2020年美国风电发展报告 - Wind Vision(英文版)(58页).pdf

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2020年美国风电发展报告 - Wind Vision(英文版)(58页).pdf

1、Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States Executive Summary Table of Contentsii Table of Contents Message from the Director .xiii Acronyms .xv Executive Summary: Overview .xxiii Executive Summary: Key Chapter Findings .xxvii ES.1Introduction .xxvii ES.1.1Project Perspective and Appr

2、oach .xxvii ES.1.2Understanding the Future Potential for Wind Power .xxix ES.1.3Defining a Credible Scenario to Calculate Costs, Benefits, and Other Impacts .xxxi ES.2State of the Wind Industry: Recent Progress, Status and Emerging Trends .xxxiv ES.2.1Wind Power Markets and Economics .xxxv ES.2.2Nat

3、ional Social and Economic Impacts of Wind .xxxvi ES.2.3Wind Technology, Manufacturing, and Logistics .xxxvii ES.2.4Wind Integration and Delivery .xxxviii ES.2.5Wind Deployment: Siting, Regulation, and Collaboration .xxxix ES.3Costs, Benefits, and Other Impacts of the Study Scenario . xl ES.3.1Wind I

4、ndustry and Electric Sector Impacts . xl ES.3.2Costs of the Wind Vision Study Scenario .xlv ES.3.3Benefits of the Study Scenario .xlvi ES.3.4Additional Impacts Associated with the Study Scenario .xlix ES.3.5Impacts Specific to Offshore and Distributed Wind .li ES.4The Wind Vision Roadmap: A Pathway

5、Forward .li ES.4.1Core Roadmap Actions .lii ES.4.2Risk of Inaction .lvi ES.5Conclusions .lvi ES.5.1The Opportunity .lvi ES.5.2The Challenge .lvii ES.5.3Moving Forward .lvii 1Introduction to the Wind Vision .1 1.0Wind VisionHistorical Context .3 1.1Key Trends Motivating the Wind Vision .6 1.1.1Wind B

6、usiness Evolution .6 1.1.2Electric Sector Evolution .6 1.1.3Wind Manufacturing Sector Impacts . 7 1.1.4Economic and Environmental Impacts . 7 1.2Understanding the Future Potential for Wind Power .8 1.3Defining a Scenario for Calculating Costs, Benefits, and Other Impacts .11 1.4Project Implementatio

7、n .14 1.5Report Organization .15 Chapter 1 References .16 Table of Contents iii 2Wind Power in the United States .21 2.0Introduction .23 2.1Wind Power Markets and Economics .26 2.1.1Global Market Trends .26 2.1.2Domestic Market Trends .27 2.1.3Domestic Cost and Pricing Trends .29 2.1.4U.S. Electrici

8、ty Supply and Demand .34 2.1.5Market Drivers and Policy .38 2.1.6Conclusions .40 2.2Offshore Wind .40 2.2.1Status of the Offshore Industry .40 2.2.2Offshore Costs .41 2.2.3Offshore Deployment and Siting .42 2.2.4Conclusions .46 2.3Distributed Wind .46 2.3.1Conclusions .49 2.4Economic and Social Impa

9、cts of Wind for the Nation .50 2.4.1GHG Emissions .50 2.4.2Economic Development .51 2.4.3Workforce .52 2.4.4Air Pollution Impacts.55 2.4.5Water Use .55 2.4.6Risk and Diversity.56 2.4.7Conclusions .57 2.5Wind Technology and Performance .58 2.5.1U.S. Wind Power Resource and Resource Characterization .

10、 60 2.5.2Wind Plant Technology Status .62 2.5.3Wind Plant Performance and Reliability.68 2.5.4Aftermarket Upgrades and Repowering .72 2.5.5Offshore Technology .72 2.5.6Conclusions .76 2.6Supply Chain, Manufacturing, and Logistics .77 2.6.1Manufacturing Capacity and Demand.77 2.6.2Transportation and

11、Design Impacts .79 2.6.3Installation .81 2.6.4Conclusions .83 2.7Wind Integration and Delivery .83 2.7.1Wind Integration Studies .84 2.7.2Operational Experience .86 2.7.3Flexibility .88 2.7.4Transmission System Capacity . 90 2.7.5Industry Organizations are Addressing Wind Integration .93 2.7.6Conclusions .94 2.8Wind Siting, Permitting, and Deployment .95 2.8.1Public Acceptance and Environmental Concerns .96 2.8.2Regulatory Environment .107 2.8.3Conclusions .108 Table of Contents Table of Contents iv 2.9Collaboration, Education, and Outreach .109 2.9.1Federal .

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