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Booking:亚太地区在线旅行社的经济影响(英文版)(41页).pdf

1、2019-2021The Economic Impact of Online Travel Agencies in APACFinal ReportAppendicesAppendix 1 and 268 Econometric ResultsOn key effects08 OTA Details-Country ResultsCountry-level impacts of OTAs in selected APAC markets18 About the Research TeamTourism Economics78 OTA Details-APACComposition of OTA

2、s in APAC and additional impacts12 CONTENTSOTA ImpactsSummary impacts in APAC04 Research Objectives&MethodologyIncluding data sources06Additional Economic ImpactsGDP and employment impacts10 OTA IMPACTS SUMMARY IMPACTS IN APACOTAs generate benefits for the hospitality industry,consumers and society

3、as a wholeOnline travel agencies(OTAs)in the Asia-pacific region play an important function in the accommodation market and for destinations.OTAs increase choice and transparency within the market,making it easier for consumers to compare the costs and quality of the accommodation facilities and ser

4、vices offered by providers.They also make it easier for customers to search and book online.This is particularly important for booking travel in unfamiliar destinations.As a result,OTAs generate more bookings from international travelers than the market average.OTAs particularly benefit small indepe

5、ndent properties by providing them with global visibility.Across APAC,the share of bookings accruing to independent properties through OTAs is significantly higher than the market average.This helps preserve APACs unique ecosystem of independent properties.By offering consumers more choice,OTAs also

6、 exert a downward effect on rates,making travel more affordable and increasing value for money.This benefits particularly low income households across the region,who might otherwise not be able to afford any travel at all.Offering more choice also spreads out tourism away from the centers of economi

7、c and touristic activity towards rural destinations.As a result,rural areas benefit from an increase in economic opportunities and job creation.On an aggregate level,OTAs have generated large volumes of additional tourism nights and supported GDP growth and job creation across a wide range of destin

8、ations.If OTAs did not exist,there would be fewer overnight stays in APAC and the contribution of tourism to GDP and employment would also be lower.This study quantifies the incremental impact of OTAs on the tourism industry and broader economy of APAC.The number of travellers organising travel thro

9、ugh OTAs increased steadily from 2012 to 2019 to 705 million nights which represented more than 1 in 10 nights booked in APAC.A proportion of these nights and associated economic benefits would not have happened without the trusted information,transparency and choice provided by OTAs.All travel book

10、ings fell sharply during the pandemic,including some shift in OTA use resulting in a lower impact on the tourism market and broader economy in 2020 and 2021.OTAs still play an important role in matching evolving consumer demand with available supply.5Nights in All Accommodation Types in APAC,2012-20

11、21Billions of Room Nights 4 5 5OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in APACs accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of$6.20 per room night(6.0%reduction)across APAC.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attribut

12、able to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES OTAs generate significant job impacts across various sectors of the APAC economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 975,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 202,000 and 169,000 jobs,respectivel

13、y.Job Impacts Attributable to OTAs in APAC,2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate economic growth across APAC.OTAs added an incremental$15.5 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed$4.3 billion to APACs GDP in 2020 and$4.0 billion in 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MAR

14、KETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(USD Billions)Attributable to OTAs in APAC,2019-2021Additional Nights(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable

15、 to OTAs,2019-20214.54.75.05.35.55.75.96.23.54.30.20.20.30.40.50.60.60.70.20.24.74.95.35.65.96.36.66.93.74.52012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-$7-$3-$220192020202170.2 25.6 19.0 201920202021$15.5$4.3$4.0201920202021975,000 202,000 169,000 201920202021

16、The main aim of this study is to quantify the additional i.e.,incremental impact of OTAs in APAC for 2019,2020 and 2021.Specifically,this analysis aims to assess:1.The overall impact on business by examining what impact OTAs have had on total overnight stays in APAC;2.What impact OTAs have had on th

17、e hotel rates paid by consumers across APAC;and3.The additional economic activity that is supported by the presence of OTAs in APAC.Analysis has quantified how these impacts have varied across the market segments and the extent to which OTAs have supported changing consumer preferences during the pa

18、ndemic.The following effects have been considered:Accommodation type-including the different impact of OTAs on chain and non-chain hotels as well as on alternative(non-hotel)accommodation.International and domestic visitors-different visitors have differing needs regarding information and booking an

19、d engagement with OTAs which have been estimated.Geographic dispersion-OTA impacts and booking patterns have been considered relative to those from the wider tourism industry,including the extent to which OTAs spread tourism to more rural areas compared to the market average.OVERARCHING METHODOLOGYT

20、he first step was to establish the actual number of overnight stays,average level of hotel daily rate and total economic impact of tourism in APAC.OTAs share of current travel within the baseline was calculated.An econometric model was developed to calculate the extent to which the presence of OTAs

21、determines the metric in question.Econometric model results were used to establish what would have happened to each of the above metrics if OTAs did not exist.The difference between the baseline and counterfactual scenario is the net additional impact of OTAs.6124BaselineCounterfactualAdditional Imp

22、act of OTAs 7RESEARCH OBJECTIVES&METHODOLOGYEmboldened travel decisionsTransparencyInitial consumer effectsOTAs functionsOTAs benefitsNew destinationsNew propertiesValue for moneyGreater salesReward for small establishmentsIncreased occupancyBetter travel experiencesRepeat visitsDirect customer feed

23、backReward for qualityInitial industry effectsIncreases in travelRaised qualityTrustComparisonSearch&bookingEconomic impact on destinationsLower pricingOverall market effectOverall market effectOTAs increase transparency within the market,making it easier for consumers to compare the costs and quali

24、ty of the accommodation facilities and services offered by providers.They also make it easier for customers to search and book online.Lower prices and increased quality increase the value for money for consumers.OTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer a

25、nd expand their consumer base.Smaller independent properties in particular benefit from an ability to better compete online against larger chains;while further technology benefits are also provided.OTAs also improve trust in providers and reward quality.The direct benefits to consumers and industry

26、will also have effects on the total spending of tourists:more visitors and nights will mean additional spending on other tourism services within the destinations.This will in turn have downstream effects on economies overall.ConsumersIndustryEconomyOTAS SUPPORT A RANGE OF BENEFITS TO CONSUMERS AND B

27、USINESSFLOWCHART OF OTA BENEFITS31OTA FOOTPRINT&INCREMENTAL IMPACT ON NIGHTSOf the 705 million nights booked through OTAs in 2019,10%would not have taken place without the benefits OTAs provide.70.2 million additional nights were generated through the increase in choice,transparency,and trust provid

28、ed by OTAs.IMPACTS ON INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTICOTAs have a proportionately larger incremental impact on international than on domestic travel demand.Estimation included OTA bookings as a share of all wider activity as an explanatory variable for equations of domestic and outbound travel demand.Ther

29、e is a higher estimated elasticity of international demand with respect to OTA intensity than for domestic demand.8Uplift in Domestic and International Nights in APACIncrease in room nights,relative to counterfactualExtra nights generated by OTAs in APACMillions of room nights(2014-2021)Panel econom

30、etric estimation considered how the OTA footprint has changed relative to all other identified drivers of demand in order to identify the incremental impact in demand for all major markets.Estimation accounts for changes in domestic and international demand drivers,including changes in indicators of

31、 income and affordability in all source markets.This calculation relies upon previously identified relationships and drivers in Tourism Economics global tourism forecast models.The inclusion of OTA metrics in these models has improved equation accuracy by better explaining observed growth.By includi

32、ng all other demand drivers,there is high confidence that the incremental impact of OTAs is being fully identified.That means a significant share of international travel would not happen without the help of OTAs.This confirms the theory that OTAs drive incremental demand by providing trusted informa

33、tion and increased transparency by supporting travel to less well-known foreign destinations.Incremental outbound and domestic travel demand has been calculated for all major source markets and demand has been mapped to destinations according to relative OTA use and origin-destination bookings.OTAS

34、REDUCE ACCOMMODATION COSTSHotel Average Daily Room Rates(ADR)$per roomLower travel costs are an important benefit for consumers.OTAs increase consumer choice and intensify competition between accommodation providers.As a result,there is a clear inverse correlation between OTA share of accommodation

35、nights sold and the average daily rate(ADR)paid.Markets with a higher OTA intensity have a lower ADR,while an increased intensity over time is correlated with lower ADR than would otherwise be the case.Panel econometric estimation has identified the relationship between OTA intensity and ADR across

36、all major markets,also taking into account hotel occupancy,prices and costs.Markets with a higher OTA intensity experience lower ADR,all other things being equal.ADR IMPACTS VARY BY PROPERTYOTA Impact on Hotel ADR by Segment$,difference from counterfactualThere is a stronger observed relationship be

37、tween OTA intensity and ADR for independent hotels than for chain properties.This is partly due to a greater proportion of independent hotels selling rooms on OTAs to take advantage of the increased exposure and sales opportunities.These relationships have been separately identified for all destinat

38、ions.Estimation disaggregated ADR impacts for sales through OTAs and all other channels.There is a notable,albeit lesser,impact on ADR for non-OTA room sales due to the increased competitiveness.ECONOMETRIC RESULTS 9-9-5-5-14-3-12-12-3-10Hotels on OTAsHotels not on OTAsAll hotelsBranded chainsIndepe

39、ndentAll2836485968702619201420152016201720182019202020210.8%0.7%0.4%1.9%1.1%1.5%201920202021DomesticInternational1.0%uplift in nights0.7%uplift in nights0.4%uplift in nights109 103 102 102 104 101 80 82 104 97 96 95 97 94 77 80 20142015201620172018201920202021If OTAs did not existActualThe net effec

40、t of additional nights and lower ADR is an increase in overall destination spending,taking into account all other trip spending.Net direct gain in GDP and employment is calculated from an analysis of structural statistics including Gross Value Added to output ratios and productivity rates for releva

41、nt sectors of the economy.Total impacts include calculation of indirect effects through the supply chain and induced effects of spending of wages estimated from input-output tables.INCREMENTAL ECONOMIC IMPACT(2019)10INCREMENTAL ECONOMIC IMPACT(2020)INCREMENTAL ECONOMIC IMPACT(2021)11Lower PricingInc

42、reases in TravelADDITIONALECONOMIC IMPACTS202,000Additional Jobs in APAC in 2020$4.3 BILLIONAdditional GDP in APAC in 2020Direct GDP$1.6BIndirect&Induced GDP$2.7BLower PricingIncreases in Travel975,000Additional Jobs in APAC in 2019$15.5 BILLIONAdditional GDP in APAC in 2019Direct GDP$6.0BIndirect&I

43、nduced GDP$9.5BLower PricingIncreases in Travel169,000Additional Jobs in APAC in 2021$4.0 BILLIONAdditional GDP in APAC in 2021Direct GDP$1.5BIndirect&Induced GDP$2.5BOTA DETAILSAPACSource:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings made up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the whol

44、e market in 2019The international proportion of OTA bookings was notably larger than the broader market in 2019 and 2020,but more similar in 2021.The international share of total bookings declined for both OTAs and the whole market in APAC in 2020 and 2021,reflecting the severe restrictions on inbou

45、nd travel in the region during the pandemic.APACOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in APACShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 14 15Summary Impacts of OTAs in APAC,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts975,000202,00

46、0169,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+70.2M+25.6M+19.0Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP Impacts$15.5B$4.3B$4.0Bincremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-$7-$3-$2reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021OTAs support independent accommodationsOTA boo

47、kings accrue predominantly to independent hotels.In 2021,58%of sales booked via OTAs were for independent hotels,as opposed to 34%across the market as a whole.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in APACShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BRura

48、l bookings are on the riseThe rural booking index increased significantly above trend in 2020.OTAs have demonstrated they can quickly accommodate changes in consumer preferences.*Based on selected markets in APACSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreOTA Rural Booking Index in APACIndex:2019=100OTAs are s

49、upporting hotels in the APAC regionIn 2021,58%of bookings through OTAs were for hotels compared to 43%across the market as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in APACShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)24%60%7%27%2%6

50、%76%40%93%73%98%94%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic61%34%65%35%66%42%39%66%35%65%34%58%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent52%56%45%55%43%58%48%44%55%45%57%42%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs2019

51、20202021HotelsAlternative Accommodation879093959597991001121062012201320142015201620172018201920202021OTAs offer access to a different mix of international travelers Two-thirds of international overnight stays in APAC booked through OTAs were arranged by individuals from countries elsewhere in APAC.

52、For all international overnight stays in APAC,arrivals from elsewhere in the region accounted for a slightly lower share.Over one-third of overnight stays in APAC booked via OTAs represented arrivals from outside of the region(long-haul markets).Of these OTA-linked long-haul arrivals,almost half ori

53、ginated from Western Europe,though this was slightly lower than the share of stays represented by this region for the whole market.Almost 20%of OTA-linked stays originated from Central and Eastern Europe double the share of the market overall.OTAs were also used relatively more by visitors from the

54、Middle East and other regions,though relatively less by those from North America.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationsMillions of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BAPACRest of World(LH)OtherIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative Acco

55、mmodationsBillions of dollarsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgings

56、 through the additional spending associated with non-hotel staying guestsIn 2021,the incremental additional GDP impact generated by alternative accommodations booked via OTAs was$1.7 billion,supporting employment of 70,000 jobs across APAC.17Composition of International TravelOrigin of international

57、 travel to APAC,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul International TravelOrigin of long-haul travel to APAC,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 16MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021 OTAs increased

58、 the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in APAC.In 2021,bookings via OTAs generated 9.0 million additional nights.Western EuropeNorth AmericaCentral and Eastern EuropeMiddle East59%66%41%34%Whole MarketOTAs53%46%29%14%9%19%4%8%2%13%Whole MarketOTAs20.3 12.3 8.8 5.5 0.5 0.2 20192

59、0202021DomesticInternational25.8Madditionalnights12.8Madditionalnights9.0Madditionalnights$2.6$0.7$0.6$4.2$1.2$1.1$6.8$1.9$1.7201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced204,000 45,000 33,000 224,000 47,000 38,000 427,000 92,000 70,000 201920202021DirectIndirect&InducedOTA DETAILSAPAC COUNTRY RESULTS 21OTAS M

60、AKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in the Australian accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of AU$13.60 per room night(7%reduction)across Australia.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attributable to OTAs,2019-202

61、1OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts across various sectors of the Australian economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 12,000 jobs.In each of 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for just under 5,000 jobs.Job Impacts Attributabl

62、e to OTAs in Australia,2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional economic growth across Australia.OTAs added an incremental AU$1.6 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed AU$0.6 billion to Australian GDP in 2020 and AU$0.5 billion to Australian GDP in 2021.OTAS INCRE

63、ASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(AU$Billions)Attributable to OTAs in Australia,2019-2021Additional Nights(Millions)in

64、 All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021OTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in Australia boosting GDP and job creation.Consumers in Australia also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travelers.The number of travellers organising travel to Australi

65、a through OTAs increased steadily from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 40 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 15%of the 259 million total room nights booked.In

66、 2020,just 14 million room nights were booked through OTAs,representing 12%of the total 114 million room nights booked.There was a further decline in 2021,with 8 million nights booked through OTAs out of a total market of 90 million.AUSTRALIAKEY INSIGHTSNights in All Accommodation Types in Australia

67、,2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs in Australia in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 201912,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 4.1MAU$1.6BTotal incremental GDP impact attributable to OTAs in 2019 201731731861891972032152191008115

68、19232733373940148188192209216230240255259114902012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-$14-$11-$102019202020214.1 1.7 0.8 201920202021$1.6$0.6$0.520192020202112,000 5,000 5,000 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings make up a great

69、er proportion of OTA bookings compared to the whole market.The international proportion of OTA bookings was higher than that for the market as a whole in 2019 and 2020.However,the international share of bookings were more similar for OTAs and the whole market in 2021,as the international presence in

70、 Australia fell dramatically due to restrictions on inbound arrivals.Summary Impacts of OTAs in Australia,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts12,0005,0005,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+4.1M+1.7M+0.8Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP ImpactsAU$1.6BAU$0.6BAU$0.5Bincremental GDPincremental G

71、DPincremental GDPMore Affordable-$14-$11-$10reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021AUSTRALIAOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in AustraliaShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 22 23OTAs s

72、upport particular segments of the market Guests tended to be more orientated towards branded hotels when booking travel through OTAs over the pandemic but in 2019 hotel composition shares were broadly similar to the market overall.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in AustraliaS

73、hare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are important for alternative accommodation providers Guests are more strongly orientated towards alternative accommodations when booking through OTAs.In 2021 70%of bookings via OTAs were for alternative accommodations com

74、pared with 28%for the market as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in AustraliaShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)OTA platforms impact rates across the whole marketPrice reduction effects are stronger for hotels that a

75、dvertise on OTAs compared to those that do not.Those listed on OTAs saw an average reduction of AU$18;those not listed saw an average reduction of AU$14.Total impact of OTA Activity on Average Daily Rates in Australia in 2019Reduction on Daily Rates(AUD)Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STR47%69%22%

76、42%4%8%53%31%78%58%96%92%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic50%53%49%61%47%77%50%47%51%39%53%23%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent51%33%63%29%72%30%49%67%37%71%28%70%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOT

77、As201920202021HotelsAlternative Accommodation-$17-$12-$12-$19-$15-$16-$18-$14-$14Hotels on OTAsHotels not on OTAsAll hotelsBranded chainsIndependentAllOTAs provide relatively more support for long-haul markets compared to the broader market compositionHalf of international overnight stays in Austral

78、ia booked through OTAs were arranged by individuals from elsewhere in APAC,including 10%each from China and New Zealand.Half of OTA international overnight stays originated from long-haul markets more than triple the share in the market overall(15%).This means that OTAs provide greater support for l

79、ong-haul visitors than the accommodation sector as a whole.OTAs support for long-haul arrivals is primarily directed towards arrivals from Western Europe,with this region accounting for 75%of OTA bookings compared to 56%of all international overnight arrivals.By contrast,OTAs provided relatively les

80、s support for visitors from North America these visitors accounted for 11%of OTA bookings,as opposed to 31%of all international arrivals.For other long-haul regions,the support provided by OTAs was relatively small and typically similar to their broader market presence.Source:Tourism Economics&BSour

81、ce:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationMillions of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)OtherNew ZealandChinaIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsBillions of AU$Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact

82、for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgingsEconomic impacts are generated through the additional spending associated with non-hotel sta

83、ying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated AU$0.4 billion in total incremental GDP and 3,000 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019.25Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to Australia,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul International TravelOrigin

84、 of long-haul travel to Australia,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 24MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in Australia.In 2021,book

85、ings via OTAs generated an additional 0.3 million nights in Australia.Western EuropeNorth AmericaSouth AmericaCentral and Eastern Europe56%75%31%11%4%5%3%4%3%2%Whole MarketOTAs0.8 0.5 0.3 1.6 0.3 0.1 201920202021DomesticInternational2.4Madditionalnights0.8Madditionalnights0.3Madditionalnights$0.4$0.

86、2$0.1$0.7$0.3$0.2$1.0$0.4$0.4201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced4,000 2,000 2,000 4,000 2,000 2,000 8,000 3,000 3,000 201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced6%10%15%10%64%31%15%50%Whole MarketOTAsOTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in India boosting GDP and job creation.In particular

87、independent accommodations benefit from OTAs by accruing a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in India also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travelers.The number of travellers organising travel to India through OTAs increased steadily from 2012 to 20

88、19,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 38 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 21%of the 185 million room nights booked.In 2020,just 12 million room nights were booked through O

89、TAs,equivalent to 14%of the total 88 million room nights.There was some rebound in OTA bookings in 2021,with 23 million nights booked through OTAs out of a total market of 127 million(18%).INDIAKEY INSIGHTSNights in All Accommodation Types in India 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs

90、 in India in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 2019286,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 1.9M98.4B Total incremental GDP impact attributable to OTAs in 2019 26 27OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in the Indian accommodat

91、ion market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of 418 per room night(7.1%reduction)across India.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts acros

92、s various sectors of the Indian economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 286,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 25,000 and 11,000 jobs,respectively.Job Impacts Attributable to OTAs in India,2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional

93、economic growth across India.OTAs added an incremental 98.4 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed 9.2 billion to Indias GDP in 2020 and 3.9 billion in 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and exp

94、and their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(Billions)Attributable to OTAs in India,2019-2021Additional Nights(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-20211121201271291321331371477610468101522333938122311812813714415416617618588127201220

95、1320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-449-313-2922019202020211.9 0.2 0.1 20192020202198.49.23.9201920202021286,000 26,000 11,000 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)In 2020 and 2021,international bookings made up a slightly higher proportion of OTA booki

96、ngs compared to the whole market,and a similar share in 2019 The international proportion of OTA bookings(35%)was the same as the market as a whole in 2019.However,despite a decline in international visitation associated with the pandemic,the international share of bookings was slightly higher than

97、that for the broader market in 2020 and 2021.29OTAs support particular segments of the market OTA bookings in India have tended to be much more oriented towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,55%of sales made via OTAs were independent,compared to a 38%share across the w

98、ider market.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in IndiaShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are particularly supporting hotels Around two-thirds of bookings made via OTAs were for hotels in recent years.This is notably higher than the sh

99、are of the broader market accounted for by hotels.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in IndiaShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)OTA platforms impact rates across the whole marketPrice reduction effects are stronger for hotels

100、that advertise on OTAs compared to those that do not.Those listed on OTAs saw an average reduction of 11%;those not listed saw an average reduction of 4%.Total impact of OTA Activity on Average Daily Rates in India in 2021Precentage Reduction in Daily RatesSource:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummar

101、y Impacts of OTAs in India,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts286,00026,00011,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+1.9M+0.2M+0.1Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP Impacts98.4B9.2B 3.9Bincremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-449-313-292reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesr

102、educed daily rates201920202021INDIAOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in IndiaShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 2835%35%13%17%3%4%65%65%87%83%97%96%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Internati

103、onalDomestic56%32%62%37%62%45%44%68%38%63%38%55%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent42%66%39%66%37%72%58%34%61%34%63%28%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlternative Accommodation-10%-4%-6%-13%-4%-7%-11%-4%-6%Hotels on OTAsHo

104、tels not on OTAsAll hotelsBranded chainsIndependentAllOTAs provide relatively more support for long-haul markets compared to the broader market compositionUnder 40%of international travel booked on OTAs in India is from countries elsewhere in APAC.By comparison,for the market as a whole,arrivals fro

105、m APAC accounted for around 70%of international overnight stays much higher than the share accounted for by OTA bookings.More than 60%of OTA-linked international stays originated from long-haul markets more than double the share in the market overall(29%).OTA support for long-haul arrivals is primar

106、ily directed towards arrivals from Western Europe,with the region accounting for 54%of OTA bookings compared to 47%of all international overnight visits.By contrast,OTAs provide relatively less support for visitors from North America these visitors accounted for 12%of OTA bookings,as opposed to 33%o

107、f all international arrivals.Among other long-haul regions,the support provided by OTAs was also larger than their whole market presence,including for the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative Accommodat

108、ionThousands of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of World(LH)OtherRest of APACBangladeshIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsBillions of Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPA

109、CTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgingsEconomic impacts are generated through the additional spending associated with non-hotel staying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated 1.1 billion in total incremental GDP and 3,00

110、0 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019,when OTAs contributed incremental impacts of 33.3 billion in GDP and 97,000 jobs.31Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to India,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul International TravelOrigin of lo

111、ng-haul travel to India,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 30MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in India.In 2021,bookings via OTAs

112、generated an additional 35,000 nights in alternative accommodation in India.Western EuropeMiddle EastCentral and Eastern Europe22%3%49%34%29%63%Whole MarketOTAs47%54%7%16%33%12%7%10%1%7%Whole MarketOTAsNorth America39 14 18 485 44 17 201920202021DomesticInternational524additionalnights58additionalni

113、ghts35additionalnights 11.721.633.33.11.1201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced45,000 52,000 97,000 9,000 3,000 201920202021Indirect&InducedOTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in Japan boosting GDP and job creation.In particular independent accommodations benefit from OTAs by accrui

114、ng a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in Japan also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travelers.The number of travellers organising travel to Japan through OTAs increased steadily from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp d

115、ecline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 140 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 24%of the 596 million total room nights booked.In 2020,just 37 million room nights were booked through OTAs,equivalent to 12%of the total 318 million r

116、oom nights booked.There was a slight decline in room nights booked through OTAs in 2021,though total room nights increased,meaning the OTA share of the total market fell slightly to 10%.JAPANKEY INSIGHTSNights in All Accommodation Types in Japan 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs in

117、 Japan in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 201937,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 9.2M256BTotal incremental GDP impact attributable to OTAs in 2019 32 33OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in the Japanese accommodation

118、market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of 1,050 per room night(6.9%reduction)across Japan.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts across

119、various sectors of the Japanese economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 37,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 16,000 and 21,000 jobs,respectively.Job Impacts Attributable to OTAs in Japan,2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional e

120、conomic growth across Japan.OTAs added an incremental 256 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed 106 billion to Japans GDP in 2020 and 133 billion in 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expan

121、d their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(Billions)Attributable to OTAs in Japan,2019-2021Additional Nights(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021-1,256-730-5542019202020214204404354444164174304562813372027386076931081403736439467

122、4745044925105385963183732012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs9.2 4.7 4.9 20192020202125610613320192020202137,000 16,000 21,000 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings make up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the w

123、hole market.The international proportion of OTA bookings was significantly higher than the market as a whole in 2019 and 2020.However,the international share of bookings was more similar for OTAs and the whole market in 2021,as the international presence in Japan fell dramatically(to very low volume

124、s)due to restrictions on inbound arrivals.35OTAs support particular segments of the market OTA bookings in Japan have tended to be more oriented towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,46%of bookings made via OTAs were with independent providers,compared to 32%across the

125、 wider market.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in JapanShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are important for alternative accommodationGuests are more orientated towards alternative accommodations when booking through OTAs.In 2021,20%o

126、f bookings via OTAs were for alternative accommodations compared with only 8%for the market as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in JapanShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)OTA platforms impact rates across the whole m

127、arketThe downward impact on ADR is larger for hotels that advertise on OTAs compared to those that do not.In 2019,hotels listed on OTAs saw an average reduction of 1,538;those not listed saw an average reduction of 807.Total impact of OTA Activity on Average Daily Rates in Japan in 2019Reduction on

128、Daily Rates()Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummary Impacts of OTAs in Japan,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts37,00016,00021,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+9.2M+4.7M+4.9Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP Impacts256B 106B 133B incremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affor

129、dable-1,256-730-554reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021JAPANOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in JapanShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 3419%75%4%35%0%4%81%25%96%65%100%96%Wholemar

130、ketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic68%40%70%47%68%54%32%60%30%53%32%46%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent91%68%92%72%92%80%9%32%8%28%8%20%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlternative Acco

131、mmodation-1,424-1,039-1,110-1,623-634-1,560-1,538-807-1,256Hotels on OTAsHotels not on OTAsAll hotelsBranded chainsIndependentAllOTAs support a wide variety of travel to Japan from both other APAC countries and further afield.Almost 60%of international travel booked on OTAs in Japan is from countrie

132、s elsewhere in APAC.This includes 6%each from China,Australia,South Korea and Taiwan,and 34%from elsewhere in APAC.By comparison,for the market as a whole,arrivals from APAC accounted for 78%of international overnight stays much higher than the share accounted for by OTA bookings.Over 40%of OTA-link

133、ed international stays originated from long-haul markets around double the share in the market overall(22%).This means that OTAs provide greater support for long-haul visitors than the accommodation sector as a whole.OTA support for long-haul arrivals is primarily directed towards arrivals from West

134、ern Europe,with the region accounting for 61%of OTA bookings compared to 47%of all international overnight visits.By contrast,OTAs provide relatively less support for visitors from North America these visitors accounted for 21%of OTA bookings,as opposed to 44%of all international arrivals.Source:Tou

135、rism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationMillions of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)OtherSouth KoreaAustraliaTaiwanChinaIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsBillions of Source:Tourism Economics&ComSco

136、reIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgingsEconomic impacts are generated through the additional spendi

137、ng associated with non-hotel staying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated 27 billion in total incremental GDP and 4,000 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019.37Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to Japan,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul In

138、ternational TravelOrigin of long-haul travel to Japan,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 36MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in Ja

139、pan.In 2021,bookings via OTAs generated an additional 1.0 million nights in Japan.Western EuropeNorth AmericaCentral and Eastern EuropeMiddle East17%6%12%6%2%6%12%6%35%34%22%41%Whole MarketOTAs47%61%44%21%5%9%2%4%1%5%Whole MarketOTAs2.2 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.03 201920202021DomesticInternational2.9Madditiona

140、lnights1.4Madditionalnights1.0Madditionalnights341312471716813027201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced5,000 2,000 2,000 7,000 3,000 3,000 12,000 5,000 4,000 201920202021DirectIndirect&InducedOTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in South Korea boosting GDP and job creation.In particu

141、lar independent accommodations benefit from OTAs by accruing a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in South Korea also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travellers.The number of travellers organising travel to South Korea through OTAs increased steadil

142、y from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 16 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 24%of the 68 million room nights booked.In 2020,just 7 million room nights were b

143、ooked through OTAs,though as a share of the total 28 million room nights booked this was similar to 2019.There was a slight improvement in bookings in 2021,with 8 million nights booked through OTAs out of a total market of 32 million,again at a share of around one-quarter.SOUTH KOREAKEY INSIGHTSNigh

144、ts in All Accommodation Types in South Korea 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs in South Korea in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 201919,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 1.7M1,184BTotal incremental GDP impact attributable to O

145、TAs in 2019 38 39OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates the Korean accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of 12,450 per room night(7.0%reduction)across South Korea.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attributabl

146、e to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts across various sectors of the Korean economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 19,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 3,000 and 2,000 jobs,respectively.Job I

147、mpacts Attributable to OTAs in South Korea,2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional economic growth across South Korea.OTAs added an incremental 1,184 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed 182 billion to South Koreas GDP in 2020 and 112 billion to Korean GDP in 20

148、21.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(Billions)Attributable to OTAs in South Korea,2019-2021Additional Nights

149、(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021444547465249515222243345810131678474852526059646828322012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-15,391-14,263-15,9382019202020211.7 0.3 0.3 2019202020211,18418211220192020202119,000 3,000 2,000 2019

150、20202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings made up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the whole market in 2019.However,this was reversed in 2020 and 2021 as international visits declined sharply due to restrictions imposed.In 2019,the international share of OTA bookin

151、gs was slightly higher than that for the market as a whole.However,the international share of OTA nights was smaller than the broader market in 2020-21,alongside a significant pandemic-related fall in international visitors in the whole market and for OTA stays specifically.41OTAs support particular

152、 segments of the market OTA bookings in South Korea tended to be more oriented towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,73%of bookings made via OTAs were independent compared to 44%across the wider market;this relative difference(and the shares of bookings)were similar to

153、 this in 2020 and 2021.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in South KoreaShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are important for alternative accommodationGuests have been slightly more strongly orientated towards alternative accommodations

154、 when booking travel through OTAs.In 2021,19%of bookings via OTAs were alternative accommodations compared with 16%for the market as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in South KoreaShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)R

155、ural bookings are on the rise The rural booking index increased significantly above trend in 2020.OTAs have demonstrated they can quickly accommodate changes in consumer preferences.OTA Rural Booking Index in South Korea2012-2021Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummary Impacts of OTAs in South K

156、orea,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts19,0003,0002,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+1.7M+0.3M+0.3Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP Impacts1,184B 182B 112B incremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-15,531-14,263-15,938 reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily

157、 rates201920202021SOUTH KOREAOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in South KoreaShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 40989092959295100100123107201220132014201520162017201820192020202153%58%20%13%7%3%47%42%80%87%93%97%Wh

158、olemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic56%27%54%27%56%27%44%73%46%73%44%73%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent75%67%82%77%84%81%25%33%18%23%16%19%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlterna

159、tive AccommodationOTAs support a wide variety of travel to South Korea from both other APAC countries and further afieldAlmost 70%of international travel booked on OTAs in South Korea is from countries elsewhere in APAC.This includes 20%from Japan,12%from China and 36%from other countries in APAC.By

160、 comparison,for the market as a whole,arrivals from APAC accounted for 78%of international overnight stays slightly higher than the share accounted for by OTA bookings.Over 30%of OTA-linked international stays originated from long-haul markets higher than the share of long-haul arrivals for the mark

161、et overall(22%).OTA support for long-haul arrivals is primarily directed towards arrivals from Western Europe,with the region accounting for 46%of OTA bookings compared to 28%of all international overnight visits.By contrast,OTAs provide relatively less support for visitors from North America these

162、visitors accounted for 17%of OTA bookings,as opposed to 47%of all international arrivals.The support provided by OTAs was also larger than the broader market presence for visitors from Central and Eastern Europe and the Middle East.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditiona

163、l Nights in Alternative AccommodationThousands of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)OtherChinaJapanIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsBillions of Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Touri

164、sm Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgings,though these impacts were small in South Korea in 2020 and 2021Economic impacts are generated through the additional spending associated

165、with non-hotel staying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated 21 billion in total incremental GDP and just under 400 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019.43Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to South Korea,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul I

166、nternational TravelOrigin of long-haul travel to South Korea,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 42MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodation

167、s in South Korea,though this impact was small in 2020-21.In 2021,bookings via OTAs generated an additional 43,000 nights in South Korea.Western EuropeCentral and Eastern EuropeNorth AmericaMiddle East23%20%17%12%38%36%22%31%Whole MarketOTAs28%46%19%25%47%17%2%7%2%4%Whole MarketOTAs40 21 20 695 48 23

168、 201920202021DomesticInternational735additionalnights69additionalnights43additionalnights1512393914321201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced2,100 4,200 6,300 700 400 201920202021DirectIndirect&InducedOTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in New Zealand boosting GDP and job creation.In

169、 particular independent accommodations benefit from OTAs by accruing a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in New Zealand also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travellers.The number of travellers organising travel to New Zealand through OTAs increased

170、 steadily from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 14 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 33%of the 42 million total room nights booked a higher share than in prev

171、ious years.In 2020,only 6 million room nights were booked through OTAs,representing 24%of the total 24 million room nights booked.There was a further decline in total bookings in 2021,with 4 million nights booked through OTAs out of a total market of 22 million(18%).NEW ZEALANDKEY INSIGHTSNights in

172、All Accommodation Types in New Zealand 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs in New Zealand in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 201911,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 1.4MNZ$1.1B Total incremental GDP impact attributable to OTAs

173、in 2019 44 45OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in New Zealands accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of NZ$16.50 per room night(8.6%reduction)across New Zealand.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attribut

174、able to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts across various sectors of New Zealands economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 11,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 7,000 and 6,000 jobs respectively.

175、Job Impacts Attributable to OTAs in New Zealand,2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional economic growth across New Zealand.OTAs added an incremental NZ$1.1 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed NZ$0.7 billion to New Zealands GDP in 2020 and NZ$0.6 billion to New

176、Zealands GDP in 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(NZ$Billions)Attributable to OTAs in New Zealand,2019-

177、2021Additional Nights(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-20212828292928282728181834681012131464313335363939404224222012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-$18-$15-$142019202020211.4 0.8 0.7 201920202021$1.1$0.7$0.620192020202111,000 7,

178、000 7,000 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings have tended to make up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the market as a whole The international proportion of OTA bookings was higher than that for the market as a whole in 2019 and 2020.However,the internatio

179、nal share of bookings was slightly lower for OTAs than the wider market in 2021,as the international tourist presence in New Zealand fell dramatically due to restrictions on inbound arrivals.47OTAs support particular segments of the market OTA bookings in New Zealand have tended to be more oriented

180、towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,69%of bookings made via OTAs were independent,compared to 54%across the wider market.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in New ZealandShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOT

181、As are important for alternative accommodationGuests are much more strongly oriented towards alternative accommodations when booking through OTAs.In 2021,69%of sales booked on OTAs were for alternative accommodations compared to 23%for the market as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Ch

182、aracteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in New ZealandShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)Rural bookings are on the rise The rural booking index increased significantly above trend in 2020.OTAs have demonstrated they can quickly accommodate changes in consumer preferences.O

183、TA Rural Booking Index in New Zealand2012-2021Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummary Impacts of OTAs in New Zealand,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts11,0007,0007,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+1.4M+0.8M+0.7Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP ImpactsNZ$1.1B NZ$0.7B NZ$0.6B increment

184、al GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-NZ$18-NZ$15-NZ$14 reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021NEW ZEALAND OTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in New ZealandShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MAR

185、KET CHARACTERISTICS 46949898989810099100101106201220132014201520162017201820192020202145%56%23%34%9%6%55%44%77%66%91%94%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic43%30%45%31%46%31%57%70%55%69%54%69%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded c

186、hainsIndependent79%26%78%27%77%31%21%74%22%73%23%69%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlternative AccommodationOTAs provide relatively more support for long-haul markets compared to the broader market composition.Just over half of international overnight stays in New Zea

187、land booked through OTAs were arranged by individuals from elsewhere in APAC,By comparison,for the market as a whole,arrivals from APAC accounted for 76%of total international overnight stays.OTA international overnight bookings from long-haul markets were almost double the size of the market overal

188、l(in percentage share terms).OTAs support for long-haul arrivals is primarily directed towards arrivals from Western Europe,with this region accounting for 72%of OTA bookings compared to 52%of all international overnight arrivals.By contrast,OTAs provided relatively less support for visitors from No

189、rth America these visitors accounted for 14%of OTA bookings,as opposed to 33%of all international arrivals.For other long-haul regions,the support provided by OTAs was relatively small and typically similar to their broader market presence.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreA

190、dditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationMillions of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)OtherChinaAustraliaIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsNZ$BillionsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSo

191、urce:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgingsOTAs generate economic impacts for alternative accommodations in the form of additional spending associated with non-hotel stayi

192、ng guests.In 2021,OTAs generated NZ$0.4 billion in total incremental GDP and 5,000 total jobs although both were higher in 2019.49Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to New Zealand,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul International TravelOrigin of long-haul

193、travel to New Zealand,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 48MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in New Zealand.In 2021,bookings via O

194、TAs generated an additional 0.5 million nights in New Zealand.Western EuropeNorth AmericaSouth America40%27%4%9%33%19%24%46%Whole MarketOTAs52%72%33%14%4%5%12%8%Whole MarketOTAs0.7 0.7 0.5 0.4 201920202021DomesticInternational1.1Madditionalnights0.7Madditionalnights0.5Madditionalnights$0.3$0.2$0.1$0

195、.5$0.4$0.3$0.8$0.5$0.4201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced4,000 2,000 2,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 8,000 5,000 5,000 201920202021DirectIndirect&InducedOTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in Singapore boosting GDP and job creation.In particular independent accommodations benefit from OT

196、As by accruing a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in Singapore also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travelers.The number of travellers organising travel to Singapore through OTAs increased steadily from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pande

197、mic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 29 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 51%of the 57 million room nights booked a higher share than in previous years.In 2020,just 4 million room nights were booked through

198、 OTAs,equivalent to 29%of the total 13 million room nights.There was a further decline in total bookings in 2021 with 2 million nights booked through OTAs out of a total market of 6 million.SINGAPOREKEY INSIGHTSNights in All Accommodation Types in Singapore 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impact

199、s of OTAs in Singapore in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 20195,300Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 1.4MS$551M Total incremental GDP impact attributable to OTAs in 2019 50 51OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in the Singa

200、porean accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of S$24 per room night(9.2%reduction)across SingaporeReduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate signific

201、ant job impacts across various sectors of the Singaporean economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 5,300 jobs.In each of 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for around 600 jobs.Job Impacts Attributable to OTAs in Singapore 2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs gene

202、rate additional economic growth across Singapore.OTAs added an incremental S$551 million to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed S$56 million to Singapores GDP in 2020 and S$43 million in 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their

203、accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(S$Millions)Attributable to OTAs in Singapore,2019-2021Additional Nights(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-20213838363433343528956910121518202942444646464952555

204、71362012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-$30-$13-$112019202020211.4 0.1 0.1 201920202021$551$56$432019202020215,300 600 600 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings make up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the who

205、le marketThe international proportion of OTA bookings was higher than that for the market as a whole in each of 2019,2020 and 2021.However,while the share of OTA-linked travel accounted for by international visitors has remained higher than that for the broader market,the international share of both

206、 has fallen alongside the pandemic restrictions on arrivals.53OTAs support particular segments of the market OTA bookings in Singapore have tended to be more oriented towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,52%of sales booked on OTAs were independent compared to a 48%sha

207、re across the wider market a narrower difference than in previous years.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in SingaporeShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are important for alternative accommodationIn 2019 and 2020,guests were slightly

208、more oriented towards alternative accommodation when booking through OTAs.However,in 2021 this was reversed,with 23%of bookings via OTAs having been for alternative accommodations compared with 35%for the market as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to W

209、hole Market in SingaporeShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)OTA platforms impact rates across the whole marketPrice reduction effects are stronger for hotels that advertise on OTAs compared to those that do not.Those listed on OTAs saw an average reduction of 15%;those not listed

210、saw an average reduction of 4%.Total impact of OTA Activity on Average Daily Rates in Singapore in 2019Percentage Reduction in Daily RatesSource:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummary Impacts of OTAs in Singapore,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts5,300600600jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+1.4M+0

211、.1M+0.1Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP ImpactsS$551M S$56M S$43M incremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-S$30-S$13-S$11 reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021SINGAPOREOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compare

212、d to Whole Market in SingaporeShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 5289%97%66%77%11%34%11%3%34%23%89%66%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic49%35%51%40%52%48%51%65%49%60%48%52%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021

213、Branded chainsIndependent81%78%76%74%65%77%19%22%24%26%35%23%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlternative Accommodation-12%-6%-9%-17%-2%-11%-15%-4%-10%Hotels on OTAsHotels not on OTAsAll hotelsBranded chainsIndependentAllOTAs support a wide variety of travel to Singapor

214、e from both other APAC countries and further afield.Two-thirds of international travel booked on OTAs in Singapore is from countries elsewhere in APAC the same share as accounted for by APAC source markets for the market as a whole.This includes 9%from Australia,7%from China and 50%from other APAC c

215、ountries,which again was almost identical to the broader market composition.This means that OTAs provided a level of support that broadly reflected the wider market composition.The remaining one-third of inbound OTA-linked stays originated from long-haul markets.The majority of this was accounted fo

216、r by individuals booking from countries in Western Europe.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationThousands of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)ChinaAustraliaIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative Accommodat

217、ionsS$MillionsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgingsEconomic impact

218、s are generated through the additional spending associated with non-hotel staying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated S$10 million in total incremental GDP and 100 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019.55Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to Singapore,sh

219、are of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul International TravelTop origin markets of long-haul travel to Singapore,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 54MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased

220、the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in Singapore,though these impacts were small in 2020-21.In 2021,bookings via OTAs generated an additional 29,000 nights in Singapore.Western EuropeNorth America8%9%9%7%49%50%34%34%Whole MarketOTAs68%83%29%17%Whole MarketOTAs50 38 27 250 15

221、2 201920202021DomesticInternational300additionalnights54additionalnights29additionalnights600 600 1,200 200 100 201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced$55$67$5$122$14$10201920202021DirectIndirect&InducedOTAs generate additional travel demand for accommodation in Thailand boosting GDP and job creation.In

222、particular independent accommodations benefit from OTAs by accruing a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in Thailand also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to travellers.The number of travellers organising travel to Thailand through OTAs increased steadi

223、ly from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 95 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,representing 10%of the 1.0 billion room nights booked(a higher share than in prior years).In

224、2020,only 31 million room nights were booked through OTAs,equivalent to 6%of the total 536 million room nights.OTA bookings fell slightly in 2021 to 28 million nights,compared to a total market similar to the previous year(representing a share of 5%).THAILANDKEY INSIGHTSNights in All Accommodation T

225、ypes in Thailand 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs in Thailand in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 201969,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 13.3MTHB 29.2B Total incremental GDP impact attributable to OTAs in 2019 56 57OTAS MAKE

226、 TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in the Thai accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of THB 183 per room night(5.2%reduction)across Thailand.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rates Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GEN

227、ERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts across various sectors of the Thai economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 69,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 21,000 jobs and 11,000 jobs respectively.Job Impacts Attributable to

228、 OTAs in Thailand 2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional economic growth across Thailand.OTAs added an incremental THB 29.2 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed THB 7.7 billion to Thailands GDP in 2020 and THB 3.4 billion in 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND T

229、HE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(THB Billions)Attributable to OTAs in Thailand,2019-2021Additional Nights(Millions)in All Accommodation At

230、tributable to OTAs,2019-2021659692701729784824869905505509233135435769789531286827227367728418939471,0005365372012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-THB 210-THB 146-THB 10420192020202113.3 5.3 3.8 201920202021THB 29.2THB 7.7THB 3.420192020202169,000 21,00

231、0 11,000 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings make up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the whole marketThe international proportion of OTA bookings was significantly higher than the market as a whole in each of 2019,2020 and 2021,though the overall presenc

232、e of international bookings declined notably(for OTA-linked stays and in general)as a result of the pandemic.59OTAs support particular segments of the market OTA bookings in Thailand have tended to be more oriented towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,82%of bookings m

233、ade via OTAs were with independent providers,compared to 58%across the wider market.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in ThailandShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are important for alternative accommodationIn 2019,OTA-linked stays in

234、dicated similar preferences to the wider market.In 2020 and 2021,however,guests have been less oriented towards alternative accommodations when booking through OTAs(compared to the market as a whole).Nevertheless,alternative accommodation options still accounted for 40%of OTA-linked stays in Thailan

235、d in 2021(as opposed to 64%for the broader market).Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in ThailandShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)Rural bookings are on the rise The rural booking index increased significantly above trend in

236、2020.OTAs have demonstrated they can quickly accommodate changes in consumer preferences.OTA Rural Booking Index in Thailand2012-2021Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummary Impacts of OTAs in Thailand,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts69,00021,00011,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+13.3M

237、+5.3M+3.8Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nightsGDP ImpactsTHB 29.2B THB 7.7B THB 3.4B incremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-THB 210-THB 146-THB 104 reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021THAILANDOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characterist

238、ics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in ThailandShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 58839096989999100100116109201220132014201520162017201820192020202128%69%10%34%1%11%72%31%90%66%99%89%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic38%25%39%18

239、%42%18%62%75%61%82%58%82%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent53%52%42%52%36%60%47%48%58%48%64%40%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlternative AccommodationOTAs support a wide variety of travel to Thailand from both other APA

240、C countries and further afield.More than 60%of international travel booked on OTAs in Thailand is from countries elsewhere in APAC.By comparison,for the market as a whole,arrivals from APAC accounted for 44%of international overnight stays.Under 40%of OTA-linked international stays originated from l

241、ong-haul markets lower than the share of long-haul visitors for the market as a whole(56%),indicating that OTAs provided relatively less support for such travellers.Among long-haul markets,Western Europe accounted for around two-thirds of both OTA-linked travel and the whole market.A moderately larg

242、er share of OTA-linked travel was accounted for by travellers originating in Emerging Europe and the Middle East,compared to their share of the overall market for long-haul visitors.By contrast,a much lower share of OTA-linked travel was made up by individuals from North America than their wider mar

243、ket prominence.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationPercentage increase in nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)OtherChinaIncremental GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsBillions of THBSource:Tourism Eco

244、nomics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and jobs for alternative lodgingsEconomic impacts are generated through the addi

245、tional spending associated with non-hotel staying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated 1.3 billion THB in total incremental GDP and 4,000 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019.61Composition of International TravelOrigin of international travel to Thailand,share of overnights,2019Compos

246、ition of Long-Haul International TravelOrigin of long-haul travel to Thailand,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 60MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternat

247、ive accommodations in Thailand,accounted for almost entirely by domestic travellers.In 2021,bookings via OTAs increased the number of overnight stays by 0.7%.Western EuropeCentral and Eastern EuropeMiddle EastNorth America23%7%21%55%56%38%Whole MarketOTAs66%64%12%17%4%9%15%6%2%4%Whole MarketOTAsTHB

248、6.8THB 1.8THB 7.3THB 1.9THB 14.0THB 3.7THB 1.3201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced21,000 7,000 3,000 12,000 3,000 33,000 10,000 4,000 201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced1.4%1.1%0.7%1.2%0.4%0.8%201920202021DomesticInternational1.3%increase innights1.0%increase innights0.7%increase innightsOTAs generate

249、additional travel demand for accommodation in Vietnam boosting GDP and job creation.In particular independent accommodations benefit from OTAs by accruing a larger share of bookings than the market average.Consumers in Vietnam also benefit from OTAs through more affordable rates offered to traveller

250、s.The number of travellers organising travel to Vietnam through OTAs increased strongly from 2012 to 2019,before the effects of the pandemic led to a sharp decline in all travel bookings.As shown in the accompanying chart,approximately 21 million room nights were booked through OTAs in 2019,represen

251、ting 11%of the 188 million total room nights booked.In 2020,just 8 million room nights were booked through OTAs,equivalent to 9%of the total 96 million nights.There was a further slight decline in 2021,with 5 million nights booked through OTAs out of a total market of 88 million(6%).VIETNAMKEY INSIG

252、HTSNights in All Accommodation Types in Vietnam 2012-2021Millions of Room NightsKey Impacts of OTAs in Vietnam in 2019Total incremental jobs impact attributable to OTAs in 201940,000Additional nights in accommodation generated by OTAs in 2019 1.7M VND 4,317B Total incremental GDP impact attributable

253、 to OTAs in 2019 62 63OTAS MAKE TRAVEL MORE AFFORDABLEIf OTAs did not exist rates in the Vietnamese accommodation market would be higher.Between 2014 and 2019,OTAs generated an average reduction in rates of VND 165,000 per room night(5.5%reduction)across Vietnam.Reduction in Average Daily Hotel Rate

254、s Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021OTAS GENERATE JOBS AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIESOTAs generate significant job impacts across various sectors of the Vietnamese economy.In 2019,the economic impacts attributable to OTAs included 40,000 jobs.In 2020 and 2021,OTAs were responsible for 6,000 and 3,000 jobs r

255、espectively.Job Impacts Attributable to OTAs in Vietnam 2019-2021OTAS CREATE ADDITIONAL GDP GROWTHOTAs generate additional economic growth across Vietnam.OTAs added an incremental VND 4,317 billion to the economy in 2019.OTAs contributed VND 653 billion to Vietnams GDP in 2020 and VND 315 billion in

256、 2021.OTAS INCREASE BOOKINGS&EXPAND THE MARKETOTAs provide businesses with an online platform to advertise their accommodation offer and expand their consumer base.OTAs also improve trust in providers,and reward quality.GDP Impacts(VND Billions)Attributable to OTAs in Vietnam,2019-2021Additional Nig

257、hts(Millions)in All Accommodation Attributable to OTAs,2019-2021931021131201291471591678882445710131721859710711812713816017618896882012201320142015201620172018201920202021Booked using other avenuesBooked using OTAs-VND 202-VND 142-VND 782019202020211.7 0.3 0.2 201920202021VND 4,317VND 653VND 315201

258、92020202140,000 6,000 3,000 201920202021Source:Tourism Economics(2022)International bookings make up a greater proportion of OTA bookings compared to the whole marketThe international proportion of OTA bookings was significantly higher than that for the market as a whole in 2019,though only slightly

259、 higher in 2020 and 2021(alongside a decline in all international visits due to pandemic restrictions).65OTAs support particular segments of the market OTA bookings in Vietnam have tended to be more oriented towards independent hotels compared to the market as a whole.In 2021,89%of bookings made via

260、 OTAs were with independent properties,compared to 56%across the whole market.Market Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in VietnamShare of Total Sales(Branded Chains&Independent)Source:Tourism Economics&BOTAs are important for alternative accommodationIn 2019,guests were slightly more

261、oriented towards alternative accommodations when booking travel through OTAs:42%of bookings made via OTAs were with alternative accommodation providers,compared to 37%for the wider market.However,in 2021 this reversed,with OTA bookings being less oriented towards alternative accommodation than the m

262、arket as a whole.Source:Tourism Economics&ComScoreMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in VietnamShare of Total Sales(Hotels&Alternative Accommodations)Rural bookings are on the riseThe rural booking index increased significantly above trend in 2020.OTAs have demonstrated they can

263、 quickly accommodate changes in consumer preferences.OTA Rural Booking Index in Vietnam2012-2021Source:Tourism Economics,ComScore,STRSummary Impacts of OTAs in Vietnam,2019-2021Amounts as IndicatedJob Impacts40,0006,0003,000jobsjobsjobsIncreasesin Travel+1.7M+0.3M+0.2Mroom nightsroom nightsroom nigh

264、tsGDP ImpactsVND 4,317B VND 653BVND 315Bincremental GDPincremental GDPincremental GDPMore Affordable-VND 202-VND 142-VND 78 reduced daily ratesreduced daily ratesreduced daily rates201920202021VIETNAMOTA DETAILSSource:Tourism Economics&BMarket Characteristics of OTAs Compared to Whole Market in Viet

265、namShare of Nights(International&Domestic)MARKET CHARACTERISTICS 6474828590939699100108100201220132014201520162017201820192020202137%51%16%18%2%3%63%49%84%82%98%97%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021InternationalDomestic35%18%43%13%44%11%65%82%57%87%56%89%WholemarketOTAsWholema

266、rketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021Branded chainsIndependent63%58%60%61%57%67%37%42%40%39%43%33%WholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAsWholemarketOTAs201920202021HotelsAlternative AccommodationOTAs primarily support travel from elsewhere in APAC,but with some additional support towards longer-haul source mar

267、kets.More than 70%of international overnight stays in Vietnam booked through OTAs were arranged by individuals from elsewhere in APAC,compared to 60%across the wider market.China and South Korea two key source markets for Vietnam represented a much smaller share of OTA-linked bookings(around 5%each)

268、compared to their share of all overnight international travel to the country overall.The opposite was true for travel from countries elsewhere in APAC these visitors accounted for almost two-thirds of OTA-linked bookings,compared to one-quarter of all international arrivals.OTA support for long-haul

269、 arrivals was mostly directed towards Western Europe 72%of OTA-linked long-haul stays,which was higher than the 56%of all long-haul visits accounted for by this region.OTAs were also relatively more prominent for visits from Central and Eastern Europe compared to that regions overall market presence

270、.However,the opposite was true for North America,for whom OTAs provided relatively less support.Source:Tourism Economics&BSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreAdditional Nights in Alternative AccommodationThousands of nightsSource:Tourism Economics&BRest of APACRest of World(LH)ChinaSouth KoreaIncrement

271、al GDP Impact for Alternative AccommodationsBillions of VNDSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreIncremental Employment Impact for Alternative AccommodationsJobsSource:Tourism Economics&ComScoreECONOMIC IMPACTS ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs generate incremental economic impacts in the form of GDP and

272、 jobs for alternative lodgingsEconomic impacts are generated through the additional spending associated with non-hotel staying guests.In 2021,OTAs generated 103 billion VND in total incremental GDP and 1,000 total jobs,although both were significantly higher in 2019.67Composition of International Tr

273、avelOrigin of international travel to Vietnam,share of overnights,2019Composition of Long-Haul International TravelTop origin markets of long-haul travel to Vietnam,share of overnights,2019COMPOSITION OF TRAVEL 66MARKET EXPANSION EFFECT ON ALTERNATIVE ACCOMMODATIONSOTAs support alternative lodgings

274、In each year from 2019 to 2021,OTAs increased the number of overnight stays in alternative accommodations in Vietnam.In 2021,bookings via OTAs generated an additional 64,000 nights in Vietnam.Western EuropeCentral and Eastern EuropeNorth America18%4%16%5%26%64%40%27%Whole MarketOTAs56%72%8%17%36%11%

275、Whole MarketOTAs127 85 60 451 29 5 201920202021DomesticInternational578additionalnights114additionalnights64additionalnightsVND 1,299VND 533VND 1,832VND 256VND 103201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced11,000 2,000 6,000 1,000 17,000 3,000 1,000 201920202021DirectIndirect&Induced 68 69 69In these appendi

276、ces we explain how OTA influence,the key explanatory variable used in the analysis,was constructed(Appendix 1).We also describe the econometric equations used to estimate OTA impact on nights and average daily rates(Appendix 2).This study assessed the impact of OTAs in three global regions:North Ame

277、rica,Europe,and APAC.We produced estimates for individual countries within these regions as well as for the regions as a whole.This report presents the results for Europe and 17 selected markets.Estimates for the key explanatory variable were developed for each of the markets examined in the study.E

278、conometric equations were developed using a panel dataset which included all countries considered in the study(across the three regions)and covered the period 2012 to 2021,where data was available.APPENDICESINTRODUCTIONThe key markets considered in this study are:1.Asia Pacific(8 markets)Australia I

279、ndia Japan New Zealand Singapore South Korea Thailand Vietnam2.North America(2 markets)Canada USA Note:findings for key states and metro areas in the US are also reported.3.Europe(17 markets)Austria Bulgaria Croatia Czechia Denmark Estonia France Italy GermanyGEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE Greece Malta Nethe

280、rlands Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland UK APPENDIX 1DEVELOPMENT OF THE OTA INFLUENCE VARIABLEOTA influence is a measure of OTAs share of online travel research,in each country for each year in the survey.By using this as the explanatory variable in the analysis,it is possible to assess how changes

281、 in the use of OTAs(as distinct from changes in online usage)affect the key outcomes variables.The measure of OTA influence in the online travel market was constructed using two different methodologies:i)the“top-down”approach;and ii)the“bottom up”approach.By using two different methods to measure OT

282、A influence,the estimated impact of OTAs can be validated by comparing the results of each method.The bottom-up approach aggregates and scales B activity data(e.g.number of transactions)to estimate the overall level of OTA activity,while the top-down approach calculates OTA influence by identifying

283、the OTA share of online travel activity.OTA influence calculated in this way includes travel booked through OTAs as well as travel activity researched through these platforms but booked in other ways.The Bottom-Up ApproachThe bottom-up approach to estimating OTA influence combines information from B

284、 on the overall number of bookings and the number of room nights booked on its own website,and an estimate of the share of OTA activity accounted for by B.Essentially the bottom-up measure is an estimate of the total bookings,guests,and room nights booked through OTAs,in each of the countries examin

285、ed in this study.(The measure can be presented both as an absolute value,or as a share of online travel research see further discussion in the next section,below.)B provided the data on the total number and value of transactions and the length of stay booked on B,on a yearly basis for 2012-2021(incl

286、usive),for all geographies it currently operates within.Information that allowed chain and non-chain(independents)accommodation bookings to be identified as well as the country of origin of each transaction was also provided.Information on the number of guests per booking was not available to B,so t

287、otal guests were instead calculated using an assumption that the average number of guests per booking is 1.5,which is in line with previous work by Oxford Economics on average room occupancy.To estimate the B share of the online sector,Oxford Economics used data from ComScore which tracks unique vis

288、itors to an exhaustive list of online travel sites.This was used to calculate the B share of unique visitors to all OTAs,as well as the share of all travel research accounted for by OTAs.To obtain the volume of transactions,guests and room nights influenced across all OTAs,activity for B was divided

289、 by Bs estimated share of OTA visits by geography.This implicitly assumes that unique visitors to B do not have a higher propensity to book(for example)than consumers on other OTAs,and that the average length of stay for bookings on B is representative of the average length of stay for other OTAs.Th

290、e final stage of the analysis was to convert our results from a source market basis(i.e.country of consumer origin)to a destination basis(i.e.by geography in which the accommodations are based).To do this, data was used to create a matrix of source-destination flows for all geographies within the re

291、gions of the study,of which a simplified version is shown in the table below(note,numbers are for illustrative purposes only).In this table,the source countries are shown in the columns and the destination countries in the rows.The resulting diagonal elements show domestic travel,while the off-diago

292、nal elements refer to foreign or outbound travel.This matrix can then be applied to the number of OTA influenced trips and room nights for each source market to determine the destination size of OTA influence.The levels of OTA activity,thus obtained,were compared to the total travel demand by destin

293、ation market to obtain a share of guests,room nights,and transaction value accounted for by OTAs.The estimates of total travel demand by source market were taken from the Oxford Economics Global Travel Service(GTS)model.This model includes historic data and forecasts for visits,room nights and spend

294、 for 185 countries as both source markets and destinations,including bilateral country-to-country flows.It provides a comprehensive view of the total travel market for comparison with the estimated OTA impacts.70 71 71The Top-Down ApproachThe top-down approach to estimating OTA influence instead sta

295、rts by identifying the share of a countrys population that are internet users,and estimates the proportion of those users that relied on OTAs for their travel and research decisions.The total population and rate of internet penetration in each country,for 2012-2021(inclusive),were based on data prov

296、ided by the World Bank.Rates of internet penetration were corroborated with other sources such as Internet Live Stats to ensure measurement was consistent across countries this was used for validation purposes only,and was not used for any further calculations.To identify the proportion of the onlin

297、e population that used the internet to research travel decisions specifically,ComScore data was used.The results from this analysis were checked against results from previous studies.To identify the size of the OTA segment,ComScore data was again used to calculate OTAs share of unique visits to all

298、online travel sites.Combining these data with previous estimates for the total online population researching travel provides the top-down measure of OTA influence.This share is then applied to data on trips(from our GTS model)to determine the proportion of trips that were influenced by OTAs.Data on

299、average length of stay is then used to convert influenced trips to influenced room nights.Average length of stay data is also included within Tourism Economics GTS model.As with the bottom-up estimation,these data were converted from a source country basis to a destinations basis,using data on origi

300、n/destination travel patterns based on the GTS model.Source-Destination MatrixTop-Down MethodologyGermanyFranceUnited KingdomGermany0.800.100.10France0.150.600.25United Kingdom0.050.300.65GroupNumber of individuals(millions)Proportion of prior groupData SourceOnline Population67World BankResearching

301、 Travel520.785ComScoreUsing OTAs270.515ComScoreBy way of example,the table above shows the steps to calculate the level of OTA influence for UK in 2019.Using the figures presented above,the proportion of the UKs online population using OTAs is 40%(27M/67M).APPENDIX 2ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS 72 73 73Equa

302、tions to estimate OTA impact on additional nights OTAs impact on additional room nights was estimated using the measure of OTA influence as an explanatory variable in an econometric specification.The basic econometric specification employed is a reduced form version of Oxford Economics global touris

303、m model,which regresses the number of hotel nights stayed by country of consumer origin on key economic indicators in each country,including GDP,unemployment and exchange rates.The estimation is given by the equation belowNights-Equation 1Coefficients have been imposed on GDP,unemployment and exchan

304、ge rates,according to prior estimation results,to avoid excess explanatory power attributed to any new indicators;additional indicators of online and OTA influence therefore only help to explain current equation errors and time trends.These panel data equations have been estimated using generalised

305、least squares(GLS)with cross-section weights,for the entire set of countries examined in the study between 2012 and 2021.Cross-section weights were applied to place greater weight on the more reliable country flows and relationships.Weights were derived from the inverse of the equation standard devi

306、ation for each country in an initial unweighted calculation.To determine whether the OTA influence has an incremental impact on nights,OTA influence was added as an explanatory variable to the basic specification,see equations below.As these equations show,indicators of online research and OTA influ

307、ence were initially included individually to confirm that these do help to improve estimates and explain a proportion of the error and exogenous trends in the prior specification.This also clarifies that using OTA influence alone would overstate the impact by providing a similar impact to the inclus

308、ion of online research as they follow a similar trend over time.As a result,the size of the online population was added as a further explanatory variable to ensure that OTA influence which can be expected to be strongly correlated with the use of the internet isolates increased OTA usage from online

309、 usage altogether.Including both variables therefore ensures the additional impact of OTAs on room nights accounts for wider economic fluctuations and the broader impact of the internet on travel.Nights-Equation 2The final specification includes both online access(ONLINE)and the ratio of OTA transac

310、tions to online travel research(RESEARCH).This ratio is the propensity for travel research to involve an OTA,which has increased power to explain the OTA impact.In this equation(shown on the following page),OTA influence as a proportion of research is included as a lagged variable;i.e.the prior peri

311、ods OTA influence is used in the equation.If contemporaneous OTA influence was used instead,this would result in a high degree of collinearity between the OTA effect and the wider online effect.This would make it harder to identify the effect of each factor.The final specifications estimated dropped

312、 the trend term as it is statistically insignificant.Nights-Equation 3 74 75 75The final specification includes both online access(ONLINE)and the ratio of OTA transactions to online travel research(RESEARCH).This ratio is the propensity for travel research to involve an OTA,which has increased power

313、 to explain the OTA impact.In this equation,OTA influence as a proportion of research is included as a lagged variable;i.e.the prior periods OTA influence is used in the equation.If contemporaneous OTA influence was used instead,this would have resulted in a high degree of collinearity between the O

314、TA effect and the wider online effect.This would make it harder to identify the effect of each factor.The trend term was also dropped as it is statistically insignificant.This model was used to estimate the impact on total and foreign nights separately.The domestic impact can be derived from the dif

315、ference between the two.The estimation was calculated on a demand by origin(domestic and outbound)basis.So the final step was to convert these results to destination effects,taking into account overall demand uplift(i.e.estimation)as well as market share changes(from origin to destination flows in B

316、 data).Equations to estimate OTA impact on average daily ratesOne of the key beneficial effects of OTAs is the downward pressure they exert on average daily rates(ADR).As with room nights,an econometric model can be used to quantify the impact OTAs have on ADR.The econometric model is based on sever

317、al key drivers identified by Tourism Economics:Inflation(measured by the CPI index).ADR follows prices in the wider economy,reflecting increased costs and consumer purchasing power and;Cyclical hotel room occupancy,which ADR typically follows with a 6 month lag.These drivers,combined with country-sp

318、ecific fixed effects and a time trend are the components for a reduced form model of ADR.Although ADR and room occupancy are jointly determined,this does not occur contemporaneously.Therefore,as the cycles of ADR and occupancy are linked,lagged occupancy can be used to predict current ADR.The equati

319、ons have all been estimated using OLS over a panel dataset of the countries in the study between 2012 and 2021.STR provides data on the rates of hotel occupancy and ADR for the whole hotel market in each country.Monthly data(and daily data for some large markets)are collected by STR from a represent

320、ative sample of properties in each country and are summed to an annual level to provide the total census of hotel rooms.Average Daily Rates-Equation 1logADRit=0+1 trendt+2(CPIEit)+3 logOCC(it-1)+i+uitADR Average Daily Rate charged by hotels for rooms in USDCPIE Consumer Price Index converted to USD

321、terms from local currencyOCC average room occupancy rate for hotels 76 77 77Average Daily Rates-Equation 2 logADRit=0+1trendt+2(CPIEit)+3logOCC(it-1)+4log(OTA_NIGHTSit/DNIGHTSit)+5TRAV_RESEARCHit+i+uitADR Average Daily Rate charged by hotels for rooms in USDCPIE Consumer Price Index converted to USD

322、 terms from local currencyOCC average room occupancy rate for hotelsOTA_NIGHTS nights spent in hotels booked influenced by OTAs.This corresponds to the OTA indicator used in the additional nights equation,although OTA_NIGHTS relates to influenced nights whereas OTA relates to trips.DNIGHTS nights sp

323、ent by on trips within country i by residents and foreign visitorsTRAV_RESEARCH propensity to research tourism online in travel to country i relative to the regional average.It is defined as:(DRESEARCHi/DNIGHTSi)/(DRESEARCH EU/DNIGHTSEU)DRESEARCH-number of people using the internet for tourism resea

324、rch for country i as a destinationAverage Daily Rates-Equation 3logADR_CH_OTAit=0+1 trendt+2(CPIEit)+3 logOCC_CH(it-1)+4log(OTA_NIGHTSit/DNIGHTSit)+5 TRAV_RESEARCHit+i+uitlogADR_CH_NOTAit=0+1 trendt+2(CPIEit)+3 logOCC_CH(it-1)+4log(OTA_NIGHTSit/DNIGHTSit)+5TRAV_RESEARCHit+i+uitlogADR_IN_OTAit=0+1 tr

325、endt+2(CPIEit)+3logOCC_IN(it-1)+4log(OTA_NIGHTSit/DNIGHTSit)+5TRAV_RESEARCHit+i+uitlogADR_IN_NOTAit=0+1trendt+2(CPIEit)+3logOCC_IN(it-1)+4log(OTA_NIGHTSit/DNIGHTSit)+5 TRAV_RESEARCHit +i+uitADR Average Daily Rate charged by hotels for rooms in USD,by type of property_CH_OTA chain hotel sales through

326、 OTAs _CH_NOTA chain hotels sales not through OTAs_IN_OTA independent hotel sales through OTAs_IN_NOTA independent hotel sales not through OTAsOCC average room occupancy rate for hotels,by type of property CPIE Consumer Price Index converted to USD terms from local currencyOTA_NIGHTS nights spent in

327、 hotels booked influenced by OTAs.This corresponds to the OTA indicator used in the additional nights equation,although OTA_NIGHTS relates to influenced nights whereas OTA relates to trips.NIGHTS nights spent by residents of country i on trips abroad and within the countryTRAV_RESEARCH propensity to

328、 research tourism online in travel to country i relative to the regional average.Key AdjustmentTo account for changes in price parity regulation,additional dummy variables(for relevant years and countries)were included in the panel estimation to assess the OTA impact on additional room nights and av

329、erage daily rates.In some instances,there are apparent step changes in data in the years that policy changes came into force.The inclusion of these dummy variables allows quantification of the apparent policy effect distinct from all other underlying indicators.Different dummy indicators have been i

330、ncluded by type of policy change.The inclusion of these policy dummies improves the equation fit and adds greater confidence to the estimated coefficients,as well as highlighting some of the apparent risks.Dummy had the strongest effect on ADR,consistent with theory as some of the benefits of compar

331、ison,and increased competition,are eroded.As with the estimation procedure used for nights,an additional variable capturing the effect of online presence as a whole was used to isolate the specific effect of OTAs,see equation below.OTA_NIGHTS/DNIGHTS is the OTA-influenced share of room sales by nigh

332、ts.TRAV_RESEARCH is a relative measure of propensity to research travel online for a country compared to the specific regional average.This is a better indicator of prices over time and across countries and helps to explain some of the cross-country fixed effects and time trend.A greater propensity

333、to research travel online is related to a lower ADR.Using both of these measures improved model fit and ensured that the OTA effect was not overstated.Again,t-tests were run on the coefficients of interest to determine their statistical significance.In total,four final equations were estimated for ADR(chain OTA sales,non-chain OTA sales,chain non-OTA sales,non-chain non-OTA sales)and the impacts w

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