-denominated Foreign Direct Investment. (PBC Public Announcement2011No.23)On October 24, The PBC issued the Guidelines on RMB Loans of Domestic Banking Institutions for Overseas Projects. (PBC Document2011No.255)PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization139On October 26,

    588、PBC and the Bank of Korea renewed the bilateral local currency swap arrangement, increasing its size from RMB 180 billion yuan/KRW 38 trillion to RMB 360 billion yuan/KRW 64 trillion.On November 4, According to the principles and standards for RMB clearing bank in Hong Kong set by PBC Public Announc

    589、ement2003No.16, the PBC authorized BOC (Hong Kong) Ltd. to resume the role of the RMB clearing bank in Hong Kong. (PBC Public Announcement2011No.25)On November 22, The PBC and HKMA renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement, increasing its size from RMB 200 billion yuan/HKD 227 billion to R

    590、MB 400 billion yuan/HKD 490 billion.On December 16, The CSRC, PBC and SAFE jointly issued the Measures on the Pilot Program for RQFII-licensed Fund Management Companies and Securities Companies Domestic Securities Investments. (CSRC Decree No.76)On December 22, The PBC and the Bank of Thailand signe

    591、d a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 70 billion yuan/THB 320 billion. On December 23, The PBC and the State Bank of Pakistan signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 10 billion yuan/PKR 140 billion. On December 29, The direct trading of RMB against THB in the local inter

    592、bank foreign-exchange market was launched in Yunnan Province, which was the first case of direct trading of RMB against regional currencies.On December 31, The PBC issued the Notice on the Implementation of the Measures for the Pilot Program Allowing Fund Management Companies and Securities Companie

    593、s Approved as RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (RQFII) to Invest in the Domestic Securities Market. (PBC Document2011No.321)2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT140 2012On January 17, The PBC and the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates signed a bilateral local currency swap agreemen

    594、t of RMB 35 billion yuan/AED 20 billion. On February 6, The PBC, MOF, MOFCOM, GAC, SAT and CBRC jointly issued the Notice on Issues Concerning RMB Settlement of Goods Export by Domestic Enterprises. (PBC Document2012No.23)On February 8, The PBC and the Bank Negara Malaysia renewed the bilateral loca

    595、l currency swap agreement, increasing its size from RMB 80 billion yuan/MYR 40 billion to RMB 180 billion yuan/MYR 90 billion. On February 21, The PBC and the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey signed a bilateral currency swap agreement of RMB 10 billion/TRY 3 billion. On March 20, The PBC and t

    596、he Bank of Mongolia signed a supplemental bilateral local currency swap agreement, increasing its size from RMB 5 billion yuan/MNT 1 trillion to RMB 10 billion yuan/MNT 2 trillion.On March 22, The PBC and the Reserve Bank of Australia signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billi

    597、on yuan/AUD 30 billion. On April 3, With the approval of the State Council, the RQFII quota for Hong Kong was increased by RMB 50 billion yuan. On June 1, With the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB a

    598、gainst JPY and launch the direct trading between the two currencies in the Chinese interbank foreign-exchange market.On June 26, The PBC and the National Bank of Ukraine signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 15 billion yuan/UAH 19 billion. PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB International

    599、ization141On June 29, The PBC issued the Circular of Specifying the Operational Rules for RMB Settlement in Foreign Direct Investments. (PBC Document2012No.165)On July 31, The PBC issued the Notice on the Issues Concerning the Opening and Using of RMB Settlement Account by Overseas Institutions. (PB

    600、C Document2012No.183)On August 31, The PBC and the monetary authority of Taiwan signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Currency Clearing Cooperation across the Taiwan Straits.On September 24, The PBC and BOC Macau Branch renewed the RMB Clearing Agreement. On November 13, With the approval of

    601、 the State Council, the pilot quota for RQFII in Hong Kong was increased by RMB 200 billion yuan. On December 11, The PBC authorized BOC Taipei Branch to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Taiwan. 2013On January 25, The PBC and Taipei Branch of BOC signed the RMB Clearing Agreement.On February 8, The

    602、 PBC authorized the Singapore Branch of ICBC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Singapore, and the two parties signed the RMB Clearing Agreement in April.On March 1, The CSRC, PBC and SAFE jointly issued the Measures on the Pilot Program of Securities Investment in China by RMB Qualified Foreign I

    603、nstitutional Investors. (CSRC Decree No.90)On March 7, The PBC and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 300 billion yuan/SGD 60 billion.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT142On March 13, The PBC issued the Notice on the Issues Regardin

    604、g Investment in the Interbank Bond Market by Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors. (PBC Document2013No.69)On March 26, The PBC and the Central Bank of Brazil signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 190 billion yuan/BRL 60 billion.On April 10, With the authorization of the PBC, t

    605、he China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB against Australian dollar and launch direct trading between the two currencies in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On April 25, The PBC issued the Notice on the Issues Concerning the Impl

    606、ementation of the Measures for the Pilot Program of Securities Investment in China by RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors. (PBC Document2013No.105)On June 21, The Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement (the Agreement) was signed by both sides of the Taiwan Strait. According to the Agreement,

    607、 Taiwan-funded financial institutions would be allowed to invest in Mainland capital market with an investment quota of RMB 100 billion yuan.On June 22, The PBC and the Bank of England signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/GBP 20 billion.On July 9, The PBC issued t

    608、he Notice on Simplifying the Procedures for Cross-border RMB Services and Improving Relevant Policies. (PBC Document2013No.168)On August 23, The General Administration Department of the PBC issued the Notice on Improving the Information Reporting Procedures of the RMB Cross-border Payment Management

    609、 Information System (RCPMIS). (PBC General Administration Department Document2013No.188)On September 9, The PBC and the Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Hungarian National Bank) PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization143signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 10 billion yuan/HUF 375 bi

    610、llion .On September 11, The PBC and the Central Bank of Iceland renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 3.5 billion yuan/ISK 66 billion. On September 12, The PBC and the Bank of Albania signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 2 billion yuan/ALL 35.8 billion. On Sep

    611、tember 23, The PBC issued the Notice on the Issues Concerning the RMB Settlement for Investment in Domestic Financial Institutions by Overseas Investors. (PBC Document2013No.225)On October 1, The PBC and Bank of Indonesia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 100 billion yuan/ID

    612、R 175 trillion. On October 8, The PBC and the European Central Bank signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 350 billion yuan/EUR 45 billion. On October 15, At the 5th China-UK Economic and Financial Dialogues, China announced the RQFII program for UK with the quota of RMB 80 billion

    613、yuan.On October 22, At the 10th meeting of the Sino-Singapore Joint Council for Bilateral Cooperation, China announced the RQFII program for Singapore with the quota of RMB 50 billion yuan.On December 31, The PBC released the Notice on Adjusting the Administration of RMB Sales and Purchases. (PBC Do

    614、cument2013No.321) 2014On March 14, The PBC, MOF, MOFCOM, GAC, SAT and CBRC jointly issued the Notice on Simplifying the Procedures Concerning the RMB Settlement of Goods Export by Domestic Enterprises. (PBC Document2014No.80)2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT144On March 19, With the authorization

    615、of PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB and New Zealand dollar and launch direct exchange between the two currencies in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On March 26, China and France jointly announced that China would

    616、extend its RQFII program to France with the quota of RMB 80 billion yuan.On March 28, The PBC and Deutsche Bundesbank signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Frankfurt. On March 31, The PBC and Bank of England signed the Memorandum of Understanding on esta

    617、blishing RMB clearing arrangements in London. On April 25, The PBC and Reserve Bank of New Zealand renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 25 billion yuan/NZD 5 billion. On June 11, The PBC issued the Guidelines on Implementation of Opinions of the State Council General Office on

    618、Supporting the Stable Growth of Foreign Trade. (PBC Document 2014No.168)On June 17, The PBC authorized China Construction Bank (London) Ltd. to serve as the RMB clearing bank in London.On June 18, The PBC authorized the Frankfurt Branch of BOC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Frankfurt.On June 1

    619、9, With the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB and GBP and launch direct exchange between the two currencies in the interbank foreign-exchange market.PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization1

    620、45On June 28, The PBC and the central bank of France signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Paris. The PBC and Central Bank of Luxembourg signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Luxembourg.On July 3, The PBC and

    621、 Bank of Korea signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Seoul. China declared to grant the Republic of Korea an RQFII investment quota of RMB 80 billion yuan. On July 4, The PBC authorized the Seoul Branch of Bank of Communications to serve as the RMB clear

    622、ing bank in Seoul.On July 7, During German Chancellor Merkels visit to China, Premier Li Keqiang announced that China would extend its RQFII program to Germany, with the quota of RMB 80 billion yuan.On July 18, The PBC and the Central Bank of Argentina renewed the bilateral local currency swap agree

    623、ment of RMB 70 billion yuan/ARS 90 billion.On July 21, The PBC and Swiss National Bank signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 150 billion yuan/CHF 21 billion. On August 21, The PBC and Bank of Mongolia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 15 billion yuan/MNT 4.

    624、5 trillion.On September 5, The PBC authorized the Paris Branch of BOC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Paris, and the Luxembourg Branch of ICBC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Luxembourg. On September 16, The PBC and the Central Bank of Sri Lanka signed a bilateral local currency swap agree

    625、ment of RMB 10 billion yuan/LKR 225 billion. 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT146On September 28, The PBC issued the Notice on Cross-border RMB Settlement of RMB-denominated Debt Financing Instruments issued by Overseas Institutions in China. (PBC General Administration Document2014No.221)On Sept

    626、ember 30, With the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB and Euro and launch direct trading between the two currencies on the interbank foreign-exchange market.On October 11, The PBC and Bank of Korea re

    627、newed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 360 billion yuan/KRW 64 trillion.On October 13, The PBC and the Central Bank of Russia signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 150 billion yuan/RUB 815 billion. On November 1, The PBC issued the Notice Concerning Centralized Cr

    628、oss-border RMB Fund Operation Conducted by Multinational Corporations. (PBC Document2014No.324)On November 3, The PBC and Qatar Central Bank signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Doha, and signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 35 billio

    629、n yuan/QAR 20.8 billion. China announced the RQFII program for Qatar with a quota of RMB 30 billion yuan. On November 4, the PBC authorized the Doha Branch of ICBC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Doha. On November 4, The PBC and CSRC jointly issued the Notice on the Pilot Program of the Shangha

    630、i-Hong Kong Stock Connecting Scheme. (PBC Document2014No.336)On November 5, The PBC issued the Notice on the Issues Concerning the Overseas Securities Investment by RMB Qualified Domestic Institutional Investors. (PBC Document 2014No.331)PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization147On Novembe

    631、r 8, The PBC and Bank of Canada signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Canada, and signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/CAD 30 billion. China announced the RQFII program for Canada with a quota of RMB 50 billion yuan. O

    632、n November 9, the PBC authorized ICBC (Canada) Ltd. to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Toronto. On November 10, The PBC and Central Bank of Malaysia signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing the RMB clearing arrangements in Kuala Lumpur. On November 17, The PBC and Reserve Bank of Aus

    633、tralia signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Australia. China declared to grant Australia an RQFII investment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan. On November 18, the PBC authorized the Sydney Branch of BOC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Sydney. On Novemb

    634、er 22, The PBC and HKMA renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 400 billion yuan/HKD 505 billion. On December 14, The PBC and the National Bank of Kazakhstan renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 7 billion yuan/KZT 200 billion. On December 15, with the authori

    635、zation of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would launch direct trading between RMB and KZT in the local interbank foreign-exchange market. On December 22, The PBC and Bank of Thailand signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrang

    636、ements in Thailand. PBC and Bank of Thailand renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 70 billion yuan/THB 370 billion. On December 23, The PBC and State Bank of Pakistan renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 10 billion yuan/PKR 165 billion.2019 RMB INTERNATIONA

    637、LIZATION REPORT148 2015On January 5, The PBC authorized BOC (Malaysia) Ltd. and ICBC(Thailand) Ltd. to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok respectively.On January 21, The PBC and Swiss National Bank signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangemen

    638、ts in Switzerland, granting Switzerland an RQFII investment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan.On March 18, The PBC and the Central Bank of Suriname signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 1 billion yuan/SRD 520 million.On March 25, The PBC and the Central Bank of Armenia signed a bilatera

    639、l local currency swap agreement of RMB 1 billion yuan/AMD 77 billion.On March 30, The PBC and the Reserve Bank of Australia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/AUD 40 billion. On April 10, The PBC and the South African Reserve Bank signed a bilateral local cur

    640、rency swap agreement of RMB 30 billion yuan/ZAR 54 billion.On April 17, The PBC and the Bank Negara Malaysia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 180 billion yuan/MYR 90 billion.On April 29, The pilot area of RQFII was expanded to Luxembourg with an investment quota of RMB 50 b

    641、illion yuan.On May 10, The PBC and the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 7 billion yuan/ BYR 16 trillion. On May 15, The PBC and the National Bank of Ukraine renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 15 billion yuan/U

    642、AH 54 billion.PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization149On May 25, The PBC and the Central Bank of Chile signed a Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in Chile and a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 22 billion yuan/CLP 2.2 trillion. China decl

    643、ared to grant Chile an RQFII investment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan. On the same day, the PBC authorized the China Construction Banks Chile Branch to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Chile. On June 1, The PBC issued the Notice of the Peoples Bank of China on Issues Concerning the Repo Operation of

    644、 Foreign RMB Clearing Banks and Foreign RMB Participant Banks in the Interbank bond Market. (PBC Document2015No.170) On June 11, The PBC released RMB Internationalization Report (2015). On June 27, The PBC and the Central Bank of Hungary signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB cle

    645、aring arrangements in Hungary and the Agency Agreement of Investment for the PBC to Manage the MNBs Investment in China Interbank Bond Market. On the same day, the two parties also agreed to include Hungary in the pilot RQFII program with an investment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan. On June 28, The P

    646、BC authorized Hungary branch of BOC to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Hungary.On July 7, The PBC and the South African Reserve Bank signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in South Africa. On July 8, the PBC authorized the Johannesburg Branch of BOC to ser

    647、ve as the RMB clearing bank in South Africa. On July 14, The PBC issued the Notice of the Peoples bank of China on Issues Concerning Investment of Foreign Central Banks, International Financial Institutions and Sovereign Wealth Funds with RMB Funds in the Interbank Market. (PBC Document2015No.220) T

    648、he regulation simplified the procedures of foreign central banks, international financial 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT150institutions and sovereign wealth funds access to the interbank market and the investment quota limit on these entities was removed. These entities could freely choose the

    649、 PBC or settlement agent of the interbank market to serve as their agents for trading and settlement and more instruments were available for them to invest. On July 24, The PBC released an announcement on Issues Concerning RMB Cross-border Settlement of Crude Oil Futures Trading on Onshore Market. (

    650、PBC Public Announcement2015No.19) It regarded RMB as the invoicing and settlement currency for domestic crude oil futures, overseas traders and brokers were allowed to participate in Chinese crude oil futures trading.On August 11, The PBC released a statement on Improving the Quotation Mechanism of

    651、Central Parity between the RMB against the USD. Since August 11 2015, before the opening quotation of the Interbank foreign-exchange market, market makers make offers to China Foreign Exchange Trading Center referencing the closing exchange rate in the Interbank foreign-exchange market on the previo

    652、us day, the condition of foreign exchange supply and demand along with changes in the exchange rate of major international currencies comprehensively.On September 3, The PBC and the Central Bank of Tajikistan signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 3 billion yuan/Somoni 3 billion.On

    653、September 7, The PBC issued the Notice on Further Facilitating Multinational Conglomerates in Conducting Two-way Cross-border RMB Cash Pooling Business. (PBC Document2015No.279)On September 17, The PBC and the Central Bank of Argentina signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clear

    654、ing arrangements in Argentina. On September 18, The PBC authorized ICBC(Argentina) Ltd to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Argentina.On September 21, The PBC approved HSBC (Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation) and BOC (Hong Kong) Ltd. to issue financial bonds in the interbank PART SEVEN High

    655、lights of RMB Internationalization151bond market. This was the first time that the international commercial banks were permitted to issue RMB-denominated bonds in interbank bond market.On September 26, The PBC and the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey renewed the bilateral local currency swap a

    656、greement of RMB 12 billion yuan/Lira 5 billion.On September 27, The PBC and the National Bank of Georgia signed the bilateral local currency swap framework agreement.On September 29, The PBC and the Central Bank of Zambia signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangemen

    657、ts in Zambia. On September 30, The PBC authorized the Bank of China (Zambia) Limited to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Zambia.On September 29, The PBC and the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic signed an agreement of intention on strengthening cooperation.On September 30, The PBC released the P

    658、BC Public Announcement2015No.31. Foreign central banks (monetary authorities), other official reserve management organizations, international financial institutions and sovereign wealth fund were allowed to trade in the Chinese interbank foreign-exchange market.On October 8, The CIPS (Phase one ) wa

    659、s launched successfully. On October 20, the PBC issued RMB 5 billion yuan of 1-year central bank bills in London in way of book-building, with a 3.1% coupon rate. This was the first time for PBC issuing RMB-denominated central bank bills outside mainland China.On October 20, The PBC and the Bank of

    660、England renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 350 billion yuan/Pound 35 billion.On November 2, The General Administration Department of the PBC issued the Notice on Foreign Central Bank-Type Institutions to open the RMB Settlement Account in Domestic Banking Financial Institutio

    661、ns. (PBC General Administration Department Document20152019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT152No.227) It facilitated foreign central banks(monetary authorities), other official reserve management organizations, international financial institutions, and sovereign wealth funds to conduct relative busi

    662、ness onshore.On November 6, The PBC and SAFE released the Operational Guideline for Funds Management in Cross-border Issuance and Sales of Mainland and Hong Kong Securities Investment Funds. (The PBC SAFE Public Announcement2015No.36)On November 9, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trad

    663、ing between RMB and Swiss franc in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On November 18, China-Europe International Exchange Co.,Ltd. held its establishment ceremony, and launched the first batch of RMB-denominated spot security products.On November 23, The pilot program of RQFII was extended to Mal

    664、aysia with an investment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan.On November 25, The first batch of foreign central banks finished filing with CFETS and accessed the Chinese interbank foreign-exchange market.On November 27, NAFMII accepted the registration of the Province of British Columbia of Canada to issue

    665、 RMB 6 billion yuan RMB-denominated sovereign bonds in the Chinese interbank bond market.On November 30, The Executive Board of IMF decided to include RMB into the currency basket of the SDR as a fifth currency along with the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, and the British pound. The weight

    666、 of the RMB in the SDR basket is 10.92%. The new basket will become effective on October 1, 2016. On the same day, the PBC authorized the Zurich branch of CCB to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Swiss.On December 7, NAFMII accepted the registration of the Republic of Korea to issue RMB 3 billion yu

    667、an RMB-denominated sovereign bonds on the Chinese Interbank bond market.PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization153On December 14, The PBC and the Central Bank of United Arab Emirates signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 35 billion yuan/UAE Diram 20 billion. On the same d

    668、ay, the two parties signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in UAE. The PBC agreed to expand the pilot program of RQFII to UAE, with an investment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan.On December 17, the pilot program of RQFII was expanded to Thailand, with an invest

    669、ment quota of RMB 50 billion yuan. 2016On January 20, The General Administration Department of the PBC issued the Notice on usage of funds on Overseas Institutions RMB Bank Settlement Accounts. (PBC General Administration Department Document2016No.15)On January 22, The PBC issued the Notice on Expan

    670、ding the Pilot Program of Cross-border Financing Macroprudential Management. (PBC Document2016No.18)On February 24, The PBC released an announcement on Issues Regarding Investment in the interbank Bond Market by Overseas Institutional Investors. (PBC Public Announcement 2016No.3)On March 7, The PBC

    671、and the Monetary Authority of Singapore(MAS) renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 300 billion yuan/SGD 64 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years. On April 29, The PBC issued the Notice on Implementing Nationally the Macroprudential Management of Cross-border Financing.

    672、(PBC Document2016No.132) On May 11, The PBC and the Central Bank of Morocco signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 10 billion yuan/MAD 15 billion. On June 7, The PBC and the Federal Reserve Board signed the Memorandum of 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT154Understanding on establ

    673、ishing RMB clearing arrangements in the United States. China declared to grant the U.S. an RQFII investment quota of RMB 250 billion yuan. On June 17, The PBC and the Central Bank of the Republic of Serbia signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 1.5 billion yuan/RSD 27 billion, and t

    674、he period of validity is 3 years.On June 20, With the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB and South African Rand and launch direct trading between the two currencies on the interbank foreign-exchange m

    675、arket. On June 25, The PBC and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation signed the Memorandum of Understanding on establishing RMB clearing arrangements in the Russian Federation. On June 27, With the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) announced that it would

    676、 improve the trading mode between RMB and South-Korean Won and launch direct trading between the two currencies on the interbank foreign-exchange market.On July 11, The Bank of China (Hong Kong) linked to CIPS as a direct participant, becoming the first overseas direct participant. On the same day,

    677、the China Citic Bank, Bank of Shanghai, China Guangfa Bank, Bank of Jiangsu, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ (China), Mizuho Bank (China), Hang Seng Bank (China) linked to CIPS as direct participants. The number of direct participants of CIPS has increased to 27.On August 10, The General Administration

    678、 Department of the PBC issued the Reply Letter on Issues Concerning the Republic of Poland Issues RMB-denominated Bonds of RMB on the Interbank Bond Market, approved the Republic of Polands application on issuing RMB-denominated bonds on the inter-bank bond market. (PBC General Administration Depart

    679、ment Document2016No.387)PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization155On August 30, The PBC and SAFE issued the Notice on Issues Concerning the Domestic Security Investment and Management by Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors. (PBC Document2016No.227)On September 12, The PBC an

    680、d the Central Bank of Hungary renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 10 billion yuan/ HUF 416 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On September 20, The PBC issued an announcement, which authorized the Bank of China (New York) Limited to serve as the RMB clearing bank in

    681、 America. (PBC Public Announcement2016No.23)On September 23, The PBC issued an announcement, which authorized the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Moscow) Limited to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Russia.(PBC Public Announcement2016No.24)On September 26, The PBC authorized the CFETS to co

    682、nduct direct trading between RMB and Saudi Riyal in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On September 26, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and UAE Dirham in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On September 27, The PBC and the European Central Bank signed a supple

    683、mental agreement, which extending the validity of bilateral local currency swap agreement for 3 years to Oct.8, 2019. The size is remain RMB 350 billion yuan/EUR 45 billion.On November 4, The PBC and CSRC issued the Notice on the Program of the Shanghai, Shenzhen and Hong Kong Stock Connect Scheme.

    684、(PBC Document2016No. 282). On December 5, the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect Scheme officially launched.On November 14, With the authorization of the PBC, CFETS announced that it would improve the trading mode between RMB and Canadian Dollar and launch direct trading between the two currencies in

    685、the interbank foreign-exchange market.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT156On November 29, The PBC issued the Notice on Further Clarifying Relevant Issues Concerning the Overseas Renminbi Lending Business of Domestic Enterprises. (PBC Document2016No.306)On December 6, The PBC and the Central Bank

    686、of Egypt signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 18 billion yuan/EGP 47 billion, the period of validity is 3 years.On December 9, The PBC issued an announcement, which authorized the Agriculture Bank of China (Dubai) Limited to serve as the RMB clearing bank in UAE. (PBC Public Annou

    687、ncement2016No.30)On December 12, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Mexican Peso in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On December 12, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Turkish Lira in the interbank foreign-exchange market.O

    688、n December 12, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Polish Zloty in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On December 12, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Danish Krone in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On December 12, The

    689、 PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Hungary Forint in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On December 12, The PBC authorized the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Norwegian Krone in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On December 12, The PBC authoriz

    690、ed the CFETS to conduct direct trading between RMB and Swedish Krone in the interbank foreign-exchange market.PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization157On December 21, The PBC and the Central Bank of Iceland renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 3.5 billion yuan/ISK 66

    691、 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On December 26, The General Administration Department of the PBC issued the Notice on Cross-border Renminbi Settlement of Renminbi-denominated Debt Financing Instruments issued by Overseas Institutions in China. (PBC General Administration Department D

    692、ocument2016No.258) 2017On January 13, The PBC issued the Notice on Issues Concerning the Macroprudential Management of Overall Cross-Border Financing. (PBC Document2017No. 9)On March 20, The PBC and Bank of China New York Branch signed the RMB Clearing Agreement.On March 20, The PBC and Industrial a

    693、nd Commercial Bank of China (Moscow) Limited signed the RMB Clearing Agreement.On March 20, The PBC and Agriculture Bank of China Dubai Branch signed the RMB Clearing Agreement.On May 19, The PBC and the Central Bank of New Zealand renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 25 billio

    694、n yuan/NZD 5 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On May 23, The PBC issued the Notice on Issuing the Regulation Related on RMB Cross-border Payment Management Information System ( RCPMIS). (PBC Document2017No. 126)On May 27, The General Administration Department of the PBC issued the Noti

    695、ce 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT158on Improving the Interbank Transaction Information Reporting Procedures of the Renminbi Cross-border Payment Management Information System.(PBC General Administration Department Document2017No.118)On June 29, The PBC and Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited ren

    696、ewed the RMB Clearing Agreement.On July 4, With the approval of the State Council, the quota of Hong Kongs RQFII will be expanded to RMB 500 billion yuan.On July 6, The PBC and the Bank of Mongolia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 15 billion yuan/MNT 5.4 trillion, and the p

    697、eriod of validity is 3 years.On July 18, The PBC and the Central Bank of Argentina renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 70 billion/ARS 175 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On July 21, The PBC and the Swiss National Bank renewed the bilateral local currency swap ag

    698、reement of RMB 150 billion yuan/CHF 21 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On August 11, With the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) may conduct direct trading between RMB and Mongolia MNT in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On September 13, Wit

    699、h the authorization of the PBC, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System (CFETS) may conduct direct trading between RMB and Cambodia KHR in the interbank foreign-exchange market.On September 21, The PBC and Bank of China Macau branch renewed the RMB Clearing Agreement.PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Int

    700、ernationalization159On October 11, The PBC and the Bank of Korea renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 360 billion/KRW 64 trillion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On November 2, The PBC and the Qatar Central Bank renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB

    701、35 billion/QAR 20.8 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years.On November 8, The PBC and the Bank of Canada renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion/CAD 30 billion , and the period of validity is 3 years.On November 22, The PBC and the Monetary Authority of Hong Ko

    702、ng renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 400 billion/HKD 470 billion , and the period of validity is 3 years.On November 22, The PBC and the Central Bank of Russian Federation renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 150 billion/RUB 1,325 billion, and the perio

    703、d of validity is 3 years.On December 22, The PBC and the Bank of Thailand renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 70 billion/THB 370 billion, and the period of validity is 3 years. 2018On January 4, the PBC and Taipei Branch of Bank of China renewed the RMB clearing agreement.On J

    704、anuary 5, the PBC issued the Notice on Further Improving Policies for Cross-border RMB Business to Facilitate Trade and Investment (PBC Document 2018 No. 3), 2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT160clarifying that all cross-border business allowed by law to be settled with foreign exchange could also

    705、 be settled with RMB by enterprises. On January 5, CFETS issued the Notice on the Arrangements for Overseas Banks to Participate in Interbank FX Market Regional Trading, allowing qualified overseas banks to participate in interbank FX market regional trading.On February 9, the PBC authorized the J.P

    706、. Morgan Chase & Co. to serve as the RMB clearing bank in USA.On March 26, the RMB Cross-border Interbank Payment (CIPS) phase II was launched for pilot operation.On March 26, the Crude Oil Futures Contract denominated in RMB was listed for trading on Shanghai International Energy Exchange.On March

    707、30, the PBC and the Reserve Bank of Australia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/AUD 40 billion.On April 3, the PBC and the Central Bank of Albania renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 2 billion yuan/ALL 34.2 billion.On April 11, the PBC

    708、 and the South African Reserve Bank renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 30 billion yuan/ZAR 54 billion.On April 20, to further regulate overseas security investment by RMB qualified domestic institutional investors, the General Administration Department of the PBC issued the N

    709、otice on Further Clarifying the Rules on Overseas Security Investment by RMB Qualified Domestic Institutional Investors (PBC General Administration Department Document 2018 No.81)On April 27, the PBC and the Central Bank of Nigeria signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 15 billion y

    710、uan/NGN 720 billion.PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization161On May 1, the daily quotas under both Shanghai-Hongkong Stock Connect and Shengzhen-Hongkong Stock Connect were expanded four times, in which the daily quota for each of the northbound trading links were adjusted to RMB 52 billi

    711、on yuan from RMB 13 billion yuan, the daily quota for each of the southbound trading links were adjusted to RMB 42 billion yuan from RMB 10.5 billion yuan.On May 2, CIPS phase II was fully launched, with eligible direct participants engaged online simultaneously.On May 4, the foreign investors were

    712、formally introduced into domestic RMB-denominated iron ore futures trading in Dalian Commodity Exchange. On May 9, the pilot area of RMB qualified foreign institutional investors expanded to Japan, with a quota of RMB 200 billion yuan.On May 10, the PBC and the National Bank of the Republic of Belar

    713、us renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 7 billion yuan/ BYR 2.22 billion.On May 16, in order to further improve cross-border capital flow, and adcance the opening-up of Chinas financial market, the General Administration Department of the PBC issued the Notice on Further Perfec

    714、ting the Management of Cross-border Capital Flow to Support the Opening-up in Financial Market (PBC General Administration Department Document 2018 No.96).On May 23, the PBC and the State Bank of Pakistan renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 20 billion yuan/ PKR 351 billion.On

    715、May 25, the PBC and the Central Bank of Chile renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 22 billion yuan/CLP 2200 billion.On May 28, the PBC and the National Bank of Kazakhstan renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 7 billion yuan/KZT 350 billion.2019 RMB INTERNAT

    716、IONALIZATION REPORT162On June 1, the Chinese A-share was formally included in MSCI Emerging Markets Index and Global Standard Index, which was conductive to attracting overseas investors to allocate assets on RMB share . On June 11, in order to regulate the investment in domestic security market by

    717、RMB qualified foreign institutional investors, The PBC and SAFE jointly issued the Notice on the Rules of Domestic Security Investment by RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (PBC Document 2018 No.157). On June 13, to perfect the management of RMB purchases and sales businesses, the PBC iss

    718、ued the Notice on Improving the Management of RMB Purchases and Sales Businesses (PBC Document 2018 No.159), expanding the scope of purchases and sales businesses to securities investment.On August 20, the PBC and the Bank Negara Malaysia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 18

    719、0 billion yuan/MYR 110 billion.On September 3, CFETS formally introduced the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (Almaty) and ICBC Standard Bank Plc. to participate in domestic interbank FX market for the regional trading of RMB against KZT, and extended trading hour for RMB against KZT regional

    720、 trading from 10:30-16:30 to 10:30-19:00 (Beijing time, GMT+8).On September 8, in order to promote the opening up of domestic interbank bond market, regulate foreign institutional bond issuance, and protect legitimate interests of bond market investors, the PBC and MOF jointly issued the Interim Rul

    721、es for the Administration of Bond Issuances by Overseas Institutions on Chinas Interbank Bond Market (PBC, MOF Public Announcement 2018 No.16).On October 13, the PBC and the Bank of England renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 350 billion yuan/GBP 40 billion.On October 22, the

    722、PBC and the Bank of Japan signed the memorandum of PART SEVEN Highlights of RMB Internationalization163understanding on the currency clearing cooperation across Japan. On October 26, the PBC authorized Tokyo Branch of Bank of China to serve as the RMB clearing bank in Japan.On October 26, the PBC an

    723、d the Bank of Japan signed a bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/JPY 3,400 billion.On November 16, The PBC and Bank Indonesia renewed bilateral local currency swap agreement of RMB 200 billion yuan/IDR 440 trillion.On November 20, the PBC and the Central Bank of Philippin

    724、e signed the memorandum of understanding on the currency clearing cooperation across the Philippines.On November 30, Pure Terephthalic Acid (PTA) futures which denominated in RMB were formally introduced to overseas traders.On December 10, the PBC and the National Bank of Ukraine renewed the bilater

    725、al local currency swap agreement of RMB 15 billion yuan/UAH 62 billion. 2019On January 31, Bloomberg formally confirmed the inclusion of Chinese bonds into the Bloomberg Barclays Global Composite Index from April 2019.One February 11, the PBC and the Central Bank Van Suriname renewed the bilateral l

    726、ocal currency swap agreement of RMB 1 billion yuan/SRD 1.1 billion.One February 28, MSCI announced that it would significantly increase the weight of Chinese A-shares in the MSCI Indexes by raising the inclusion factor from 5% to 20% in three steps.2019 RMB INTERNATIONALIZATION REPORT164In retrospec

    727、t of the financial reform and opening-up in China for the past decade, we found that RMB internationalization had been a highlight. To better study RMB internationalization, since 2015, the Monetary Policy Department II of the PBC began to publish annual report on RMB internationalization in both Ch

    728、inese and English for market participants and researchers reference. The report covers a wide range of topics, including the international use of RMB in various aspects, relevant policies and progress of reform, the status of major economies in the world, outlook and etc., containing detailed data a

    729、nd elaborate boxes on key issues. Macroprudential Policy Bureau published 2019 RMB Internationalization Report together with the Monetary Policy Department, the Payment System Department, the Currency, Gold and Silver Bureau of the PBC, as well as cross-border RMB offices of PBC Jinan Branch, Xian B

    730、ranch, Hohhot Central Sub-Branch, Hefei Central Sub-Branch, Changsha Central Sub-Branch, and Yinchuan Central Sub-Branch. And also, we received great support from Bank of China and China Financial Publishing House. Hereby, here went our wholehearted appreciation for all who had supported us for the report. Due to our limited knowledge, there might be errors and discrepancies in the report. We sincerely invite any of your comment and advice. The Editor June 2019Afterword

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