联合国:2024世界迁徙物种状况报告(英文版)(88页).pdf

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联合国:2024世界迁徙物种状况报告(英文版)(88页).pdf

1、STATE OF THE WORLDS MIGRATORY SPECIESConvention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild AnimalsiiUNEP promotes environmentally sound practices globally and in its own activities.Our distribution policy aims to reduce UNEPs carbon footprint.State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesPrepared for:T

2、he Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(CMS).Copyright:2024 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.Citation:UNEP-WCMC,2024.State of the Worlds Migratory Species.UNEP-WCMC,Cambridge,United Kingdom.Authors:Frances Davis,And

3、rew Szopa-Comley,Sarah Rouse,Aude Caromel,Andy Arnell,Saloni Basrur,Nina Bhola,Holly Brooks,Giulia Costa-Domingo,Cleo Cunningham,Katie Hunter,Matt Kaplan,Abigail Sheppard and Kelly Malsch.Acknowledgements:This report was made possible by the generous financial contributions of the Governments of Aus

4、tralia,Switzerland,the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Arcadia Fund.UNEP-WCMC would also like to express their sincere thanks to colleagues from the CMS Secretariat for their expert input and review including Amy Fraenkel(Executive Secretary),Marco Barbieri,Aydin Bahraml

5、ouian,Clara Nobbe,Andrea Pauly,Melanie Virtue and Dagmar Zikova.UNEP-WCMC also sincerely thank the Zoological Society of London(ZSL)for their analysis of the Living Planet Index and BirdLife International for their analysis of the Red List Index and Key Biodiversity Areas for CMS-listed species,the

6、results of which are contained within the report.For their valuable contributions to the development and/or expert review of the report the authors thank:Stuart Butchart(BirdLife International),Gill Braulik(IMMA Secretariat),Lauren Coad(Centre for International Forestry Research),Olivia Crowe(BirdLi

7、fe International),William Darwall(IUCN),Stefanie Deinet(ZSL),Sarah Ferriss,Stephen Garnett(Charles Darwin University),Craig Hilton-Taylor(IUCN),Richard Jenkins(IUCN),Aaron Laur(Center for Large Landscape Conservation),Vicky Jones(BirdLife International),Diego Juffe-Bignoli,Louise McRae(ZSL),Giuseppe

8、 Notarbartolo di Sciara(IMMA Secretariat),Cecelia Passadore(International Whaling Commission),Tom Scott(BirdLife International),in addition to colleagues from UNEP-WCMC(Heather Bingham,Laura Bonesi,Adele Dixon,Jennifer Mark,Valerie Kapos,Aly Pavitt and Ciara Stafford).Layout:Ralph Design Ltd.Cover p

9、hoto:Southern Right Whale(Eubalaena australis).Lewis Burnett/Ocean Image Bank.The UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre(UNEP-WCMC)is a global Centre of excellence on biodiversity.The Centre operates as a collaboration between the UN Environment Programme and the UK-registered

10、 charity WCMC.Together we are confronting the global crisis facing nature.This publication may be reproduced for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission,provided acknowledgement to the source is made.Reuse of any figures is subject to permission from the original rights holders

11、.No use of this publication may be made for resale or any other commercial purpose without permission in writing from the UN Environment Programme.Applications for permission,with a statement of purpose and extent of reproduction,should be sent to the Director,UNEP-WCMC,219 Huntingdon Road,Cambridge

12、,CB3 0DL,UK.The contents of this report do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the UN Environment Programme,contributory organisations or editors.The designations employed and the presentations of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part

13、of the UN Environment Programme or contributory organisations,editors or publishers concerning the legal status of any country,territory,city area or its authorities,or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries or the designation of its name,frontiers or boundaries.The mention of a

14、commercial entity or product in this publication does not imply endorsement by the UN Environment Programme.UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre(UNEP-WCMC)219 Huntingdon Road,Cambridge CB3 0DL,UKTel:+44 1223 277314www.unep-wcmc.orgAdobe Stock|#102609995ContentsForeword ivExe

15、cutive Summary viRecommendations for priority actions ixIntroduction 1I.CMS at a glance 3The CMS Appendices .3The importance of migratory species.6II.STATE Conservation status 9Conservation status of CMS-listed species.10Beyond extinction risk:the IUCN Green Status of Species.13Trends in the conserv

16、ation status and population abundance of migratory species.14Migratory species that may benefit from increased protection or conservation action under CMS.19III.PRESSURE Threats to migratory species 25Overview of the threats to migratory species.25Overexploitation.31Habitat loss,degradation and frag

17、mentation.32Climate change.34Pollution.35Threats to important sites for migratory species 38IV.RESPONSE Actions to conserve migratory species and their habitats 43Implementation of legally binding obligations under CMS.43Reducing overexploitation,including mitigating incidental catch of non-target s

18、pecies.44Protecting and conserving key habitats for migratory species .46Promoting ecological connectivity by removing barriers to migration.48Ecosystem restoration.51Mitigating light pollution.53Conclusion 55References 57Annex A:Additional notes on the methods 63Annex B:Globally threatened or Near

19、Threatened migratory species not yet listed in the CMS Appendices 65iiiContentsSaiga Antelope(Saiga tatarica)ivForewordBillions of animals are regularly on the move every year.Migratory species include some of the most iconic species on the planet such as sea turtles,whales and sharks in our oceans,

20、elephants,wild cats,and herds of hooved species that cross plains and deserts,raptors,waterbirds and songbirds that cross through the skies,and even insects such as the monarch butterfly.With their incredible journeys connecting different parts of the world,migratory species provide a unique lens th

21、rough which we can understand the scale of the profound changes affecting our world.Migratory species rely on a variety of specific habitats at different times in their lifecycles.They regularly travel,sometimes thousands of miles,to reach these places.They face enormous challenges and threats along

22、 the way,as well at their destinations where they breed or feed.When species cross national borders,their survival depends on the efforts of all countries in which they are found.The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(CMS)was established in 1979 for this very reason:

23、international cooperation is essential for the conservation of migratory species.It is uniquely placed to bring countries and stakeholders together to agree on the actions needed to ensure that these species survive and thrive.Effective policies and actions for migratory species require a solid scie

24、ntific grounding to understand their conservation status,the areas they depend on,and the threats that they face.The information presented in this ground-breaking report,the first ever State of the Worlds Migratory Species,represents a significant milestone in efforts to synthesize and communicate t

25、he knowledge needed to drive forward action.The report finds that the conservation status of migratory species overall is deteriorating.Species listed for protection under CMS,despite positive successes,reflect this broader trend.The conservation needs and threats to migratory species need to be add

26、ressed with greater effectiveness,at a broader scale,and with renewed determination.In particular,urgent action is needed to prevent the extinction of species that are categorised as Critically Endangered and Endangered,which includes a substantial proportion of all of the marine and freshwater fish

27、 species(79%)and marine turtles(43%)that are listed under CMS.The report also highlights nearly 400 threatened species not currently covered by the Convention that deserve greater attention.Among the startling results,overexploitation emerges as the greatest threat for many migratory species,surpass

28、ing habitat loss and fragmentation.This includes the taking of species from the wild through intentional removal,such as through hunting and fishing,as well as the incidental capture of non-target species.Bycatch of non-target species in fisheries is a leading cause of mortality of many CMS-listed m

29、arine species.Habitat loss,fragmentation,and barriers to migratory movements continue to be a major threat facing migratory species.Globally,although 49%of the sites already identified as being important for CMS-listed species are subject to some level of protection,many critical sites for CMS-liste

30、d species are yet to be mapped.This information is crucial for area-based conservation measures,and in order for safeguards for migratory species related to investments in infrastructure and other economic activities to be fully met.Moreover,among the important sites for CMS-listed species that have

31、 been identified,well over half are facing unsustainable levels of human-caused pressure.Other key threats to migratory species include pollution(including light and noise pollution),climate change and invasive species.The good news is that the actions that are needed are clear,and are highlighted i

32、n the recommendations of this report.Among the most important:efforts need to be stepped up to address unsustainable and illegal taking of migratory species at the national level;bycatch and other incidental capture must be massively reduced;all important sites for migratory species need to be ident

33、ified;and actions need to be taken to protect or conserve such sites.Actions under CMS will be crucial for achieving the global commitments set out in the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.These include commitments to restore and establish well-connected networks of protected areas and

34、other effective area-based conservation measures,targets to halt human-induced extinctions and to ensure that any taking of wild species is sustainable,safe and legal,and targets to address climate change and pollution.Delivering on these commitments in a fair and just way will not only benefit migr

35、atory species but will also help secure a better future for people and nature.Producing the first ever State of the Worlds Migratory Species would not have been possible without the excellent collaboration between UNEP-WCMC and CMS,as well as the vital support of donors and the expertise provided by

36、 many dedicated reviewers.Migratory species are a shared natural treasure,and their survival is a shared conservation responsibility that transcends national boundaries.This landmark report will help underpin much-needed policy actions to ensure that migratory species continue to traverse the worlds

37、 skies,lands,oceans,lakes and rivers.Amy Fraenkel CMS Executive Secretary State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesCerulean Warbler(Setophaga cerulea)Adobe Stock|#244110911ForewordWhen we talk about the triple planetary crisis of climate change,nature and biodiversity loss and pollution and waste,we oft

38、en focus on hard-hit ecosystems and the communities and species that live,and suffer,in them year-round.We rarely talk about the migratory species that undertake astonishing journeys between these ecosystems,often through air,land and water increasingly damaged by unsustainable human activities.The

39、State of the Worlds Migratory Species for the first time sets out compelling evidence of the peril facing these awe-inspiring animals.The report finds that migratory species are being hit hard,particularly by overexploitation and habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation.As a result of these pressu

40、res,one in five CMS-listed species are threatened with extinction and 44 per cent have a decreasing population trend.The situation is far worse in aquatic ecosystems,with 97 per cent of Convention on Migratory Species(CMS)-listed migratory fish at risk of extinction.The urgency for action to protect

41、 and conserve these species becomes even greater when we consider the integral but undervalued role they play in maintaining the complex ecosystems that support a healthy planet by,for example,transferring nutrients between environments,performing migratory grazing that supports the maintenance of c

42、arbon-storing habitats,and pollination and seed dispersal services.There is hope,however.Building on the CMSs strong track record of protecting and conserving these species for over 40 years,the report translates a robust scientific understanding of the threats into a set of actions.The report calls

43、 for urgent and coordinated efforts to protect,connect and restore habitats,tackle overexploitation,reduce environmental pollution(including light and noise pollution),address climate change,and ensure that the protection of the CMS extends to all species in need of conservation.Under each area,the

44、report provides a clear set of concrete recommendations.This report is a significant step forward in the development of a conservation roadmap for migratory species.Given the precarious situation of many of these animals,and their critical role for healthy and well-functioning ecosystems,we must not

45、 miss this chance to act starting now by urgently implementing the recommendations set out in this report.Inger Andersen UN Under-Secretary-General&Executive Director,UN Environment ProgrammevForewordviState of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesExecutive SummaryMigratory species are found all over the wor

46、ld-on land,in the water and in the skies.Traversing thousands of miles,these species rely on a diverse range of habitats for feeding,breeding and resting,and in turn,play an essential role in the maintenance of healthy and functional ecosystems.Often their migrations take them across national border

47、s,and thus international cooperation is essential for their conservation and survival.The recognition of this need led to the negotiation of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(CMS),which came into force in 1979.CMS is the global treaty that addresses the conserva

48、tion and effective management of migratory species and their habitats.The Convention aims to conserve migratory species,particularly those listed in its two Appendices and those included in a range of CMS instruments,through international cooperation and coordinated conservation action.This report,t

49、he first ever State of the Worlds Migratory Species,provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of the conservation status of migratory species.It summarizes their current status and trends,identifies the key pressures they face,and highlights illustrative examples of the efforts underway to cons

50、erve and promote the recovery of these species.It aims to improve conservation outcomes for migratory species,by providing support for evidence-based decision-making by CMS Parties,and more broadly,by raising awareness of the challenges and success stories in the conservation of migratory species.Th

51、e report was produced in response to a decision adopted at COP13 in 2020,which mandated that work be undertaken to further develop the preliminary review of conservation status submitted to COP13.The focus of this report is on those species listed in the CMS Appendices;however,as other migratory spe

52、cies may benefit from protection under CMS,it also provides information on the wider group of all migratory species.The available evidence suggests that the conservation status of many CMS-listed species is deteriorating.One in five CMS species are threatened with extinction and a substantial propor

53、tion(44%)are undergoing population declines.When considering the Appendices separately,82%of Appendix I species are threatened with extinction and 76%have a declining population trend.Meanwhile,18%of Appendix II species are globally threatened,with almost half(42%)showing decreasing population trend

54、s.The current situation and trajectory of CMS-listed fish is of particular concern,with nearly all(97%)of CMS-listed fish threatened with extinction.Indeed,on average,there has been a steep decline in the relative abundance of monitored fish populations over the last 50 years.Levels of extinction ri

55、sk are rising across CMS-listed species as a whole.Between 1988 and 2020,70 CMS species showed a deterioration in conservation status,substantially more than the 14 species that showed an improvement in conservation status.Extinction risk is also escalating across the wider group of migratory specie

56、s not listed in CMS.A novel analysis produced for this report identified 399 globally threatened and Near Threatened migratory species(mainly birds and fish)that are not yet listed in the CMS Appendices that may benefit from international protection.The deteriorating status of migratory species is b

57、eing driven by intense levels of anthropogenic pressure.Due to their mobility,their reliance on multiple habitats,and their dependence on connectivity between different sites,migratory species are exposed to a diverse range of threats caused by human activity.Most migratory species are affected by a

58、 combination of threats,which often interact to exacerbate one another.Habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation(primarily driven by agriculture),and overexploitation(hunting and fishing,both targeted and incidental)represent the two most pervasive threats to migratory species and their habitats ac

59、cording to the IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM.Pollution,including pesticides,plastics,heavy metals and excess nutrients,as well as underwater noise and light pollution,represents a further source of pressure facing many species.The impacts of climate change are already being felt by many migr

60、atory species,and these impacts are expected to increase considerably over the coming decades,not just as a direct threat to species but also as an amplifier of other threats.Importantly,habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation is increasingly disrupting the ability of migratory species to move fr

61、eely along their migration routes,particularly when large areas of continuous habitat are converted into smaller,isolated patches that can no longer facilitate these movements.Additionally,obstacles to migration,ranging from physical infrastructure like roads,railways,fences Silky Sharks(Carcharhinu

62、s falciformis)are Vulnerable to extinction,and listed in CMS Appendix II.Adobe StockAdobe Stock|#423672865viiExecutive Summaryand dams to non-physical barriers such as disturbance from industrial development and shipping traffic,represent formidable barriers to migratory populations.By constraining

63、the movement of migratory animals,growing anthropogenic impacts on vital migration corridors and stopover sites pose a significant threat to the phenomenon of migration itself.Indeed,58%of monitored sites that are recognized to be important for CMS-listed species are facing unsustainable levels of a

64、nthropogenic pressure.Given the breadth and scale of the pressures facing migratory species,coordinated international action is urgently needed to reverse population declines and preserve these species and their habitats.Fortunately,although some important data gaps remain,many of the threats facing

65、 migratory species are well understood.Crucially,a wealth of knowledge exists on the responses and solutions that are required to help migratory populations recover.Collaborative actions designed to improve the conservation status of migratory species are already underway under CMS,from internationa

66、l task forces addressing the illegal killing of birds,to multistakeholder platforms to support the sustainable deployment of renewable energy infrastructure without negatively impacting migratory species.However,to curb losses and to promote the recovery of migratory species,these efforts need to be

67、 strengthened and scaled up.This should include actions to expand the global network of protected and conserved areas,particularly those areas of importance to migratory species,in line with global targets,while also working to improve the condition and effective management of sites.Maintaining and

68、enhancing the connectivity between these sites should also be a key priority,in part through the targeted restoration of degraded habitats.Coordinated action is also required to combat overexploitation,including the expansion of collaborative international initiatives to prevent the illegal or unsus

69、tainable taking of migratory species.The Convention on Migratory Species provides a global platform for international cooperation,and active engagement across governments,communities and all other stakeholders is critical for addressing the myriad of challenges that migratory species face.With recen

70、tly renewed global commitments established to address the threats to biodiversity through the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework,and with the adoption of a new strategy anticipated at CMS COP14,collective efforts to follow through on these commitments and deliver on ambitions for migrato

71、ry species are urgently needed.Maintaining and enhancing ecological connectivity,including by removing or mitigating physical obstacles to migration,is vital in ensuring the survival of migratory species.Adobe Stock|#192839995viiiState of the Worlds Migratory Speciespressure399aNTglobal extinction r

72、isk8Recommendations for priority actionsBased on the findings of this report,the following key actions should be prioritized:Protect,connect and restore habitats l Identify key sites for migratory species along their entire migratory pathways.Further work is needed to identify critical habitats and

73、sites for migratory species.For example,Key Biodiversity Areas(KBAs)identify nearly 10,000 important sites for CMS-listed species,but there are taxonomic and geographic gaps in the existing site network,particularly for migratory terrestrial mammals,aquatic mammals and fish,and in the Caribbean,Cent

74、ral and South America and Oceania.Other priority site identification processes relevant for specific taxonomic groups can also support CMS efforts to identify and protect key sites.l Increase the coverage of KBAs and other critical habitats by protected and conserved areas.In line with global target

75、s to expand the network of protected and conserved areas to over 30%by 2030,prioritizing those sites that are important for biodiversity is vital to ensuring successful outcomes for nature.Currently more than half of the area of KBA sites identified as being important for CMS-listed species is not c

76、overed by protected or conserved areas,indicating there are clear gaps and more needs to be done.l Enhance the management effectiveness of protected and conserved areas.This includes ensuring sufficient resources are put into the management of protected and conserved areas to maximize the benefits f

77、or biodiversity.Given the scale of the threats to migratory species,improving the ecological condition of protected and conserved areas is essential to maintain strongholds for many species.To ensure the management needs of migratory species are taken into account,key priorities for migratory specie

78、s should be integrated into management plans for these areas.More broadly,it is important that key conservation priorities for migratory species are also integrated into National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans(NBSAPs).l Establish,support and expand regular monitoring of important sites for

79、 migratory species,and of populations of migratory species at these sites,following standardized protocols.This is essential to identify the threats taking place and their impacts on species and ecosystems.These efforts are needed to prioritize conservation actions,evaluate the effectiveness of mana

80、gement interventions and help to pinpoint any drivers of population change in CMS-listed species.They can also provide indicators needed to demonstrate national progress in achieving global and national targets.l Follow through on ecosystem restoration commitments,including those linked to the UN De

81、cade on Ecosystem Restoration and Target 2 of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework to ensure that at least 30%of degraded terrestrial,inland water,and coastal and marine ecosystems are under effective restoration by 2030.To support these efforts,develop and implement national restorati

82、on plans focussed on restoring and maintaining important habitats for migratory species.l Prioritize ecological connectivity in the identification,design and ongoing management of protected and conserved areas,noting that to date,less than 10%of protected land is connected.Connectivity should be exp

83、licitly considered in national land,marine and freshwater use planning,the designation of future protected and conserved areas,and when selecting areas for targeted restoration efforts.More broadly,maintaining the integrity(the completeness and functionality)of the ecosystems that migratory species

84、form a part of should also be a key consideration.l Minimize the negative impacts of infrastructure projects on flyways,swimways and migration pathways for migratory species,with avoidance of impacts on critical sites for migratory species as a primary aim.Projects should be carefully planned from t

85、he outset in accordance with the relevant Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment guidelines,which should be adapted,where necessary,to include migratory species considerations.Guidance developed under CMS on key threats to migration and connectivity,including on renew

86、able energy,linear infrastructure,light pollution and noise pollution(see recommendations on Pollution)should be followed.ixRecommendationsTackle overexploitation l Ensure that national legislation fully and effectively protects CMS Appendix I-listed species from take,including by closely regulating

87、 any exceptions to the general prohibition of take and by participating in the CMS National Legislation Programme.l Improve and encourage the use of tools for monitoring and collecting standardized data on legal take at the national level.Efforts should also be made to improve the reliability and co

88、mprehensiveness of reporting in order to understand the scale,intensity and sustainability of national take.l Fill knowledge gaps on the main drivers and scale of illegal take of migratory species,including in regions where this threat has not yet been assessed,to inform the priority actions needed

89、to tackle this issue.This should include improved monitoring of illegal take,as well as research to understand the effectiveness of efforts to address it.l Assess the cumulative impact of harvest pressure on migratory species at the flyway and population level and use this information to manage leve

90、ls of take.These aims could be supported by increasing efforts to collate data on both legal and illegal take at national and international scales.l Strengthen and expand collaborative international efforts to tackle illegal and unsustainable take,focussing on the main drivers of taking and on geogr

91、aphical areas identified as hotspots for illegal killing.Such initiatives could be based on the Task Forces established to tackle the illegal killing of migratory birds.At the national level,multistakeholder action plans should be developed to agree priorities and foster collaboration to tackle this

92、 issue.l Take action to reduce the impacts of overfishing and incidental catch on marine migratory species.This should include,for example,establishing catch/mortality limits for non-target marine species,increasing observer coverage and remote monitoring of marine capture fisheries,and increasing i

93、nternational collaboration,in particular between the CMS Secretariat and the relevant fisheries and regulatory bodies.Support to the ratification and implementation of the new Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction(BBNJ)Treaty will also be important given the large numbers of ocean-going migrator

94、y species that are found in the High Seas.Such measures are urgently needed,considering the deteriorating conservation status of CMS-listed fish,including sharks and rays,and the impact of incidental catch on many populations of seabirds,marine mammals and marine turtles.Reduce the damaging impacts

95、of environmental pollution l Promote the widespread adoption of light pollution mitigation strategies,including those outlined in the Light Pollution Guidelines for Wildlife endorsed by CMS Parties,focussing in particular on brightly lit areas that overlap with crucial habitat or migration corridors

96、.l Restrict the emission of underwater noise in sensitive areas for marine species,including by making use of the CMS Family Guidelines on Environmental Impact Assessments for Marine Noise-generating Activities,and through the application of quieting technologies in key marine industries(as highligh

97、ted by a CMS report outlining best practices for mitigating the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine species).l Accelerate the phase-out of toxic lead ammunition and lead fishing weights,including by implementing relevant recommendations outlined in the CMS Guidelines to Prevent the Risk of Poiso

98、ning to Migratory Birds.l Reduce the harmful effects of pesticides on migratory species,and their food sources,by lowering usage in or close to critical habitats and by promoting and incentivizing nature-friendly agricultural practices.l Tackle the issue of plastic pollution on land,at sea and in fr

99、eshwater ecosystems by eliminating problematic and unnecessary plastics and by reducing the unnecessary use and production of plastics through regulations,incentives and practices(as recommended in the CMS report“Impacts of Plastic Pollution on Freshwater Aquatic,Terrestrial and Avian Migratory Spec

100、ies in the Asia and Pacific Region”).l Reduce the impacts of abandoned,lost and otherwise discarded fishing gear on marine migratory species by implementing changes to gear design and by providing alternative disposal options.This will have benefits linked to both reducing pollution and tackling ove

101、rexploitation of marine species.xState of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesI n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t sI n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t sAddress the root causes and cross-cutting impacts of climate changel Deliver on international commitments to address climate change,including on pledges to

102、reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance the removal of these gases from the atmosphere by maintaining and increasing carbon stocks in vegetation and soils.Carbon stocks should be managed in ways that align with internationally agreed biodiversity conservation goals.l Future-proof the network of

103、important sites for migratory species against the likely consequences of climate change by ensuring that there is sufficient connectivity between sites to facilitate dispersal and range shifts,and that this connectivity will persist in the face of projected climate impacts.Efforts to review the adeq

104、uacy of the current network and to expand this network should fully integrate these projected impacts to ensure resilience.l Help migratory species adapt to a changing climate through targeted ecosystem restoration efforts,designed to improve habitat quality and connectivity and reduce the impact of

105、 extreme weather events,such as drought and thermal stress,by facilitating dispersal and range shifts.l Identify and implement dynamic management measures that address changing migration pathways and patterns resulting from climate change.l Ensure renewable energy infrastructure expansion is planned

106、 and developed in a way that avoids harm to migratory species,following guidance developed by the CMS Energy Task Force.Ensure the CMS Appendices protect all migratory species in need of further conservation actionl Urgently take additional action to conserve at-risk Appendix II species:a total of 1

107、79 Appendix II species were identified in this report as very high or high priorities for further action under CMS,due to their unfavourable conservation status.l Consider migratory species threatened with extinction not yet listed in CMS:399 globally threatened and Near Threatened migratory species

108、 are not listed in the CMS Appendices(see Annex B)but many may benefit from listing in the Convention.Further review of these species should be undertaken to determine whether individual species meet all of the criteria for listing,including in relation to the CMS definition of migration.Once suitab

109、le candidates for listing have been identified,consideration should be given as to how these gaps in the Appendices can be filled.l Prioritize research on Data Deficient migratory species:a disproportionate number of migratory crustaceans,cephalopods and fish are classified as Data Deficient or have

110、 not been recently evaluated in the IUCN Red List,and little is known about the conservation status of many migratory insects.Further research into the conservation status and threats facing these species is needed.xiRecommendationsAdobe Stock|#2217876507Goitered Gazelle(Gazella subgutturosa)xiiIntr

111、oductionThis report is the first ever State of the Worlds Migratory Species.It provides an overview of the conservation status of migratory species and the pressures they face around the globe,highlights examples of actions being taken to conserve and promote the recovery of these species and their

112、habitats,and provides conclusions that help define additional actions that should be taken.The CMS Parties provided a clear mandate for this report.Preparation of a review on the conservation status of species listed in the CMS Appendices was identified as a high priority activity to pursue within t

113、he CMS Programme of Work in 2014 at the 11th meeting of the Conference of the Parties(COP11,Quito)and reaffirmed at the 12th meeting in 2017(COP12,Manila).A preliminary compilation and analysis of information on conservation status,population trends and threats for CMS species was presented to the 1

114、3th meeting in 2020(COP13,Gandhinagar);given the preliminary nature of the analysis,the COP13 document did not attempt to draw conclusions but identified aspects that could merit further work.In response,the Conference of the Parties adopted Decision 13.24,which directed the Secretariat to“further d

115、evelop the preliminary review of the conservation status of migratory species submitted to the Conference of the Parties at its 13th meeting(COP13)”.This report follows through on this COP13 mandate and provides information on the status and threats to CMS-listed species,as well as on knowledge and

116、implementation gaps,to help inform ongoing and future actions by CMS Parties and the wider global community to conserve these species.Acknowledging that the species listed in the CMS Appendices represent just a subset,this report also provides information on all migratory species,some of which may a

117、lso benefit from protection under the CMS Family.Chapter I provides a brief introduction to CMS and how it operates,and provides background on the unique nature and importance of migratory species.Chapter II provides an overview of the current conservation status of CMS-listed species.It also descri

118、bes long-term trends in conservation status and population abundance of CMS-listed and all migratory species using data from the Red List Index and the Living Planet Index.Chapter III details the key threats to migratory species and the impacts that these threats are having.Chapter IV highlights ill

119、ustrative examples of key responses being implemented globally to tackle these threats and discusses the areas that need further action.The report also includes recommendations for consideration by the CMS Parties and Scientific Council.1IntroductionMigrating Bar-tailed Godwits(Limosa lapponica)curr

120、ently hold the world record for the longest non-stop flight by a migratory bird.It flies non-stop between Alaska and Australia,a journey of over 13,000 kilometres.Adobe Stock|#1386150362State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesAdobe Stock|#295727591Thresher Sharks(Alopias spp.)I.CMS at a glance The Conv

121、ention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(CMS)is the global treaty of the United Nations that addresses the conservation and effective management of migratory species and their habitats.The Convention was established in recognition of the fact that conservation of migratory spe

122、cies requires the cooperation of countries across national borders,in all of the places where such species spend any part of their life cycle.The Convention therefore aims to conserve migratory species throughout their range through international cooperation and coordinated conservation measures.The

123、 Convention has grown in scope and scale over the past four decades since its adoption in June 1979.There are now 133 Contracting Parties to CMSa.These Parties have made commitments to take action,both individually and together,to conserve migratory species and their habitats,as well as to address f

124、actors that impede their migration.In addition to the 133 CMS Parties,there are a further 28 countries that,although not Party to the Convention,are Party to one or more of the Agreements and/or are signatories to one or more of the Memoranda of Understanding(MOU)concluded under the umbrella of CMS.

125、The CMS Appendices CMS has two Appendices that list the species to which the Convention applies(Figure 1.1).Species determined by Parties to meet the criteria can be listed within one or both of these Appendices.These Appendices cover a wide variety of bird species,as well as antelopes,elephants,bea

126、rs,bats,whales,dolphins,sea turtles,sharks,rays,sawfish and sturgeons,to name but a few.The species included in the Appendices are reviewed by the Conference of the Parties(COP),which convenes approximately every three years to review the implementation of the Convention and consider proposals for t

127、he amendment of the Appendices.3I.CMS at a glanceFigure 1.1:Overview of species listed in the CMS Appendices by taxonomic group and by Appendix:birds(962 species*),terrestrial mammals(94),aquatic mammals(64),fish(58),reptiles(10)and one species of insect.(*The list of species covered under the highe

128、r-level listings for birds is under review,so numbers are approximate,see Annex A:Additional notes on the methods for further details.)TerrestrialAquaticBirdsReptilesFishInsectsmammalsmammals21Terrestrial mammals568II&IIII9Aquatic mammals1342II&IIII29Birds71862*II&IIII1Reptiles72II&IIII2Fish2234II&I

129、III0Insects01II&IIIIa As of September 2023.4State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesArticle III of the Convention establishes that Appendix I is for listing of migratory species which are endangered.For species included in Appendix I,CMS Parties are obliged to prohibit the taking of these species,with

130、a narrow set of exceptions.CMS Parties are additionally directed to endeavour to conserve and restore important habitats of Appendix I species;to prevent,remove,compensate for or minimize the adverse effects of activities or obstacles that seriously impede or prevent migration;and to prevent,reduce

131、or control factors that are endangering or are likely to further endanger the speciesb.Article IV of the Convention establishes that Appendix II is for listing of migratory species“which have an unfavourable conservation status and which require international agreements for their conservation and ma

132、nagement,as well as those species which have a conservation status which would significantly benefit from the international cooperation that could be achieved by an international agreement”c.Range States to species listed in Appendix II are encouraged to conclude global or regional Agreements and Me

133、moranda of Understanding(MOUs),where these would benefit the species,prioritizing those species with an unfavourable conservation status.These can be tailored to the implementation requirements of particular regions and/or conservation needs of specific taxonomic groups.Currently,seven legally bindi

134、ng Agreements and 19 international MOUs operate under the umbrella of CMS,covering almost 600 species,a large proportion of which are also listed in the CMS Appendices.In addition to these Agreements and MOUs,CMS provides for the development of other instruments or processes.Concerted Actionsd are p

135、riority conservation measures,projects,or institutional arrangements undertaken to improve the conservation status of selected Appendix I and II species or species groupse;38 species were designated for Concerted Actions for the intersessional period between COP13 and COP14.Single or Multi-Species A

136、ction Plans,for example,a recent Single Species Action Plan for the Hawksbill Turtle(Eretmochelys imbricata),and Special Species Initiatives,such as the Joint CITES-CMS African Carnivores Initiative,offer further tools for coordinating conservation measures.What is a migratory species?Migratory beha

137、viour is found in all major taxonomic groups of animals,including mammals,birds,reptiles,amphibians,fish and insects.The reasons why animals migrate are complex and can be driven by a combination of factors,including tracking of seasonal resources and favourable climatic conditions,and seeking optim

138、al breeding sites.While many animal migrations occur in a regular and predictable pattern,some animal migrations can happen irregularly over longer timeframes,depending on the species and their specific ecological requirements.Some species,such as sea turtles,undertake long solitary migrations,while

139、 others migrate collectively in vast numbers.Within species and populations,there can also be variation in migratory behaviour,with some populations or individuals that are resident in parts of the species range and others that undertake long-distance migrations.The Convention defines a migratory sp

140、ecies as:“The entire population or any geographically separate part of the population of any species or lower taxon of wild animals,a significant proportion of whose members cyclically and predictably cross one or more national jurisdictional boundaries.”-Article I,paragraph 1(a)b Article III.4 and

141、III.5 of the Convention.c Article IV.1 of the Conventiond At COP11,Cooperative Actions,a rapid mechanism for Parties to cooperate to assist the conservation of species listed in Appendix II,and Concerted Actions,conservation initiatives to implement the provisions of the Convention through bilateral

142、 or multilateral cooperation for a selected number of species listed in Appendix I,were consolidated into a single process.e Resolution 12.28(Rev.COP13)Concerted Actions.Green Turtle(Chelonia mydas)Adobe Stock|#219631259Sanderlings(Calidris alba)5I.CMS at a glanceAdobe Stock|#5740044236State of the

143、Worlds Migratory SpeciesThe importance of migratory speciesMigratory animals are essential components of the ecosystems that support all life on Earth.Globally,billions of individual animals embark on migratory journeys each year,connecting distant continents,countries and habitats through their mig

144、ration routes.Migratory species are of ecological,economic and cultural importance.Within ecosystems,migratory species perform a variety of crucial functions,ranging from the large-scale transfer of nutrients between environments,to the positive impacts of grazing animals on grassland biodiversity1,

145、2.People around the world are reliant on these species as sources of food,income and enjoyment.Along their migration routes,migratory species provide vital benefits for people,from pollination of crops to supporting sustainable livelihoods.Migratory species are also valuable indicators of overall en

146、vironmental health:trends in the conservation status and behaviour of migratory species can provide an indication of the state of habitats along entire migration routes.Declines in the abundance of migratory species may result in the loss of important functions and services.Conserving migratory spec

147、ies can also support the continued resilience of ecosystems in the face of a changing environment,including by mitigating climate change impacts.Emerging research on this theme is summarized within a recent review of Climate Change and Migratory Species:a review of impacts,conservation actions,ecosy

148、stem services and indicators.Nutrient cyclingCultural valuesPollination and seed dispersalMigratory birds,bats,and insects pollinate flowering plants and shape ecosystem structure by dispersing seeds Migratory species transfer energy and nutrients between marine,freshwater,and terrestrial ecosystems

149、Migratory species provide aesthetic enjoyment,educational value,and are spiritually significantEcosystem regulationSustainable use and livelihoodsMigratory species provide food for other animals and can regulate ecosystems through predation and grazingMigratory species can be an important source of

150、food and ecotourism attractions can generate income for local communitiesClimate change mitigation Marine migratory species sequester carbon and help maintain habitats that are effective carbon sinks The following illustrative examples showcase the importance of migratory species to ecosystems and s

151、ociety:Bats pollinate flowers and disperse seedsNectar-feeding and fruit-eating bats perform important ecosystem functions of pollination and seed dispersal.Bat pollination occurs in at least 528 species of flowering plants,and bats are involved in the propagation of cashew,mango,papaya,passionfruit

152、 and numerous species of fig(Ficus)used for rubber,timber,paper,fibers and medicine3.Large colonies of the Straw-coloured Fruit Bat(Eidolon helvum;CMS Appendix II)are known to play a role in the dispersal of Iroko(Milicia),an economically important timber;however,this species is threatened by defore

153、station and hunting for wild meat.Currently,more than 50 bat species are listed in the CMS Appendices,and all European bats are afforded additional protection under the EUROBATS CMS Agreement.Cultural importance of migratory birds Migratory species have held cultural significance throughout human hi

154、story,inspiring art,music and literature.Migratory birds,in particular,have been associated with journeys,new beginnings,and the coming of seasons.Heralding the start of spring,the Egyptian Vulture(Neophron percnopterus;CMS Appendix I/II)signals a good omen for health and productivity4,while the arr

155、ival of the White Stork(Ciconia ciconia;CMS Appendix II)is considered a widespread symbol of birth and prosperity.Bird migrations play essential roles in many traditions and practices.The migration of the Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis;CMS Appendix I/II)in south and southeast Asia,for example,h

156、as sacred symbolic meaning in Buddhist culture5.The cultural significance of species can often help to encourage conservation efforts;for example,the importance of the Andean Condor(Vultur gryphus)to Indigenous Peoples and local communities in South America has led to their participation in species

157、recovery and awareness programmes6.The European Eel plays an important role in freshwater food webs The Critically Endangered European Eel(Anguilla anguilla;CMS Appendix II)undergoes the longest and most complex migration of any freshwater eel7,with the first direct evidence of its journey from the

158、Atlantic coast of Europe to the Sargasso Sea to spawn published in 20228.The species historically represented over 50%of fish biomass in most European freshwater environments,and therefore played an important role in the freshwater food web and ecosystem functioning9.However,European Eel juvenile re

159、cruitment has declined by 95%since the 1980s10 due to a series of threats ranging from barriers to migration to overexploitation during its early life stages7.7I.CMS at a glanceStraw-coloured Fruit Bat(Eidolon helvum)Adobe Stock|#469887593Andean Condor(Vultur gryphus)Adobe Stock|#558400522European E

160、el(Anguilla anguilla)Adobe Stock|#1962576158Red Knot(Calidris canutus)State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesAdobe Stock|#508850528II.STATE Conservation status 9II.STATE-Conservation statusConservation status and trendsl Overall,more than one in five CMS-listed species are threatened with extinction a

161、nd 44%have a decreasing population trend 82%of Appendix I species are threatened with extinction and 76%are declining 18%of Appendix II species are globally threatened;yet 42%have a decreasing population trendl The conservation status of CMS-listed fish is of particular concern.Almost all(97%)of CMS

162、-listed fish are threatened with extinction and,on average,are decreasing in population abundance l Extinction risk is rising overall across CMS-listed species:between 1988 and 2020,70 CMS species moved to a higher IUCN Red List threat category due to a deterioration in conservation status,while 14

163、species showed a genuine improvementMigratory species that may benefit from increased protection or conservation action under CMSl There are 399 globally threatened and Near Threatened migratory species(mainly birds and fish)that are not listed in the CMS Appendices;these species deserve closer scru

164、tiny from CMS Parties and the Scientific Council,and may benefit from being listed in the CMS Appendicesl A total of 179 species listed in Appendix II were identified as very high(52 species,5%)and high(127 species,13%)priorities for further conservation measuresThe overarching mission of CMS is to“

165、promote actions to ensure the favourable conservation status of migratory species and their habitats”a.This chapter lays the foundation for understanding the conservation status of migratory species,which is essential to provide context for the steps to be taken to conserve them.It provides an overv

166、iew of the conservation status of CMS-listed species overall,by Appendix,by taxonomic group and by region,where appropriate.It also provides insights into the extinction risk and abundance trends of all migratory species.The information is drawn primarily from IUCN Red List assessments and data from

167、 the Living Planet Index(managed by the Zoological Society of London in collaboration with WWF),which together provide the most comprehensive assessments of conservation status and population abundance for species worldwide.Dalmatian Pelicans(Pelecanus crispus)Adobe Stock|#102845544a CMS Strategic P

168、lan for Migratory Species 2015-202310State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesConservation status of CMS-listed speciesAn analysis of data from the IUCN Red List shows that 22%(260 species)-or over one in five-of the 1,189 CMS-listed species are considered threatened with extinction (i.e.assessed as Cri

169、tically Endangered(n=68),Endangered(n=78),or Vulnerable(n=114)(Figure 2.1a)b.Of these 260 species threatened with extinction,over half(56%)are listed in CMS Appendix I.Almost all CMS-listed species assessed as Least Concern(n=819)are listed in Appendix II(99%),with the vast majority of these covered

170、 by Appendix II under higher level genus or family listings.Appendix IOf the 180 species listed in Appendix I,147(82%)are categorized as threatened with extinction;of these,43 are Critically Endangered and 52 are Endangered(Figure 2.1b).Among the remaining 33 Appendix I species,16 species are catego

171、rized as Least Concern,some of which have been favourably reassessed as they have been experiencing recoveries after historically suffering significant population losses.Notably,however,at least five of these Least Concern species have subpopulations or subspecies that are assessed as threatened(see

172、 example in Box 1),and two species have decreasing global populations trends.Appendix IIThere are currently 112(10%)species listed in Appendix II that are categorized as Critically Endangered or Endangered,which includes 60 species that are also listed in Appendix I.Excluding those species listed in

173、 both Appendices,there are 52 species(5%of Appendix II species)listed exclusively in Appendix II that are either Critically Endangered(24)or Endangered(28)(Figure 2.1b).Almost half of these 52 species are fish,including several species of sturgeon,shark,ray and sawfish(for further details,see the se

174、ction Migratory species that may benefit from increased protection or conservation action under CMS).The majority of the Appendix II species that are assessed as Least Concern are birds and a smaller number of bats listed at the genus or family level(86%).Of the 814 Least Concern species in Appendix

175、 II,27%have a declining population trend,highlighting that populations are decreasing even within non-threatened categories.Figure 2.1:a)Proportion of CMS-listed species in each IUCN Red List category(one circle represents 1%of CMS-listed species;see key for the number of CMS-listed species in each

176、category).b)breakdown of extinction risk by CMS Appendix.There are 118 species that are listed in both Appendix I and II;these are shown in both charts in b).(*One CMS Appendix II species,Gazella erlangi,has not been assessed by the IUCN Red List).See methodology in Annex A.NB:It is important to not

177、e that the vast majority of CMS-listed Least Concern species(86%)are birds and a smaller number of bats listed in the Appendices at the genus or family level.b As global IUCN Red List assessments were used as the source of information for most CMS-listed species,the IUCN Red List categories presente

178、d in this analysis therefore mostly reflect global extinction risk.In cases where subspecies or specific populations are listed in the CMS Appendices,information was obtained from a corresponding regional,subspecies or subpopulation-level IUCN assessment;but only in a limited number of cases where r

179、elevant and up-to-date assessments were available(see Annex A for further details).Appendix I180 speciesAppendix II1127 species*814 72%948%958%626%504%5229%5229%4324%16161%(1)0.1%(1)0.1%(1)1%(9)3424Also in Appendix IOnly in Appendix II34242826Extinction riskAll CMS-listed speciesExtinction riskBreak

180、down by AppendixExtinct 1(0.1%)Near Threatened98(8%)Least Concern819(69%)Extinct in the Wild1(0.1%)Data Deficient9(1%)Critically Endangered68(6%)Endangered78(6%)Vulnerable114(10%)Threatened with extinctiona)b)8.5%8.5%Appendix I180 speciesAppendix II1127 species*814 72%948%958%626%504%5229%5229%4324%

181、16161%(1)0.1%(1)0.1%(1)1%(9)3424Also in Appendix IOnly in Appendix II34242826Extinction riskAll CMS-listed speciesExtinction riskBreakdown by AppendixExtinct 1(0.1%)Near Threatened98(8%)Least Concern819(69%)Extinct in the Wild1(0.1%)Data Deficient9(1%)Critically Endangered68(6%)Endangered78(6%)Vulne

182、rable114(10%)Threatened with extinctiona)b)8.5%8.5%Appendix I180 speciesAppendix II1127 species*814 72%948%958%626%504%5229%5229%4324%16161%(1)0.1%(1)0.1%(1)1%(9)3424Also in Appendix IOnly in Appendix II34242826Extinction riskAll CMS-listed speciesExtinction riskBreakdown by AppendixExtinct 1(0.1%)N

183、ear Threatened98(8%)Least Concern819(69%)Extinct in the Wild1(0.1%)Data Deficient9(1%)Critically Endangered68(6%)Endangered78(6%)Vulnerable114(10%)Threatened with extinctiona)b)8.5%8.5%Appendix I180 speciesAppendix II1127 species*814 72%948%958%626%504%5229%5229%4324%16161%(1)0.1%(1)0.1%(1)1%(9)3424

184、Also in Appendix IOnly in Appendix II34242826Extinction riskAll CMS-listed speciesExtinction riskBreakdown by AppendixExtinct 1(0.1%)Near Threatened98(8%)Least Concern819(69%)Extinct in the Wild1(0.1%)Data Deficient9(1%)Critically Endangered68(6%)Endangered78(6%)Vulnerable114(10%)Threatened with ext

185、inctiona)b)8.5%8.5%11II.STATE-Conservation statusPopulation trendsAccording to the IUCN Red List,520(44%)species listed in the CMS Appendices are showing declining population trends.By Appendix,137(76%)CMS Appendix I species and 477(42%)CMS Appendix II species are decreasing in global population siz

186、e(Figure 2.2).Only 12%of species in each Appendix are showing increasing population trends:21 and 133 species are increasing in population size in Appendix I and Appendix II,respectively.Just nine(5%)Appendix I species have a stable population trend,compared to 371(33%)Appendix II species.A further

187、150 CMS-listed species(7%of Appendix I species and 13%of Appendix II species)have an unknown or unassessed population trend.Figure 2.2:Population trends of CMS-listed species by Appendix.Species listed in both Appendix I and II are represented in both bars.Box 1.Humpback Whale(Megaptera novaeangliae

188、):CMS Appendix I(1979)Like many whale species,the Humpback Whale,Megaptera novaeangliae,was heavily hunted for its oil and baleen from the 1700s to early 1900s before international restrictions on commercial whaling were introduced1.Following centuries of commercial whaling,populations were heavily

189、depleted,and the species was assessed by the IUCN Red List as globally Endangered in 19861.However,following the introduction of protections from commercial whaling,the Humpback Whale population has been increasing at a global level and the species is now categorized as Least Concern with an estimat

190、ed global population of over 80,000 mature individuals1.The western South Atlantic population,following a sharp decline from a pre-whaling abundance of 27,000 individuals to 450 individuals in the mid-1950s,was estimated in 2019 to have recovered to approximately 93%of its pre-whaling population siz

191、e2.However,other Humpback Whale subpopulations have not seen such recoveries.For example,the Arabian Sea subpopulation is estimated to number fewer than 250 individuals3 and was categorized as Endangered by IUCN in 20084.Due to the isolation and genetic distinctiveness of this subpopulation and thre

192、ats including entanglement in fishing gear and ship strikes,a Concerted Action for Humpback Whales(Megaptera novaeangliae)of the Arabian Sea was adopted at CMS COP12 and was extended for an additional three years at COP133.The Concerted Action defines a list of priority activities to support improve

193、d understanding and conservation management of the Humpback Whale in the Arabian Sea,with the goal of producing a regional management plan for the subpopulation.This example illustrates that while on a global scale a species may have an overall favourable conservation status,this might not be reflec

194、ted at local scales,and geographically targeted actions may still be necessary.Appendix I(n=180)Appendix II(n=1127)0%20%40%60%80%100%76%5%7%42%33%12%12%13%Decreasing StableIncreasingUnknown/Not assessed12%12%Humpback Whale(Megaptera novaeangliae)Adobe Stock|#21217934312State of the Worlds Migratory

195、SpeciesConservation status by taxonomic groupAnalysis of the IUCN Red List assessments by taxonomic group(Figure 2.3)reveals a mixed picture with certain groups having a more unfavourable conservation outlook overall than others.For example,over two thirds(70%)of the CMS-listed reptiles and nearly a

196、ll(97%)of the CMS-listed fish are threatened with extinction,including 28 fish species that are categorized as Critically Endangered.In contrast,the outlook for birds and mammals appears more favourable overall,with more than three quarters(78%)of the birds and almost half of the CMS-listed mammals(

197、44%)-terrestrial(43%)and aquatic(45%)-categorized as Least Concern.It is important to note,however,that,in real terms,there are still large numbers of birds(134 species,14%),and mammals(63 species,40%)that are globally threatened.While the proportion of threatened birds and mammals appears to be sma

198、ll(due to the large numbers of birds and mammals listed in the CMS Appendices overall),these percentages still represent a high number of species that require conservation action.The high proportion of CMS-listed bird species that are Least Concern is largely a result of higher-level listings for wh

199、ole genera or families(e.g.Appendix II listings for Muscicapidae).Of the 962 bird species in the Appendices,85%are covered under higher-level listing.The only insect listed in the CMS Appendices-the Monarch Butterfly(Danaus plexippus)is assessed as Least Concern,though the migratory monarchs(subspec

200、ies plexippus)were recently classified as Endangered,due to declines in the abundance of migratory populations and the small size of their over-wintering range.This is just one example that illustrates the importance of careful interpretation of global conservation status,as the status of subpopulat

201、ions can differ considerably from the species global status.75%100%50%25%Proportion of species(%)ExtinctBirds(n=962)Insect(n=1)Aquaticmammals(n=64)Reptiles(n=10)Fish(n=58)Terrestrialmammals(n=94)0%Near ThreatenedLeast ConcernExtinct in the WildData DeficientCritically EndangeredEndangeredNot assesse

202、dVulnerableFigure 2.3:Proportion of CMS-listed species classified in each IUCN Red List category,by taxonomic group.Monarch Butterfly(Danaus plexippus)Adobe Stock|#26717223413II.STATE-Conservation statusBeyond extinction risk:the IUCN Green Status of SpeciesWhile an IUCN Red List assessment quantifi

203、es a species risk of extinction,a complementary tool,the IUCN Green Status of Species,has been recently developed to present a road map to recovery.It assesses the extent to which a species has recovered,and quantifies the importance of past,present,and future conservation efforts for the species,to

204、 evaluate its potential for recovery.The recent 2021 assessment of the Whale Shark(Rhincodon typus),for example,indicated that while the species is Endangered with a Species Recovery Category of Largely Depleted(29%)c,the potential for future recovery of functional populations across its historical

205、range is high5.Assuming increased and sustained conservation efforts to counter its principal threats(high levels of fishing,bycatch in gillnet and purse seine fisheries,ship strikes and marine pollution),it is expected that populations would stabilize within a 10-year period6.The Green Status has b

206、een an optional part of Red List assessments since 2020.To date(April 2023),six CMS-listed species have been assessed;here,their Species Recovery Category and recovery potentiald are summarized:l Saiga(Saiga tatarica)(Largely Depleted,38%;Recovery potential:Medium)l Vicua(Vicugna vicugna)(Moderately

207、 Depleted,67%;Recovery potential:Medium)l Black Stork(Ciconia nigra)(Moderately Depleted,67%;Recovery potential:Medium)l African Penguin(Spheniscus demersus),(Largely Depleted,33%;Recovery potential:Medium)l Whale Shark(Rhincodon typus)(Largely Depleted,29%;Recovery potential:High)l White Shark(Carc

208、harodon carcharias)(Moderately Depleted,56%;Recovery potential:Indeterminate)Whale Shark(Rhincodon typus)is threatened by overexploitation and collisions with vessels.Its potential for recovery is high,but this is reliant on sustained conservation efforts.Adobe Stock|#279267214c The Species Recovery

209、 Category is based on an estimated recovery score ranging from 0-100%,which indicates the extent to which a species is “fully recovered”(0%=Extinct;100%=fully recovered,i.e.viable and ecologically functional in every part of its range).Further details of the IUCN Green Status of Species,including de

210、finitions and methodologies,are available at:https:/portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2021-022-En.pdf d Recovery potential is an“aspirational yet achievable vision for the recovery of a species”(see Akaya et al.,2018);it measures the extent to which a species conservation status

211、 could improve over the next 100 years,given the state of the world today.14State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesTrends in the conservation status and population abundance of migratory speciesThe Red List IndexThe Red List Index(RLI)e shows trends in overall extinction risk by measuring the change i

212、n survival probability for a subset of species;this is determined based on genuine changes in the number of species in each extinction risk category in the IUCN Red List(i.e.excluding any changes that result from improved knowledge or revised taxonomy).It is important to note that the RLI for a subs

213、et of species is calculated as an aggregate of the survival probabilities of the species contained in that subset,and therefore that individual species may be doing better,or worse,than the overall resulting trend.The RLI value ranges from 1(if all species are categorized as Least Concern)to 0(if al

214、l species are categorized as Extinct).A lower RLI value therefore indicates that a group of species is closer to extinction.A steeper downward RLI slope indicates a faster move towards extinction.While trends can be disaggregated by region,taxonomic group,or threat types,certain subsets of the data

215、result in too few species in the group with sufficient data to calculate meaningful Indices;it was therefore only possible to obtain disaggregates by taxonomic group for aquatic mammals,terrestrial mammals,birds and sturgeons.The data required to calculate the Indices for other fish groups,such as s

216、harks and rays,were not available,which also precluded the calculation of the Index for fish overall.Additionally,the RLI for mammals could only be calculated for the period 1996-2008;as the mammals were comprehensively reassessed by IUCN recently,the evaluation of whether any changes in survival pr

217、obability represent genuine changes in status is still ongoing and this data could not yet be integrated into the calculation of the index.Globally,the extinction risk for migratory and CMS-listed species is increasing The Red List Index for CMS-listed species and for all migratory species show a de

218、creasing trend,indicating that these subsets of species,overall,are moving towards extinction(Figure 2.4).For CMS-listed species,this trend represents 70 species which have moved to higher threat categories over the period,outweighing the 14 species which showed an improvement in status.The rate of

219、decline of the RLI for CMS-listed species is comparable to that of all migratory species,but CMS-listed species are more threatened overall(i.e.the aggregated RLI values for this subset of species are lower)(Figure 2.4).CMS-listed birds are the least threatened groupf,while CMS-listed sturgeons(the

220、only fish group for which the data needed to calculate the Index were available)are the most threatened(Figure 2.5).All groups except aquatic mammals show declines,with terrestrial mammals exhibiting the fastest decline(Figure 2.5).The increasing RLI trend for aquatic mammals overall is likely drive

221、n in part by the improved status of certain whale species following international restrictions on whaling6,7.It is important to remember,however,that the RLI is an aggregate of changes for species within a subset,and therefore this overall positive trend may mask deteriorations in status of individu

222、al species.When disaggregating species by region,the RLI shows that CMS-listed species occurring in Asia are the most threatened overall and,along with those in Africa and North America,are experiencing the fastest declines(Figure 2.6).The RLI for CMS-listed species present in Europe and the South a

223、nd Central America and the Caribbean regions,however,have shown increases in the last 10 years,reflecting more positive changes in IUCN Red List threat status classifications than deteriorations(Figure 2.6).In most regions,the trend in RLI for CMS-listed species is comparable to those for migratory

224、species in general,with the exception of North America and Oceania(Figure 2.6).While CMS-listed species in the Oceania region appear to have a relatively stable trend,migratory species as a whole in this region are experiencing the fastest decline of any region(Figure 2.6).Figure 2.4:Red List Index

225、of species survival for CMS-listed(n=1,118)and all migratory(n=2,428)species for which data were available.Grey shading shows confidence intervals.An index value of 1 equates to all species being categorized as Least Concern,while an index value of 0 equates to all species being categorized as Extin

226、ct.Figure 2.5:Red List Index of species survival for CMS-listed species for which data were available(birds n=955;terrestrial mammals n=90,aquatic mammals n=54 and sturgeons n=19).Grey shading shows confidence intervals;those for birds and sturgeon are overlaid by the line.An index value of 1 equate

227、s to all species being categorized as Least Concern,while an index value of 0 equates to all species being categorized as Extinct.0.600.650.700.751990199520002005201020152020CMS-listed speciesAll migratory speciesRed List Index of species survivalLower extinction risk0.250.500.7519901995200020052010

228、20152020BirdsAquatic mammalsTerrestrial mammalsSturgeonsHigher extinction riskRed List Index of species survivalLower extinction risk15II.STATE-Conservation statusFigure 2.6:Red List Index of species survival by CMS region for CMS-listed species(dark blue lines;Africa n=438;Asia n=622;Europe n=481;N

229、orth America n=235;Oceania n=212;South&Central America&the Caribbean n=233)and all migratory species(light blue lines;Africa n=704;Asia n=1,011;Europe n=784;North America n=675;Oceania n=505;South&Central America&the Caribbean n=804).Grey shading shows confidence intervals.An index value of 1 equate

230、s to all species being categorized as Least Concern,while an index value of 0 equates to all species being Extinct.The Living Planet Index for Migratory Species The Living Planet Index(LPI)tracks the average change in relative abundance of wild species populations over time.The global Index is const

231、ructed by calculating an average trend for tens of thousands of terrestrial,freshwater and marine vertebrate populations from across the globe.The underlying database(Living Planet Database)contains data on over 38,000 populations of more than 5,200 species,collated from a variety of sources.The LPI

232、 data can be disaggregated to show trends in certain subsets of data,such as species listed in the CMS Appendices;the following section,based on analyses by the Zoological Society of London(ZSL)produced for this report,summarizes the key trends in the LPI for migratory species,with a focus on those

233、species which are listed in the CMS Appendices.Taxonomic coverage of the LPI dataset is not complete but can be considered good for CMS-listed species,with over half of species represented in the index,ranging from 50%representation(birds)to 100%(reptiles).By contrast,coverage for migratory species

234、overall ranges from 23%(fish)to 85%(reptiles),with only one in three species represented in the dataset across all taxonomic groups.0.60.70.80.91990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 20200.60.70.80.91990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 20200.60.70.80.91990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 20200.60.70.80.91990 1995 2000 200

235、5 2010 2015 20200.60.70.80.91990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 20200.60.70.80.91990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020Red List Index of species survivalAfricaAsiaEuropeNorth AmericaOceaniaSouth&Central America&the Caribbeane For more information on the Red List Index,visit http:/iucnredlist.org/assessment/red

236、-list-indexf This differs from the trends reported in the 2019 assessment of the Strategic Plan for Migratory Species due to an increase in the number of bird species included in the underlying dataset based on ongoing work to disaggregate the higher-level Appendix II listings for birds.South Andean

237、 Deer(Hippocamelus bisulcus)Adobe Stock|#8590666016State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesGlobally,monitored populations of migratory species have declined by an average of 15%between 1970 and 2017Based on abundance information from 15,923 populations of 1,710 migratory speciesg of mammals,birds,repti

238、les and fish,the Living Planet Index shows an overall average decline of 15%for all migratory species(range:-23%to-6%)between 1970 and 2017h(Figure 2.7).The LPI for the subset of these migratory species which are listed in the CMS Appendices shows an overall average increase of 1%(range:-11%to+16%)o

239、ver the same time period(based on 9,801 populations of 615 species)(Figure 2.7).It is important to note that these figures represent average rates of change in the abundance of monitored species over time,so some populations may be increasing or declining at higher rates compared to the averagei.The

240、 difference in average trend between all migratory populations and those listed in the CMS Appendices is likely explained in part due to the difference in the number of species in different taxonomic groups:for example,while the dataset for all migratory species contains 582 species of migratory fis

241、h,which tend to show negative population trends,the CMS-listed species dataset contains 37 migratory fish species.The finding of an overall average increase in the relative population abundance of CMS-listed species contrasts with the Red List Index for this subset,which saw an increase towards exti

242、nction(Figure 2.4);this difference could reflect differences in methodology or arise from differences in taxonomic composition of the species lists for which data were available.g This includes CMS-listed species,in addition to species recognized as Full Migrants by the IUCN Red List or identified a

243、s a longer-distance migrant by the Global Register of Migratory Species(GROMS).h 2017 is the most recent year for which LPI data were available for migratory populations in this analysis.i Additionally,the LPI does not show the number of individual animals or the proportion of a population that has

244、been lost.For further guidance on interpretation,see:https:/www.livingplanetindex.org/documents/LPR_2022_TechnicalSupplement_DeepDiveLPI.pdf Figure 2.7:Average change in relative abundance,between 1970 and 2017,of all monitored migratory species of birds,mammals,fish and reptiles(based on 15,923 pop

245、ulations of 1,710 species)and of CMS-listed species monitored globally(based on 9,801 populations of 615 fishes,birds,mammals and reptiles).Shaded areas represent the statistical uncertainty surrounding the trend.0.00.51.01.52.0Index value(1970=1)All migratory populationsn=15,9230.00.51.01.52.0Index

246、 value(1970=1)CMS-listed populationsn=9,8011970 1980 1990 200020101970 1980 1990 200020100.00.51.01.52.0Index value(1970=1)CMS-listed populationsn=9,8011970 1980 1990 20002010Wandering Albatross(Diomedea exulans)Adobe Stock|#10509480117II.STATE-Conservation statusBirds+11%Index value(1970=1)1970 198

247、0 1990 200020102.01.51.00.50.0Fish-90%1970 1980 1990 200020102.01.51.00.50.0Index value(1970=1)Terrestrial mammals+14%1970 1980 1990 200020102.51.51.00.50.02.0Index value(1970=1)Aquatic mammals+118%1970 1980 1990 200020104.0.3.02.01.00.05.0Index value(1970=1)Reptiles+234%1970 1980 1990 200020108.06.

248、04.02.00.0Index value(1970=1)Globally,according to the LPI,average abundance trends of most taxonomic groups of CMS-listed species are stable or increasing since 1970For CMS-listed species,most taxonomic groups are showing either an average increase or a stable trend in population abundance since 19

249、70(Figure 2.8).Notably,migratory fish are the only taxonomic group showing an average decreasing trend in population abundance,with CMS-listed fish species showing the largest declines(-90%)(Figure 2.8).It is important to note that trends at the broad taxonomic level may mask population declines in

250、specific subsets of species.For example,although the LPI indicates that populations of CMS-listed birds have increased by 11%on average(Figure 2.8),analyses based on other datasets provide strong evidence for declines in the abundance of long-distance migratory birds8,9.Additionally,for some groups,

251、population declines may have mostly occurred prior to 1970;for example,large-scale exploitation of aquatic mammals(such as whales and dolphins)largely occurred prior to the 1970 LPI baseline6,therefore the monitoring started when these populations were already at a depleted state.-90%Average decline

252、 in CMS-listed fish populations since 1970Figure 2.8:Average change in relative abundance,between 1970 and 2017 of CMS-listed species by taxonomic group.From left to right,trends are for 8,822 monitored populations of 479 bird species(+11%,range:-4%to+28%);176 populations of 37 fish species(-90%,ran

253、ge:-96%to-78%);325 monitored populations of 50 terrestrial mammal species(+14%,range:-40%to+112%);233 populations of 39 aquatic mammal species(+118%,range:+6%to+369%);and 245 populations of 10 reptile species(+234%,range:+64%to+582%),and shaded areas represent the statistical uncertainty surrounding

254、 the trend.Note the different y-axis scales due to different ranges of confidence intervals across taxonomic groups.Global populations of the Critically Endangered Scalloped Hammerhead(Sphyrna lewini)have undergone steep declines.Adobe Stock|#18063919118State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesFigure 2.

255、9:Average change in relative abundance,between 1970 and 2017,of CMS-listed species by region.Trends are for 631 populations of 161 species in Africa(-27%,range-56%to+19%);370 populations of 126 species in Asia(-66%,range-86%to-15%);1,627 populations of 291 species in Europe(+62%,range+30%to+103%);42

256、0 monitored populations of 206 species in North America(+13%,range-4%to+33%);6,356 monitored populations of 52 species in Oceania(-37%,range-60%to 0%);86 populations of 13 species in Antarcticak(6%,range-34%to+35%);and 270 populations of 74 species in South America(+90%,range-34%to+439%).Shaded area

257、s represent the statistical uncertainty surrounding the trend.Please note the different y-axis scales due to the large range of confidence intervals across regions.North America+13%Oceania-37%South America+90%Europe+62%Asia-66%Antarctica-6%Africa-27%1970 1980 1990 200020101970 1980 1990 200020101970

258、 1980 1990 200020101970 1980 1990 200020101970 1980 1990 200020101970 1980 1990 200020101970 1980 1990 20002010Index value(1970=1)Index value(1970=1)Index value(1970=1)Index value(1970=1)Index value(1970=1)Index value(1970=1)Index value(1970=1)2.01.51.00.50.02.01.51.00.50.02.01.51.00.50.02.01.51.00.

259、50.02.01.51.00.50.02.56.04.02.00.04.03.02.01.00.0j These are three shark species:Carcharhinus longimanus(Oceanic Whitetip),Isurus oxyrinchus(Shortfin Mako),and Lamna nasus(Porbeagle).Abundance information is based on catch per unit effort(CPUE)data.k Antarctica is not a CMS region but contains popul

260、ations of CMS-listed species.Hawksbill Turtle(Eretmochelys imbricata)Average declines of CMS-listed species are generally observed more in the tropics When disaggregating CMS-listed species by region,for regions with more tropical climates Africa,Asia and Oceania and Antarctica,the LPI reveals an av

261、erage decrease in abundance between 1970 and 2017,ranging from-66%in Asia to-27%in Africa(Figure 2.9).However,in South America,monitored populations of CMS-listed species show an average 90%increase(range:-34%to+439%)in abundance compared to the baseline but with the greatest amount of variation in

262、the underlying species trends among the regions.While on average,CMS-listed fish are declining(see Figure 2.8),a small number of CMS-listed fish in South America are increasing in abundancej,which along with reptiles and terrestrial mammals,contribute to the positive average trend observed for this

263、region.While relatively stable and increasing average trends are observed for North America and Europe,respectively(Figure 2.9),it is important to note that much of the habitat changes in Europe and North America occurred prior to the 1970 baseline,meaning that monitored populations for these region

264、s are starting from a more depleted state compared to other regions.Adobe Stock|#230962168Migratory species that may benefit from increased protection or conservation action under CMSOne function of the CMS Scientific Council is to formulate recommendations on migratory species to be included in App

265、endices I and II,and to review the current composition of these Appendices.To support this function,this section identifies migratory species that may benefit from being listed in CMS,and also considers currently listed Appendix II species that may benefit from increased protection under CMS.Threate

266、ned migratory species that may benefit from being listed in the CMS AppendicesThe CMS Appendices include only a subset of all migratory species.Migratory species that are endangeredl are eligible to be listed in Appendix I,while Appendix II includes migratory species that have an“unfavourable conser

267、vation statusm and which require international agreements for their conservation and management,as well as those which have a conservation status which would significantly benefit from the international cooperation that could be achieved by an international agreement”10.Importantly,the CMS Appendice

268、s represent only a subset of the species which could qualify for,and may benefit from,listing.To determine the proportion of migratory species that are threatened,but that are not yet listed,available data on species migratory behaviour was first used to generate a non-exhaustive list of migratory s

269、peciesn that are not endemic to a single countryo.This list was then combined with information on extinction risk and population trends from species assessments from the IUCN Red List.There are 4,508 species that are 1)considered to be migratory,2)have had a global IUCN Red List assessment and 3)occ

270、ur in multiple Range States(non-endemic species).Of these,3,339(74%)are not currently listed in the CMS Appendices(Figure 2.10a).Among these 3,339 non-CMS speciesp(Figure 2.10b),277(8%)are considered to be globally threatened and a further 122 species(4%)have been classified as Near Threatened.This

271、subset of 399 globally threatened and Near Threatened species(Figure 2.10c)may be worth considering further to determine if they meet the CMS criteria and would benefit from being listed in the CMS Appendices(see Annex B Table B1 for a full list of species).It is important to note these species have

272、 not been comprehensively assessed in relation to the CMS definition of migration,with the exception of birds,where a comprehensive assessment has been undertaken.Further consideration is therefore required to determine if individual species meet the criteria for listing.It is also worth noting that

273、 there may be some populations of globally Least Concern species that could meet the criteria for listing in the CMS Appendices;these were beyond the scope of this analysis.19II.STATE-Conservation statusl According to the Guidelines for Assessment of Appendix I and II Listing Proposals(UNEP/CMS/Reso

274、lution 13.7/Annex 1),species classified as Extinct in the Wild,Critically Endangered or Endangered by the IUCN Red List are eligible for listing in CMS Appendix I.Species categorized as Vulnerable and Near Threatened by the IUCN Red List may also be eligible for listing in Appendix I,if there is sub

275、stantive additional evidence for a deterioration in conservation status,as well as information about the conservation benefits that listing in Appendix I would bring.m Unfavourable conservation status encompasses species classified as Extinct in the Wild,Critically Endangered,Endangered,Vulnerable o

276、r Near Threatened by the IUCN Red List(UNEP/CMS/Resolution 13.7/Annex 1).n Non-avian species were considered migratory if they were listed in the CMS Appendices,or,following a precautionary approach,if there was evidence for migratory behaviour in any of the following data sources:the IUCN Red List

277、of Threatened Species(only species classified as Full Migrants);the Global Register of Migratory Species;migratory sharks and rays identified by Fowler(2014).The Conservation Status of Migratory Sharks.UNEP/CMS Secretariat,Bonn,Germany.30 pp.The list of migratory birds that meet the CMS movement cri

278、teria was based on ongoing work by the CMS COP-appointed co-Councillor for birds.o As non-endemic species occur in multiple countries,they are more likely to migrate across one or more national jurisdictional boundaries,thus meeting an important aspect of the CMS definition of a migratory species.En

279、demic status was determined using information on countries of occurrence obtained from species assessments for the IUCN Red List.Only countries where the species presence was classified as Extant,Possibly Extant,Possibly Extinct or Presence Uncertain and where its origin was classified as Native,Rei

280、ntroduced or Origin Uncertain were considered in the analysis.p Although not listed in the CMS Appendices,some of these species may be covered under other CMS Agreements/Memoranda of Understanding.The Critically Endangered Nassau Grouper(Epinephelus striatus)can migrate over 200 km to reach seasonal

281、 spawning aggregations,but populations are highly vulnerable to overfishing at these locations.Adobe Stock|#18862804420State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesFigure 2.10:Overview of migratory species that are globally threatened and Near Threatened and not yet CMS-listed,showing:a)Number of migratory

282、species assessed by the IUCN Red List that are listed in the CMS Appendices.b)Proportion of non-CMS migratory species(n=3,339)that have been classified as globally threatened(Endangered,Critically Endangered or Vulnerable)or Near Threatened and thus may potentially benefit from being listed in the C

283、MS Appendices,by taxonomic group.c)Number of globally threatened and Near Threatened non-CMS species(n=399),by taxonomic group.AquaticmammalsBirdsTerrestrialmammalsn=21n=35n=18n=1,433n=1,70989%1%3%3%7%1%n=4072%4%8%1%n=1100%17%11%FishInsects1%3%3%n=8094%50%50%n=2CephalopodsCrustaceansHorseshoe crabsR

284、eptiles29%71%78%98%10%Number of species40003000200010000All migratory species(n=4,508)Threatenedand Near Threatened migratory species(n=749)9%20%11%60%a.Proportion of migratory species that are listed in CMSListed in the CMS Appendicesa.b./c.KeyCritically Endangered/EndangeredVulnerable/Near Threate

285、ned/unknown population trendVulnerable/Near Threatened/stable population trendLeast ConcernData Deficient Not listed in CMSBirdsTerrestrial mammalsAquatic mammalsCrustaceansFishHorseshoe crabsReptiles050100150200Number of speciesb.Non-CMS migratory speciesc.Threatened and Near Threatened non-CMS spe

286、cies21II.STATE-Conservation statusOf the 399 globally threatened and Near Threatened non-CMS migratory species,124 species(4%of non-CMS migratory species)are classified as either Critically Endangered(35 species)or Endangered(89 species),and thus may benefit from inclusion in Appendix I.A further 7%

287、of non-CMS migratory species(249 species)are classified as Vulnerable or Near Threatened with a decreasing,unknown or unspecified population trend,suggesting that their conservation status may be deteriorating.The remaining 26 Vulnerable and Near Threatened migratory species may be lower priorities

288、for action at this time,given that their population trends are stable or increasing.Fish accounted for over half of the 399 globally threatened or Near Threatened non-CMS migratory species.An additional 40%of these species were birds.Among the fish,the Cypriniformes(carps,loaches,minnows and relativ

289、es;40 species),the Perciformes(perch-like fishes;29 species)and the Carcharhiniformes(ground sharks;27 species)were the orders that contained the most globally threatened or Near Threatened species.Within the birds,members of the Procellariiformes(albatrosses,petrels and shearwaters;49 species)and P

290、asseriformes(passerine birds;34 species)were most prevalent.q Although vertebrates and marine species comprise 31%and 15%of all IUCN Red List assessments for animals,respectively,these groups are still poorly covered,compared to their overall size.r Not including the species listed in both Appendice

291、s I and II.s Using data from several publicly available datasets,biological vulnerability was assessed by scoring species against three criteria chosen to reflect susceptibility to a range of threats:body size,life history and habitat breadth.179Number of Appendix II species considered very high or

292、high priorities for further conservation measures399Number of migratory species that are globally threatened or Near Threatened and not yet listed in CMSDue to taxonomic biases in the completeness of the underlying data on conservation and migratory status,some taxonomic groups may appear to have fe

293、wer globally threatened or Near Threatened migratory species,as an artefact of missing data.While birds have been assessed comprehensively by BirdLife International as the IUCN authority for birds,Red List coverage for invertebrates and marine species is comparatively poorq.Insects are likely to be

294、particularly under-represented in the list of of non-CMS migratory species provided in Annex B Table B1 despite mounting evidence highlighting the scale and ecological importance of insect migrations11,12,13,as well as population declines that have been reported for many insect species,across a vari

295、ety of geographic scales14.This is due to a lack of species-level information on the migratory status of insect species across many taxonomic groups.In addition,a further 175 non-CMS migratory species are classified as Data Deficient,including a disproportionate number of migratory fish and cephalop

296、ods(Figure 2.10b).Although the information needed to assess the conservation status of these species is lacking,they are generally more likely to be threatened than data-sufficient species15.Adobe Stock|#415838996Appendix II species that could be considered for further conservation measuresAs part o

297、f a Review of the status of CMS Appendix II-listed taxa,the 1,011 species listed exclusively in Appendix IIr were assigned to different categories reflecting the degree to which they should be prioritized for further conservation measures under CMS,such as inclusion in Appendix I.l Fifty-two Appendi

298、x II-listed species(5%)were identified as very high priorities for closer scrutiny by CMS,on the basis that these species are classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered in the IUCN Red List(Figure 2.11).l A further 127(13%)Appendix II species were classified as Vulnerable or Near Threatened i

299、n the IUCN Red List with a decreasing population trend,or with an unknown population trend combined with high levels of intrinsic biological vulnerabilitys.These species were also considered to be high priorities for further conservation action.The Snowy Owl(Bubo scandiacus)is classified as Vulnerab

300、le with a declining population trend.22State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesMost notably,almost all(94%)of the Appendix II-listed fish(32 of 34 species),including 17 from the Acipenseridae(sturgeon)family and 15 sharks and rays,fell in the two highest priority groups(Figure 2.11).Over half of Append

301、ix II-listed Artiodactyla(even-toed ungulates;8 of 11 species)and Procellariiformes(albatrosses,petrels and shearwaters;14 of 26 species)were also included within the two highest priority groups.Given the findings of this analysis,it is also notable that none of the species of the order Acipenserifo

302、rmes listed in CMS Appendix II appear to be included in any of the instruments or processes for conserving and managing Appendix II species(including Agreements,MOUs,Special Species Initiatives,Concerted Actions,or Action Plans).In summary,a substantial proportion of CMS Appendix II-listed species(1

303、8%,179 species)were identified as priorities in the context of the review,on the basis of their conservation status and biological vulnerability.These species may warrant closer scrutiny by CMS Parties and the CMS Scientific Council.Terrestrial mammals(n=68)Aquatic mammals(n=43)Birds(n=863)Reptiles(

304、n=2)Fish(n=34)Insects(n=1)ExtinctVery high priority0%25%50%75%100%No.of priority speciesHigh priorityProportion of speciesAll other App.II speciesHighVeryhigh18129007073170250Figure 2.11:Proportion of species listed exclusively in CMS Appendix II(n=1,011)that are considered to be very high(52)and hi

305、gh(127)priorities for further conservation measures under CMS by taxonomic group.Based on the prioritization methodology outlined in a Review of the status of CMS Appendix II-listed taxa.Grey-headed Albatrosses(Thalassarche chrysostoma)are listed in CMS Appendix II.This species is categorized as End

306、angered due to rapid global population declines,primarily caused by incidental capture in longline fisheries.Adobe Stock|#378248240Indian Skimmers(Rynchops albicollis)are Endangered and not currently listed in the CMS Appendices.Adobe Stock|#29349297123II.STATE-Conservation statusAdobe Stock|#240813

307、88924State of the Worlds Migratory Species25III.PRESSURE Threats to migratory speciesMigratory species face a multitude of pressures,which are overwhelmingly caused by human activities.Due to their reliance on multiple geographically distinct areas,and their dependence on connectivity between these

308、areas,migrants are more likely to be exposed to a diverse range of these threats,which can impact them at different stages of their migratory cycle1,2.Additionally,as migratory species typically cross international boundaries,they are often subject to different legal frameworks and varying levels of

309、 protection across their range.Migratory species are increasingly being impacted by growing human impacts on ecosystems and by climate change.These pressures range from insurmountable anthropogenic barriers blocking free movement(such as dams3 and fences4)to pollutants that interfere with navigation

310、(such as light pollution5).Migratory species that travel together in groups,congregate in large numbers within a localized area or are channelled through narrow routes constrained by physical features,are particularly vulnerable to threats that impact key sites or the crucial habitat corridors conne

311、cting them.The importance of long-lived individuals,collective memory and social learning for successful migration in some species may also amplify the consequences of individual losses on populations6.A core goal outlined in the CMS Strategic Plan for Migratory Species 2015-2023 is to“reduce the di

312、rect pressures on migratory species and their habitats”a.This chapter provides an overview of the myriad of threats impacting both migratory species themselves and the key sites that they rely on.The first section summarizes the most significant threats affecting migratory species,by combining an an

313、alysis of threats reported in species assessments for the IUCN Red List with additional insights from the scientific literature.The second section outlines an approach that can be used to identify sites that support globally significant populations of migratory species,and provides an overview of th

314、e threats currently facing these important sites.Overview of the threats to migratory speciesMethodologyThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is recognized globally as the most comprehensive source of information on the threats that are considered to impact species survival.The IUCN Red List categ

315、orizes threats following a hierarchical classification scheme,focussing on the proximate human activities that drive negative impacts.Threats are grouped into 11 broad categories,which are then sub-divided further into two levels of more specific sub-categoriesb,providing detailed information on the

316、 drivers of extinction risk.III.PRESSURE-Threats to migratory speciesl Habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation and overexploitation are the two main threats facing CMS-listed species and migratory species as a whole.l These two threats are the principal threats affecting both Appendix I and Appen

317、dix II-listed species.89%of Appendix I species are impacted by overexploitation;86%are affected by habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation 74%of Appendix II species are affected by habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation;68%are impacted by overexploitationl 58%of the monitored sites recognized

318、 as being important for CMS-listed species are experiencing unsustainable levels of human-caused pressure.a Goal 2 of the CMS Strategic Plan 2015-2023(UNEP/CMS/Resolution 11.2).b A full list of threat categories and sub-categories with definitions is available online in Version 3.3 of the IUCN Threa

319、ts Classification Scheme:www.iucnredlist.org/resources/threat-classification-scheme.European Turtle Doves(Streptopelia turtur)have declined due to changes in agricultural practices and unsustainable hunting.Adobe Stock|#36126687926State of the Worlds Migratory SpeciesThere is no single category for

320、habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation in the IUCN threat classification and a number of categories in the classification contribute to this threatc.In order to understand more about the relative importance of habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation as a threat to CMS-listed and all migratory

321、 species,the relevant IUCN categories were combined into a single high-level group in some sections of the following analysis.One further change was made to the IUCN data:the IUCN threat category biological resource use was amended to include only direct impacts on animals and to exclude the indirec

322、t effects of activities such as logging.To avoid confusion with the IUCN definition of biological resource use,this amended category was renamed as overexploitation for the purposes of this report.This definition of overexploitation includes both the deliberate effects of harvest and persecution and

323、 the unintentional impacts of harvesting on non-target speciesd.The first section of the following analysis(Main threats to CMS-listed and migratory species)focusses on comparing the number of CMS-listed and migratory species affected by habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation and overexploitatio

324、n with the remaining IUCN threat categories(climate change and severe weather,invasive species,genes and diseases and pollution).Subsequent sections consider the IUCN categories and sub-categories underlying habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation.Main threats to CMS-listed and migratory speciesT

325、he combined IUCN threat categories that relate to habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation represent the most common threat affecting CMS-listed species as a whole,closely followed by overexploitation.Habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation is reported to impact 481(75%)of the 641 CMS-listed sp

326、ecies for which one or more threats had been identifiede,and overexploitation is reported to affect 446 CMS species(70%)(Figure 3.1a).These two threats are the principal threats reported to affect both Appendix I and Appendix II-listed species:158(89%)Appendix I species are affected by overexploitat

327、ion and 152(86%)by habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation(Figure 3.1b).In contrast,a higher proportion of Appendix II species(428 species,74%)are reportedly impacted by habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation than by overexploitation(394 species,68%).Across the wider group of all migratory sp

328、eciesf assessed by the IUCN Red List,overexploitation and habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation are also the most pervasive threats(Figure 3.1c).Both of these threats are reported to affect 65%of the 2,300 migratory species for which at least one threat had been documentedg(overexploitation:1,4

329、98 species;habitat loss,degradation and fragmentation:1,494 species).Pollution,which encompasses a wide range of threats arising from the release of contaminants or energy into the environment,also emerges as one of the most common threats facing migratory species in general(Figure 3.1c).This threat

330、 is reported to affect 42%of migratory species(968 species).c Agriculture and aquaculture,energy production and mining,human disturbance and intrusions,natural system modifications,residential and commercial development and transportation and service corridors,in addition to the unintentional impact

331、s on animal species of gathering terrestrial plants and logging&wood harvesting(normally considered by IUCN to fall within biological resource use).d For the purposes of this analysis,the direct impact of overexploitation corresponds to two IUCN sub-categories of threat,normally included within biol

332、ogical resource use:hunting&collecting terrestrial animals and fishing&harvesting aquatic resources.e 54%of the 1,189 CMS-listed species had at least one current or future threat documented in their IUCN Red List assessment.The IUCN Red List requires only major threats to be documented for taxa asse

333、ssed as Extinct,Extinct in the Wild,Critically Endangered,Endangered,Vulnerable and Near Threatened.The absence of documented threats for Least Concern or Data Deficient taxa does not necessarily indicate that these taxa are unaffected by any threats.f Includes CMS-listed species,in addition to species categorized as Full Migrants by the IUCN Red List or identified as migratory by the Global Regis

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sha**61... 升级为至尊VIP 139**14... 升级为高级VIP

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