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中国美国商会:2024年度中国商务环境调查报告(中英文版)(91页).pdf

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中国美国商会:2024年度中国商务环境调查报告(中英文版)(91页).pdf

1、CONTENTS 目录02Chairs Message主席致辞4.Business Environment商业环境3804Executive Summary概述4.1 Investment Environment 投资环境39151.2024 Survey Methodology2024 年调查方法4.2 Human Resources人力资源61212.Performance Snapshot绩效速览4.3 Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights创新和知识产权69273.Business Operations and Goals商业运营和经营目

2、标5.US-China Relations美中关系802AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Chairs MessageChina is a vital market for many American businesses.It is also an important source of talent and innovation that helps American companies boost their global competitiveness.At the same time,the presenc

3、e of American companies in China strengthens the US-China relationship and the economies of both countries,but the benefits go beyond trade figures and simple measures of profit and loss.By promoting values such as transparency,respect for workers,and anti-corruption throughout their entire supply c

4、hains,American businesses lead by example,improving the business climate in China while creating jobs back home.Despite the expansion in bilateral trade in recent years,mistrust between the United States and China remains high,and relations are strained.The need for accurate information has never be

5、en greater.For more than 25 years,AmCham Chinas Business Climate Survey(BCS)has helped meet this need by providing accurate,detailed information about the key issues and challenges affecting US business in China.Key Findings:2023 Financial Performance:American companies in China report improved fina

6、ncial performance for 2023 with increased profitability and EBIT margins.Despite this,slightly less than half of respondents expected to be profitable.Optimism Recovers:The two-year business outlook for China has improved,with members showing increased optimism across the board,but especially with r

7、egards to domestic market growth,estimated profitability,and the economy.Intent to Invest:Chinas attractiveness as an investment destination has rebounded after last years sharp dip,with 50%of respondent companies now considering China among their top three global priorities,a 5pp increase year-on-y

8、ear.US-China Relations:Nearly all respondents view US-China relations as crucial to their businesses.Around 30%expect US-China relations to improve in 2024,a notably higher level of optimism than in 2023.Unequal Treatment:Although it varies by sector,overall,one-third of companies report being treat

9、ed less favorably by the Chinese authorities than their local competitors.Meanwhile,despite significant improvement compared to last year,a majority(57%)of companies lack confidence that China will further open its markets to foreign firms.Business Challenges Continue:The primary concerns of America

10、n companies continue to be US-China relations,Chinas regulatory environment,and rising costs as well as Chinas Cybersecurity Law and protecting intellectual property.Talent Retention:Expatriates have become somewhat more willing to relocate to China over the last year,though US-China tensions and ot

11、her factors still negatively affect foreign talent recruitment.ESG:80%of members report implementing ESG practices in China,primarily focused on strengthening DEI,employee training,and business ethics.We hope that this years BCS will inform policies on both sides of the Pacific and contribute to con

12、structive,sustainable,and mutually beneficial relations between the two countries.Sean Stein Chair,AmCham China February 20243AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 主席致辞对众多美国企业来说,中国不仅是关键市场,更是人才和创新的重要沃土,这对美国企业的全球竞争力至关重要。美企在华业务的深入不仅促进了美中关系和双边贸易,其带来的益处也远不仅体现在双边贸易和利润数据方面。美国企业在其供应链中推崇公开透

13、明、尊重员工和反腐败等价值,不仅树立了良好的商业典范,优化了中国的商业环境,也为美国国内创造了更多就业机会。尽管美中贸易额近年有所扩大,但是两国间的信任缺失和关系紧张问题依旧存在。在此背景下,信息的准确性更为重要。中国美国商会的商业环境调查报告至今已有超过 25 年的历史,旨在通过提供详实准确的信息,解析美国在华企业所面临的核心问题与重要挑战。主要议题:2023 年财务表现:2023 年在华美国企业的财务表现有所改善,盈利水平和息税前利润率均有所上升;略低于半数的受访企业预期将实现盈利。乐观态势复苏:会员企业对中国接下来两年的商业前景预期有所改善,相较去年更为乐观,尤其在中国的市场增长、盈利能

14、力和经济总体状况方面。投资意向:去年会员企业对中国的投资意向大幅下滑。今年情况略有改善,50%的受访企业将中国列为全球首选或前三位投资目的地,相比 2022 年上升了 5 个百分点。美中关系:几乎所有受访企业均表示美中双边关系至关重要。近 30%的受访企业预计 2024 年美中关系将有所改善,对双边关系的乐观程度明显高于 2023 年。待遇不均:近三分之一的受访企业表示,相比本土企业外资企业受到更多不公平待遇,但这一感受在各细分领域存在差异。同时,有 57%的会员企业仍表示对中国进一步对外资开放市场的承诺表示不确定或信心不足,尽管相比 2022年有显著改善。持续的商业挑战:会员企业主要关切的问

15、题仍然集中在美中关系、中国的监管环境、成本,以及中国的网络安全法律法规和知识产权保护等方面。人才留存问题:过去一年,外籍人才愿意调派至中国工作的意愿有所上升,尽管美中关系紧张和其他因素仍对招聘外籍人才产生负面影响。环境、社会及治理(ESG)情况:80%的会员企业表示已在中国开展“环境、社会及治理(ESG)”相关实践,重点推进“多元化、平等、包容(DEI)”战略,以及加强员工培训和商业伦理建设。我们希望今年的商业环境调查报告能为两国的政策制定提供相关信息支持,助力两国构建具有建设性、可持续性、互利互惠的双边关系。谭森中国美国商会主席二零二四年二月4AmCham Chinas 2024 China

16、 Business Climate Survey Report Executive SummaryIn this years Business Climate Survey,members report improved financial results for 2023,with increased profitability and EBIT margins in key sectors,and a more positive two-year business forecast,driven by opportunities in carbon neutrality and expec

17、tations of continued economic reforms in China.However,most plan limited or no new investments in 2024,prioritizing growing core business over expansion.Tense US-China relations headline a number of persistent challenges for members,with this issue under an ever-brighter spotlight,followed by regula

18、tory inconsistencies,and rising costs.Over one-third feel less welcome in China,expressing doubts about market openness and concerns over unfair treatment in market access and regulatory enforcement.The Technology and R&D sector particularly struggles with cybersecurity and IPR issues,citing tech de

19、coupling and data policies as major constraints.Despite these challenges,most members are maintaining their manufacturing or sourcing in China.Talent retention has improved slightly,though is still impacted by bilateral tensions.Notably,80%of members are implementing Environmental,Social,and Governa

20、nce(ESG)practices such as Diversity,Equity,and Inclusion(DEI),employee training,and business ethics to boost their brand image.今年的商务环境调查报告显示,受访企业 2023 年财务状况较上一年有所改善,主要行业的盈利水平和息税前利润率均有所上升。在中国实施碳中和战略和企业期待中国经济改革持续推进等因素的推动下,企业对未来两年的业务前景更为乐观。与此同时,大多数受访企业在 2024 年仅考虑小幅增加在华投资或暂无计划增加对华投资。相较于新增投资,企业将优先考虑推进核心业

21、务。在企业持续面临的挑战中,美中关系紧张仍是最主要的挑战,其他挑战还包括法规执行不一致、成本上升等。与此同时,超三分之一的受访企业感到在中国受欢迎程度有所下降,在中国市场的开放程度、市场准入、监管执法中受到不公平待遇等方面存在担忧。技术和研发行业在网络安全和知识产权等方面面临较大挑战,主要受限于美中技术脱钩和数据安全政策等因素。尽管面临诸多挑战,大多数受访企业仍将保持在中国生产或采购的布局。虽然美中双边关系紧张造成的影响仍然存在,但人才留存率较上一年度有所改善。在“环境、社会责任和公司治理(ESG)”方面,80%的受访企业在中国主要聚焦于“多元、平等与包容(DEI)”,员工教育、培训和职业发展

22、,公司治理和商业道德等方面。5AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Key Findings 要点综述:1.2023 Financial Performance:Improved Results withIncreased Profitability and Rising EBIT Margins in KeySectorsThe 2024 Business Climate Survey reveals an improved financial situation,encouraged by the lifting o

23、f pandemic restrictions and increased high-level governmental engagements.Projected revenues for 2023 show a slight,yet significant,increase from last year,particularly in the Consumer and Services sectors.Notably,nearly half(49%)of the respondents anticipate profitability in 2023,improving by 5pp c

24、ompared to last year.Furthermore,about one-third of members expect an increase in their EBIT margins over 2022,with substantial growth in the Resources and Industrial(R&I)and Consumer sectors,aligning their EBIT margins of China operations closely with global figures.73714820223420205511642413469420

25、2128How would you characterize your companys financial performance in China in 2023?2023 年贵公司在华业务的财务表现如何?%By percentage Very profitable大幅盈利 Profitable盈利 Break even持平 Loss 亏损 Large loss大幅亏损Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Services服务行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业202320223332302718412237154123314202337202

26、320223436111338391692 23 33942119303116112023202263 32023202239391613323785551.2023 年财务表现:预期改善,关键行业盈利水平和息税前利润率有所上升2024 年商务环境调查报告显示,在疫情防控措施解除和政府高层互访增加等因素推动下,受访企业对 2024 年的财务展望较上一年度有所改善。企业预计 2023 年营收有望实现小幅增长,尤其在消费行业和服务行业。其中,近半数受访企业预计2023 年将实现盈利,这一比例较去年上升了 5 个百分点。此外,近三分之一的受访企业预计其息税前利润率将超过 2022 年,其中资源和工业

27、行业以及消费行业的息税前利润率将实现大幅增长。约 68%的企业预计利润率将超过全球平均水平或与全球水平持平。6AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 2.Intent to Invest:Slight Rebound in Chinas Position asa Top Global Investment Destination In a notable shift from last year,when a majority of the respondents did not consider China among

28、their top three global investment priorities,this year sees a slight rebound.This year,half of the survey participants place China as their first choice or within their top three investment destinations globally,marking a 5pp increase from last years all-time low.Notably,this 50%includes 12%of membe

29、rs who operate solely in China,offering a more detailed view of the investment landscape.Chinas rank in near-term global investment plans 中国在近期全球投资计划中的重要性%By percentage 2.投资意向:中国作为全球重要投资目的地的地位有所回升2022 年,中国多年来首次不再被多数会员企业列为全球前三大投资目的地。2023 年,企业对华投资意向略有回升,50%的受访企业将中国列为全球首选或前三位投资目的地,相比 2022 年的历史最低点上升了 5

30、个百分点。这 50%的受访企业中,有 12%的受访企业仅在中国开展业务,这为我们观察企业投资布局提供了更加详尽的视角。20192039301120202140291020212214383129381117202216122233182023 First priority首要投资目的地 Top three priority三大投资目的地之一 One among many destinations众多投资目的地之一 Not a high priority不是优先考虑对象 We only have operations in China只在中国有业务7AmCham Chinas 2024 Chin

31、a Business Climate Survey Report 3.US-China Relations:Nearly All Respondents View US-China Relations as Crucial,with More Optimism for Improved Bilateral Ties and Market Access in 2024 Nearly all respondents,especially from the Technology and R&D sector,consider US-China relations crucial to their b

32、usinesses,with around 30%expecting improvements of bilateral relations in 2024,reflecting a rise in optimism compared to 2023.With members polled for this survey ahead of the Biden-Xi bilateral summit in late 2023,there was hope for Chinas market to become more accessible to foreign companies and se

33、ek adjustments in Chinas data policies.Members also hope the US government can moderate its rhetoric and pursue effective,high-level dialogues,while urging the Chinese government to treat US businesses fairly and engage more with the foreign business community.Importance of positive bilateral relati

34、ons between the US and China to your companys business growth in China 良好的美中双边关系对贵公司在华业务增长的重要性%By percentage Extremely important极其重要 Not important不重要 Not at all important完全不重要 very important非常重要 Somewhat important比较重要202320225229155428173 31 11 111Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consum

35、er消费行业Services服务行业1456291451332 22454191 11 11553311 13.美中关系:几乎所有受访企业均表示美中双边关系至关重要,并对 2024 年双边关系和市场准入条件改善持更为乐观的态度几乎所有受访企业都认为,美中关系是其发展在华业务的关键因素,技术和研发行业尤为突出。近 30%的受访企业预计 2024 年美中关系将有所改善,对双边关系的乐观程度明显高于 2023 年。会员填写问卷时正值 2023 年底两国元首会晤前夕,会员企业期待借此机会推动中国扩大对外资企业的市场准入,改善数据政策。会员企业也期待美国政府避免使用激烈言辞,推动有效的高层对话;期待中国

36、政府给予在华美国企业公平待遇,并积极与外国商界交流。8AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 4.Confidence in Chinas Openness:Sectoral Differencesin Fair Treatment and Cautious Optimism About ChinasMarket OpeningOne-third of the survey participants say they experienced unfair treatment compared to local compet

37、itors,albeit with some improvement from past years.This feeling also differs across sectors:Consumer companies report enhanced fairness,whereas the Technology and R&D sector notes a decline in equitable treatment.How are foreign companies in your industry treated by government policies and enforceme

38、nt actions relative to domestic companies?与国内公司相比,您所在行业的外资公司受到的待遇如何?%By percentage 20213376120233110602022387552022516432023427512023172460202263262202336592022355610Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业20223665820232467105 5 Foreign companies receive preferential tr

39、eatment vs.domestic companies相比本土企业,外资企业受到优惠待遇 Foreign companies are treated equally vs.domestic companies相比本土企业,外资企业受到同等待遇 Foreign companies are treated unfairly vs.domestic companies相比本土企业,外资企业受到不公平待遇4.对中国市场开放的信心:基于行业差异的公平待遇和对中国市场开放程度的谨慎乐观三分之一的受访企业表示,相比本土企业,外资企业受到更多不公平待遇,尽管情况较过去几年有所改善。同时,各行业感受有所不同

40、,如消费行业的企业表示被平等对待的情况有所改善,而技术和研发行业则表示情况有所恶化。9AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report How confident are you that the Chinese government is committed to further opening Chinas market to foreign investment in the coming three years?您对中国政府在未来三年将进一步向外资开放市场持有多少信心?%By percentage Very confiden

41、t非常有信心 Confident有信心 Unsure不确定 Not confident没有信心 Very unconfident非常没有信心Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业71840727113384310114412226123910332023202212368391646296105182562540621816351331212611338202220232023202220232022202220233 35 55 55 5Among members from all sect

42、ors,57%are either uncertain or lack confidence in Chinas dedication to further opening its market to foreign investments.Despite this,there is an increase in optimism by 9pp compared to last year.This combination of uncertainty and optimism suggests that members have a cautious view of Chinas effort

43、s to further open its market over the next three years.在各细分领域中,57%的会员企业对中国进一步对外资开放市场的承诺表示不确定或信心不足。然而,对中国持续开放市场表示有信心的企业较 2022 年增加了 9 个百分点。这表明会员企业对中国在未来三年进一步开放市场的承诺持谨慎乐观态度。10AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 5.Top Five Business Challenges:Persistent Concerns Over US-China Relatio

44、ns,Regulatory Interpretations,and Costs Since 2021For the fourth consecutive year,rising tensions in US-China relations remain a primary concern for members,a trend that began in 2021.Although the level of concern has marginally decreased compared to last year,it still ranks high among members prior

45、ities.Additionally,there is a growing concern regarding inconsistent regulatory interpretations and rising labor costs.Apart from 2023,when COVID-19 restrictions surfaced as a predominant issue,these challenges have consistently ranked within the top two or three concerns for members.Please select y

46、our TOP FIVE business challenges in China 贵公司在华业务影响最大的五个商业挑战202020212022202320241Rising labor costs劳动力成本增加45%Rising tensions in US-China relations美中关系日益紧张78%Rising tensions in US-China relations美中关系日益紧张56%Rising tensions in US-China relations美中关系日益紧张66%Rising tensions in US-China relations美中关系日益紧张61

47、%2Inconsistent regulatory interpretation and unclear laws&enforcement法律法规和执行不一致/不明确41%Rising labor costs劳动力成本增加40%Inconsistent regulatory interpretation and unclear laws&enforcement法律法规和执行不一致/不明确31%COVID-19 prevention measures新冠疫情防控措施 55%Inconsistent regulatory interpretation and unclear laws&enforc

48、ement法律法规和执行不一致/不明确30%3Rising tensions in US-China relations美中关系日益紧张41%Inconsistent regulatory interpretation and unclear laws&enforcement法律法规和执行不一致/不明确37%Rising labor costs劳动力成本增加29%Inconsistent regulatory interpretation and unclear laws&enforcement法律法规和执行不一致/不明确32%Rising labor costs劳动力成本增加27%4Regu

49、latory compliance risks监管合规风险23%Increasing competition from privately owned Chinese companies 来自中国民企日益激烈的竞争33%Regulatory compliance risks监管合规风险28%Rising labor costs劳动力成本增加25%Concerns about data security对数据安全的担忧26%5Shortages of qualified management缺少合格的管理人员23%Concerns about data security对数据安全的担忧26%Co

50、ncerns about data security对数据安全的担忧23%Regulatory compliance risks监管合规风险25%Increasing competition from privately owned Chinese companies 来自中国民企日益激烈的竞争24%5.企业在华业务面临的五大商业挑战:自 2021 年以来,美中双边关系、法律法规执行及成本上升成为企业持续担忧的挑战自 2021 年以来,美中关系紧张已连续四年成为会员企业在华开展业务的主要担忧,尽管与 2022 年相比程度略有下降。另外,企业也愈发关注法律法规不一致和劳动力成本上升等问题。除新冠

51、疫情防控措施成为 2022 年度主要焦点外,上述问题始终是会员企业在华面临的前三大商业挑战。11AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 6.IP Concerns:Technology and R&D Sector Faces Considerable Cybersecurity Challenges and Persistent Concerns Over IPR Enforcement in ChinaMembers from the Technology and R&D sector report considera

52、ble challenges related to Chinas Cybersecurity Law.Although 35%recognize advancements in the enforcement of Chinas intellectual property rights(IPR),the drop from 2020 underscores ongoing concerns regarding IPR issues.In the last year,Chinas enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights(IPR)has:在过去一年中

53、,中国在知识产权法律法规执行方面:%By percentage Improved改善 Stayed the same保持不变 Deteriorated恶化 Unsure不确定47282544312236332935332820202021202220234 42 23 31 16.知识产权:技术和研发行业面临较大的网络安全挑战,企业对中国知识产权执法持续担忧来自技术和研发行业的受访企业表示在网络安全法相关问题上面临较大挑战。尽管 35%的受访企业对过去一年中国在加强知识产权保护方面所做的努力表示认可,但与 2020年相比,整体感受仍有所下降,体现了企业对知识产权问题的持续担忧。12AmCham

54、 Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 7.Manufacturing or Sourcing:Majority of Members Retain Capacity in China Despite Growing Concerns Over Geopolitical Tensions andPolicy UncertaintiesA majority of members across sectors have no plans to move their manufacturing and sourcing out of Chi

55、na.Yet,from 2021,there is a slight,but notable,uptick in the number of members considering this option.Particularly,the Services sector shows the highest percentage of companies deciding against relocating their capacities.Among those considering a relocation,the main factors driving this considerat

56、ion are escalating geopolitical tensions,risk management issues,and uncertainties in Chinas policy landscape.Although concerns about risk management have diminished,concerns over geopolitical tensions have increased significantly from last year.Is your company considering,or has it already begun the

57、 process of relocating manufacturing or sourcing outside of China?贵公司是否开始,或考虑开始将生产或采购转移至中国境外?%By percentage No,we are not considering relocating manufacturing or sourcing outside of China不,我司没有考虑将生产采购转移至中国境外 Yes,we are considering relocating but have not taken active steps to relocate manufacturing

58、or sourcing outside of China yet是的,我司在考虑转移,但还没有采取行动将生产采购转移至中国境外 Yes,we have started the process of relocating manufacturing or sourcing outside of China是的,我司已经开始将生产采购转移至中国境外 Other其他20198389202083872 2202377121116166761777Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业202274121

59、22 2202183773 37903 382154 47.生产或采购:尽管对地缘政治局势和政策环境不确定性的顾虑增加,但大多数受访企业仍将保在中国的布局绝大多数企业并未考虑将生产或采购转移至中国境外,但与2021 年相比,考虑此选项的企业比例有小幅提升。其中,服务行业不考虑转移的企业比例最高。在考虑转移的受访企业中,其考量主要受地缘政治局势紧张、风险管理等因素影响,以及对政策环境不确定性的顾虑。尽管 2023 年对风险管理表示担忧的企业比例有所下降,但对地缘局势表示担忧的企业比例较 2022 年翻了一倍。13AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate

60、Survey Report 8.Talent Retention:Reduced Reluctance to Relocate to ChinaAmid Rising Concerns Over US-China Relations Impacting Foreign Talent RecruitmentThe primary challenges in attracting foreign talent to China,as reported by members,include concerns over US-China relations and a general reluctan

61、ce to relocate and reside in China.But there has been a significant reduction in concerns related to candidates unwillingness or inability to relocate to China this year,likely as a result of the termination of Chinas Zero-COVID policy.Meanwhile,the issue of escalating bilateral tensions has grown m

62、ore prominent among respondents,increasing by 6pp over the last year.Significant challenges to recruit and retain expatriate talent to work in China 招聘和留住在华外籍人才的显著挑战%By percentage Qualified candidates unwilling to move to China合格候选人不愿意搬到中国Individual Income Tax regulations 新个人所得税法Internet/media censo

63、rship互联网/媒体审查Slowing Chinese economy中国经济增长放缓Poor air quality空气质量问题Other health and safety concerns 其他健康和安全问题Qualified candidates unable to move to China合格候选人无法搬到中国Other 其他Bilateral tensions and other geopolitical concerns双边关系紧张和其它地缘政治因素High cost of living and payroll costs生活和工资成本高Food/water safety c

64、oncerns食品/用水安全顾虑 2023 2022423633512823252021171813162116141444116348.人才留存:外籍员工招聘仍受美中双边关系影响,但不愿移居中国的外籍人才比例有所下降受访企业表示,对美中双边关系的担忧是影响外籍员工招聘的最主要因素,另一因素是外籍人士在中国生活的意愿不足。与2022 年相比,不愿移居中国的外籍人士比例有显著下降,或与疫情管控政策结束有关。同时,更多会员企业认为双边关系紧张将成为外籍员工留存的首要挑战,较2022 年增长 6 个百分点。14AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Sur

65、vey Report 9.ESG:80%of Surveyed Members Implement ESG Practicesin China,Emphasizing DEI,Employee Training,and Ethics toBoost Business ReputationAround 80%of the surveyed members are implementing ESG practices in their China operations,with half viewing it as beneficial for improving their business r

66、eputation.The most popular ESG initiatives among these companies include DEI,employee training programs,and a focus on business ethics.Does your company implement Environment(E),Social(S),and Governance(G)strategies in China operations?贵公司在中国是否实施了“环境、社会责任和公司治理(ESG)”战略?%By percentage Yes,we have an E

67、SG strategy in China and it is aligned with our global ESG strategy是的。我们在华的 ESG 战略与公司总部的 ESG 战略一致 Yes,we modified our global ESG strategy and tailored it for the China market是的。我们对公司的 ESG 战略进行了优化,以适应中国市场 Our company has an ESG strategy at the global level,but has not implemented it in China yet 我们公司

68、在全球总部层面有 ESG 战略,但目前在华没有实施 Our company does not have an ESG strategy我们公司没有 ESG 战略736571412981259531319151413146868211171663161296713166391514Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Services服务行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业202220232022202320222023202220234459.ESG 战略:80%的受访企业在中国实施 ESG 战略,主要聚焦于“多元、平等与包容(DEI)”价值,员工

69、培训和商业伦理等约 80%的会员企业表示已在中国实施了 ESG 战略,其中近半数企业旨在通过实施 ESG 战略提高商业声誉。企业 ESG 战略的重点包括“多元、平等与包容(DEI)”价值,员工培训和商业伦理等。15AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 2024 Survey Methodology 2024 年调查方法1.16AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report PrefaceMembers represent enterprises of var

70、ious sizes from a broad range of industries,including many with global operations.We continue to categorize these industries into four sectors for further data analysis:Technology and other R&D-intensive Industries(Tech and R&D),Resources and Industrial(R&I),Consumer(products and services),and Servi

71、ces.The survey was conducted from October 19 to November 10,2023.The total sample size was 343(see Figure 8).前 言受访企业代表各行业不同规模的企业,包括许多业务遍布全球的跨国企业。为了进行深入的数据分析,我们将这些企业所属的行业分为四大类:技术和研发、资源和工业、消费(包括消费品和服务)以及服务行业。本次调查时间为 2023 年 10 月 19 日至 11 月 10 日。参与调查的企业总数为 343 家(图 8)。Note:The data represented in the cha

72、rts has been rounded,which may result in the total percentages across some charts not summing up precisely to 100%注:由于四舍五入,各数据之和可能不等于总额(100%)17AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Figure 1.Number of employees图 1.雇员人数Figure 3.Respondents position图 3.受访者职位Figure 4.Where does your co

73、mpany have a legal presence?图 4.贵公司在哪个国家设有法律实体(包括办事处)?Less than 250小于 250 人Senior-level country manager(CEO,VP,Managing Director,Chief Representative)中国高管级别(包括 CEO,副总裁,总经理,董事总经理,首席代表)Director of government relations or public relations政府关系或公共关系总监Director/functional leader of other department(e.g.,HR

74、 Director,Finance Director,Sales Director,COO)总监/其他职能部门主管(如:人力资源部总监,财务总监,销售总监,首席运营官等)China,US,and outside of China and the US中国,美国和美中以外的其他国家和地区China中国China,the US中国,美国China,Outside of China and the US中国,中国和美国以外的国家和地区Outside of China and the US中国和美国以外的国家和地区US美国US,Outside of China and the US美国,中国和美国以外

75、的国家和地区Other其他250 to 1,000250 人-1000 人1,001 to 2,0001001 人-2000 人2,001 to 5,0002001 人-5000 人More than 5,000大于 5000 人40562314718121119%By percentage%By percentage Figure 2.Revenue(2023 USD estimate)图 2.2023 年营收(单位:美元估值)Less than 10 million小于 1,000 万元10 to 100 million1,000 万元 1 亿元100 to 500 million1 亿元

76、 5 亿元10 to 50 billion100 亿元 500 亿元500 million to 1 billion5 亿元 10 亿元More than 50 billion大于 500 亿元1 to 10 billion10 亿元 100 亿元Did not answer未回复2620191116459221044%By percentage%By percentage 121118AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Figure 5.Where are the customers that your compan

77、y primarily serves?图 5.贵公司主要服务哪些国家的客户?Figure 6.What percentage of your companys global revenues is China expected to account for this year?图 6.本年度贵公司在华业务在全球营收中占多大比例?Both customers in China and outside of China中国和其他国家/地区的客户 Customers in China中国的客户 Customers outside of China中国以外国家/地区的客户32214 310304018

78、6392420232022%By percentage 10%10-25%25-35%35-50%50%Did not answer未回复%By percentage 5047319AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 202275320165 5Figure 7.Which of the following describes your companys main business model in China?图 7.不同行业会员在中国的主要商业模式%By percentage Produce or source g

79、oods or services in China for the China market针对中国市场,在华生产或提供产品或服务 Import goods or services into China进口产品或服务到中国 Other其他 Produce or source goods or services in China for markets other than the US or China针对美中两国以外市场,在华生产或提供产品或服务 Produce or source goods or services in China for the US market针对美国市场,在华生产

80、或提供产品或服务2023202258131957221464 42 24 420232022114535134311285 55 54 42023202215502794335134 44 4Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Other其他行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业202365319184 42023202266191695991775 52023202253365627124 44 44 41 14 420AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Rep

81、ort Figure 8.Survey respondents were segmented into four main categories图 8.受访企业所属行业分为四大类别 ConsumerProducts消费品 RetailandDistribution零售与分销 HealthcareServices医疗服务 Education教育 MediaandEntertainment媒体与娱乐 HospitalityandTravel&Leisure酒店、旅游与休闲 Social&PublicSector/nonprofit(includingindustryassociations)社会和

82、公共事业/非营利机构(包括行业协会)Other(e.g.SupplyChainMgmt,Manufacturing,Productdevelopmentandsourcing,investmentandtrade)其它行业(如:供应链管理、产品开发和外包,投资和贸易等)FinancialServices(e.g.,Banking,Insurance)金融服务(如:银行、保险)RealEstateandDevelopment房地产和开发 TransportationandLogistics运输与物流 Investing(e.g.,PrivateEquity,VentureCapital)投资(如

83、:私募股权、风险投资等)OtherServices(e.g.,Law,HumanResources,Accounting,Marketing,AdvertisingandPR,Research,Consulting)其他服务(如:法律、人力资源、会计、市场营销、广告和公关、调研、咨询)Aerospace航天航空 HealthcareProducts(e.g.,Pharmaceuticals,MedicalTechnology)医疗产品(如:制药、医疗器械)Technology/TelecommunicationsHardware科技/电信硬件 Technology/telecommunicat

84、ionsServices科技/电信服务 Agribusiness农业 Automotive&TransportationVehicles汽车和交通工具 Machinery,Equipment,Systems&Controls机械、设备、系统和控制 Oil&Gas/Energy石油&天然气/能源 OtherIndustrial(e.g.,Chemicals,Mining,Paper&Packaging)其他工业领域(如:化学品、采矿、造纸与包装)Technology&other R&D-intensive industries(Tech and R&D)技术和研发行业(n=79)Consumer

85、消费行业(n=90)Resources&Industrial 资源和工业行业(n=64)Services服务行业(n=81)Other其他行业(n=23)Performance Snapshot 绩效速览2.22AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report PrefaceThis years survey data presents an optimistic forecast for 2024,likely influenced both by the lifting of pandemic-related restricti

86、ons and by an increase in high-level bilateral engagements.2023 revenue is estimated to increase slightly in comparison to 2022,especially in the Consumer and Services sectors(Figure 9).49%of respondents expect to be profitable in 2023,an increase of 5pp from last year(Figure 10).Almost one-third of

87、 survey respondents predict their 2023 Earnings Before Interest and Taxes(EBIT)margins would rise,rebounding from 2022 levels(Figure 11).Nearly half of the respondents indicate that their projected EBIT margins are comparable to their global margins,with the most significant growth from the previous

88、 year observed in the R&I and Consumer sectors(Figure 12).前 言在新冠疫情防控措施取消和近期美中元首成功会晤的背景下,会员企业对 2024 年中国商业环境信心较 2023 年有所提升。会员企业预计 2023 年营收相较 2022 年有所增长,尤其体现在消费行业和服务行业(图 9)。近半数会员预计 2023 年将实现盈利,这一比例较 2022 年上涨 5 个百分点(图 10)。近三分之一受访企业预计,2023 年息税前利润率(EBIT)相较 2022 年有所改善(图 11)。近半数受访企业表示,预计息税前利润率与全球利润率水平相当,其中资

89、源和工业行业、消费品行业相较 2022 年显著增长(图 12)。23AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Compared with 2022,2023 revenue estimated to increase slightly,especially in the Consumer and Services sectors会员企业预计 2023 年营收相较 2022 年有所增长,尤其在消费行业和服务行业Figure 9.How does the estimated 2023 revenue of your compan

90、ys China operations compare with 2022 results?图 9.2023 年贵公司在华业务营收预计与 2022 年相比有何变化?%By percentage The data reveals a positive shift in revenue expectations from 2022 to 2023,with 39%of respondents expecting an increase in revenue,a 7pp increase from the pre-vious year.Additionally,one-third of the re

91、spondents anticipate maintaining a rev-enue level similar to the previous year.Yet these figures are still below 2021 levels.Sector-wise,the Consumer sector shows a boost in optimism,with 49%report-ing an expected increase in revenue.The Services industry also reflects a positive trend,with 31%antic

92、ipating revenue growth.This rebound in optimism may be attributed to the lifting of COVID-19 related restrictions,leading to increased con-sumer confidence and activities.2023 年数据显示,与 2022 年相比,会员企业在华业务的预期营收呈上升趋势,39%的企业预计收入将增长,这一比例较 2022 年增加了 7 个百分点。超过三分之一的企业预计收入持平,与 2022 年基本一致。与此同时,其营收表现仍低于 2021 年水平

93、。从细分行业看,消费行业发展态势乐观,约 49%的受访企业预期收入增长,服务行业有 31%的受访企业预计收入增长。这一趋势或得益于中国取消疫情防控措施,增强了消费者信心并刺激了消费活动。323434353134582814202120202022 Up上升 Comparable (2%)持平 Down下降3933282023Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业4921302023302346202233363120234227312022313930202319473420224238202

94、023413327202224AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 73714820223420205511642413469420212849%of members expect to be profitable in 2023,up 5pp since last year,with a 15pp rise in the Consumer sector近半数会员预计 2023 年将实现盈利,盈利企业比例相比上一年上涨 5 个百分点,其中消费行业上涨 15 个百分点Figure 10.How would you char

95、acterize your companys financial performance in China in 2023?图 10.2023 年贵公司在华业务的财务表现如何?The overall financial performance of members in 2023 indicates a mod-est rebound,though it still falls short of pre-pandemic levels.Nearly half of the respondents anticipate profitability,up 5pp from 2022.The mos

96、t significant improvement is in the Consumer sector,which sees a 15pp rise in those expecting to be“profitable”or“very profitable”.This trend reflects cautious optimism and suggests gradual recovery in the business climate.2023 年,会员企业的整体财务表现虽稍有改善,但与疫情前水平相比仍有差距。数据显示,约一半的企业预计其在中国的业务将实现盈利,较 2022 年增加了 5

97、 个百分点。其中,消费行业经营情况改善最为明显,预计实现盈利的企业比例较 2022 年增长了 15个百分点。这一趋势显示企业对当前商业环境持谨慎乐观态度,市场情绪逐步回暖。%By percentage Very profitable大幅盈利 Profitable盈利 Break even持平 Loss 亏损 Large loss大幅亏损Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Services服务行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业2023202233323027184122371541233142023372023202234361113383916

98、92 23 33942119303116112023202263 320232022393916133237855525AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 194140293437453916202120202022EBIT margins have rebounded from 2022 levels,with Consumer and Services sectors seeing double-digit improvements息税前利润率相较 2022 年有所改善,消费行业和服务行业盈利企业比例实现两位数增长

99、Nearly one-third of the respondents anticipate profitability this year,marking a 10pp increase from 2022,while 42%report that their EBIT margins are comparable to those of 2021.The proportion of companies in the Consumer sector expecting an improvement in their EBIT mar-gins has risen by 20pp,while

100、in the Services sector this proportion has increased by 15pp.近三分之一的受访企业预计今年将实现盈利,较2022 年上升了 10 个百分点。同时,有 42%的企业表示其息税前利润率与 2021 年持平。其中,消费行业中预期 EBIT 利润率提升的企业比例较2022 年上升了 20 个百分点,而服务行业中这一比例增长了 15 个百分点。Figure 11.How do the estimated 2023 EBIT margins of your companys China operations compare with those

101、of 2022?图 11.2023 年贵公司在华业务的息税前利润率相比 2022 年状况如何?%By percentage Up增长 Comparable (1%)持平 Down下滑294229202338293320231932492022244037202325363920222744292023124444202229452620232548272022Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Services服务行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业26AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Surve

102、y Report Nearly 50%of respondents say their estimated EBIT margins are comparable to their global margins,with the biggest increases from last year seen in the R&I and Consumer sectors近半数受访企业,预计在华业务息税前利润率与全球息税前利润率水平相当,其中资源和工业行业、消费行业相较 2022 年显著 增长19%of survey participants indicate that their projecte

103、d EBIT margins of Chi-na operations surpass the global average.Meanwhile,50%of respondents say their EBIT margins align with the global level.Notably,the proportion of companies in the R&I and Consumer sectors with margins exceeding and comparable to the global average has increased by 13pp and 10pp

104、 respec-tively.19%的企业预计其在华业务的息税前利润率将超过全球平均水平,约 50%的企业预计利润率与全球水平相当。在技术和研发行业及消费行业中,预计在华 EBIT 高于或持平于全球平均 EBIT 的企业比例分别增加了 13 个百分点和 10 个百分点。Figure 12.How do the estimated EBIT margins of your companys China operations compare with your companys global margins in 2023?图 12.2023 年贵公司在华业务的息税前利润率与全球息税前利润率相比如

105、何?%By percentage 124840264726245026202120202022 Higher than global margins高于全球息税前利润率 Comparable (1%)持平 Lower than global margins低于全球息税前利润率19493320232514404135462023202227134451293620232022910484943412023202210106249284120232022Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Services服务行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Bus

106、iness Operations and Goals商业运营和经营目标3.28AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report PrefaceThe near-term business outlook for China has improved compared with last year.Members are showing increased optimism,particularly in bilateral relations(up 11pp),the regulatory environment(up 9pp),a

107、nd profitability potential(up 7pp)(Figure 13).In addition,members report increased expectations for Chinas industry market growth in 2024(Figure 14).More than half of the respondents report no changes in their investment plans,suggesting stability in their business strategies.More than 60%of respond

108、ents still plan to grow their core business in China in 2024,with a similar response across each industry segment(Figure 18).Business opportunities remain stable across most sectors compared to last year.The R&I sector is seeing a rise in initiatives related to carbon neutrality.In the Consumer sect

109、or,more opportunities are arising from Chinas continuing economic and market reforms,but there is a noticeable reduction in the demand for foreign brands(Figure 17).US-China relations continue to be the primary business concern for our members for the third consecutive year,followed by issues with i

110、nconsistent laws and regulations(30%),increasing labor costs(27%),data security concerns(26%),and growing competition from private Chinese firms(24%).The Tech and R&D sectors highlight new challenges in indigenous innovation and industrial policy.The R&I sector cites concerns over industry overcapac

111、ity and RMB volatility.In the Consumer sector,labor costs have emerged as the second most pressing issue(36%).Data security is a major concern in both the Services(44%)and Tech and R&D(30%)sectors(Figure 16).Approximately 80%of respondents are engaging in Environmental,Social,and Governance(ESG)stra

112、tegies within their operations in China,with half of the members perceiving this as advantageous for enhancing their positive business image(Figure 19).The top three ESG strategies among member companies are Diversity,Equity,and Inclusion(DEI),employee training,and business ethics.前 言受访企业对于在华业务的前景预期

113、较 2022 年有所改善,尤其在美中双边关系(增长 11 个百分点)、监管环境(增长9 个百分点)以及盈利潜力(增长 7 个百分点)等方面表现出较大幅度的改善(图 13)。受访企业对 2024 年中国行业市场增长的预期有所提升(图 14)。超半数受访企业表示,其在华投资策略保持不变,反映了企业战略的稳定性。此外,超过 60%的受访企业计划在 2024 年继续在中国推进其核心业务,不同行业细分市场趋势类似(图 18)。大多数行业在华业务的商业机遇与 2022 年基本一致。在技术和研发行业中,与碳中和相关的机遇呈增长态势。中国市场经济的持续改革为消费行业带来商机。与此同时,中国市场对外国品牌的需求

114、有所下降(图 17)。美中关系紧张已连续四年成为会员企业在中国开展业务时面临的最大商业挑战。其次是法律法规执行不一致(30%)、劳动力成本上升(27%)、数据安全问题(26%)以及来自中国民营企业的竞争(24%)。在技术和研发领域中,自主创新和其它产业政策带来新挑战。在资源和工业行业中,产能过剩和人民币波动引发会员企业担忧。劳动力成本上升则成为消费行业除美中关系外另一主要关注问题(占 36%)。技术和研发行业(30%)和服务业(44%)则主要关注数据安全问题(图 16)。约 80%的受访者正在中国实施“环境、社会责任和公司治理(ESG)”战略,其中一半会员认为实施 ESG 战略有助于提升其在华

115、企业形象(图 19)。会员企业在华 ESG 战略主要聚焦于:“多元、平等与包容(DEI)”价值、员工培训以及商业伦理。29AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Compared with last year,members outlook is more positive across all domains,especially for bilateral relations会员企业对未来两年在华业务的预期有所改善,尤其在双边关系方面Figure 13.Two-year business outlook in Chin

116、a图 13.贵公司对今后两年的中国业务展望Members view the business climate in China over the next two years with in-creasing optimism across all areas when compared to last year,particularly in US-China relations.Members feel most positive about domestic market growth(44%),profitability potential(40%),and economic reco

117、very(38%),and remain conservative on regulatory environment(28%),cost competitiveness(24%),and US-China relations(19%).相较上一年度,会员企业对未来两年中国各行业营商环境态度更为乐观,尤其在双边关系方面。企业对中国市场增长(44%)、盈利潜力(40%)和经济复苏(38%)最为乐观,对监管环境(28%)、成本水平(24%)和美中关系(19%)则相对谨慎。%By percentage Optimistic乐观 Slightly optimistic较为乐观 Neutral中立 Sl

118、ightly pessimistic略微悲观 Pessimistic悲观3029US-China relations美中关系Regulatory environment监管环境Economic recovery/growth经济复苏/增长Profitability potential盈利潜力Cost competitive-ness/cost levels成本竞争力/成本水平Competitive pressure竞争压力Domestic market growth国内市场增长20242023202420232216373612172328202420232024202320242023201

119、737449828262024202320242023129323329277112120242573128107302633372022163020173635371 13 365735619144041283278991445630AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report Expectations for industry market growth in 2024 are higher than they were in 2023 across the board,with increases in the Consu

120、mer(16pp)and Tech(5pp)sectors受访企业预计 2024 年行业市场增长情况将好于 2023 年,尤其是消费行业与技术和研发行业Figure 14.Forecast for your industrys market growth in 2024 vs.2023 图 14.与 2023 年相比,预计 2024 年行业市场的增长情况%By percentage Survey respondents have expressed an increased optimism regarding the mar-ket growth in China for 2024.In t

121、he Consumer sector,there is an anticipated market growth of 16pp,which may be attributed to the recovery of the hospital-ity and transportation industries.Similarly,the Technology and R&D sector has also observed a 5pp increase in those expected market growth.R&I and Services sectors have reported a

122、 more significant increase in modest market growth.受访企业对 2024 年各行业市场增长均持更加乐观的态度。预计市场增长的消费行业企业比例增加了 16 个百分点,或得益于酒店和交通运输行业的回暖;预测市场增长的技术和研发行业企业比例提升 5 个百分点。资源和工业行业及服务行业中,预期市场将实现“适度增长”的企业比例显著增加。2024202316624312088273716 20%10-20%5-50%26-50%21-25%11-20%1-10%No investment expansion planned无投资扩大计划 Planning

123、to decrease investments计划减少投资202420233731994346591 13 31 18186322756Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业3755353 33 32 23 32 22 23 32 22 253 3115%if they had greater market access in China半数受访企业表示,如果中国扩大市场准入,将考虑追加超过 15%的投资291113202716342417920232022Tech and R&D技术和研发行

124、业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业2 27201740171329132618111919371532213755AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 57Across all sectors,57%report uncertainty or a lack of confidence over Chinas commitment to further opening its market to foreign investment,but there

125、is a 9pp rise in those expressing confidence对中国进一步向外资开放市场表示有信心的受访企业比例增加了 9 个百分点;但仍有 57%的受访企业对中国进一步开放表示不确定或信心不足Figure 39.How confident are you that the Chinese government is committed to further opening Chinas market to foreign investment in the coming three years?图 39.您对中国政府在未来三年将进一步向外资开放市场持有多少信心?%B

126、y percentage Across all sectors,57%of members express uncertainty or a lack of confi-dence regarding Chinas commitment to further opening its market to for-eign investment.However,there is a notable increase in optimism,with a 9pp rise in those expressing confidence compared to last year.This mixed

127、sentiment indicates a cautious but slightly more positive outlook towards Chinas market opening efforts in the coming three years.在各细分领域中,57%的会员企业表示对中国进一步对外资开放市场的承诺表示不确定或信心不足。然而,对持续开放市场表示有信心的企业增加了9个百分点,相比2022年有所改善。这表明会员企业对中国在未来三年进一步开放市场的承诺持谨慎乐观态度。Very confident非常有信心 Confident有信心 Unsure不确定 Not confid

128、ent没有信心 Very unconfident非常没有信心Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业71840727113384310114412226123910332023202212368391646296105182562540621816351331212611338202220232023202220232022202220233 3555AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 58Consistent with

129、 last year,72%of respondents report at least some pressure to make(or not make)statements around politically sensitive issues72%的会员表示,在过去一年中曾面临就政治敏感问题发表(或不发表)声明的压力,情况与去年一致%By percentage Consistent with the previous years findings,72%of respondents re-port experiencing at least some pressure to eithe

130、r make statements or refrain from commenting on politically sensitive issues.This trend indicates a continued presence of political pressure in the foreign business community.2023 2022Figure 40.Did you receive pressures to make(or not make)statements about politically sensitive issues?图 40.贵公司在过去一年是

131、否就政治敏感话题发表(或不发表)声明受到相关外部压力?We have experienced a significant increase in pressure我司面临的压力显著增加We have experienced a slight increase in pressure我司面临的压力略微增加We have experienced a significant decrease in pressure我司面临的压力显著降低We have experienced a slight decrease in pressure我司面临的压力略微降低We have experienced pre

132、ssure no greater than in previous years我司面临的压力与前几年持平Unsure不确定We have not experienced any pressure我司未面临任何压力Other其他17192023322432202081111172%的受访企业表示,过去一年中曾就政治敏感问题发表(或不发表)声明的受到外部压力,情况与 2022 年一致。此趋势表明,外资商界仍然持续面临政治压力。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 59%By percentage Figure 41.Sour

133、ces of increased pressures 图 41.压力增加的来源 Such pressure related to political issues comes predominantly from the Chinese side,especially the Chinese government政治问题方面的压力主要来自中方,尤其来自中国政府This pressure predominantly originates from Chinese sources,particularly from the Chi-nese government,followed by the C

134、hinese media,with the Chinese public/consumers and the US government tied for third place.The Chinese government中国政府Chinese media中国媒体The Chinese public/consumers中国公众、消费者The US government美国政府International public/consumers国际公众、消费者Business partners/suppliers or customers业务合作伙伴、供应商或客户Global company lead

135、ership全球公司领导层US media美国媒体Third-party government(s)第三方政府Local company leadership本地公司领导层Other international media其他国际媒体NGOs and Associations非政府组织和协会61343232312625108776会员企业表示,由政治敏感问题带来的压力主要来自中方,尤其是来自中国政府。其次是中方媒体、公众/消费者,继而是美国政府。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 60In response to Ch

136、inas recent regulatory actions,two-fifths of respondents say they will reinforce internal compliance,while around the same number say it is causing uncertainty and worry at headquarters 为应对中国持续开展的监管行动,五分之二的受访企业表示将更重视并加强内部合规;同时,上述行动引发了企业总部的疑虑Figure 42.Impact of Chinas recent regulatory actions(e.g.re

137、garding anti-trust,data privacy,addressing social issues etc)on business 图 42.中国近期采取的监管行动(如关于反垄断、数据隐私和解决社会问题等)对贵公司在华业务影响%By percentage In response to Chinas recent regulatory actions,two-fifths of the respondents indicate that they plan to reinforce internal compliance measures.This approach suggest

138、s a focus on ensuring that their operations align with the evolving regu-latory landscape in China.A similar portion of businesses report that the recent regulatory actions in China are creating a sense of uncertainty and concern at their headquarters.This sentiment is also influencing a decrease in

139、 companies confidence and willingness to invest in China.Leading us to emphasize and reinforce internal compliance and controls促使我司重视和加强内部合规和控制No impact没有影响Decreasing our confidence and willingness to invest in China降低我司对在华投资的信心和意愿Increasing our confidence and willingness to invest in China增加我司对在华投资

140、的信心和意愿Unsure不确定41395181512Contributing to uncertainty and worry among headquarters由于不确定该类行动的未来方向、是否适用于外商投资企业,以及缺乏透明度,导致总部的不确定性和担忧程度上升为应对中国近期的监管行动,五分为应对中国近期的监管行动,五分之二的受访企业计划加强内部合之二的受访企业计划加强内部合规,与中国最新的监管要求保持一规,与中国最新的监管要求保持一致。同时,五分之二的企业表示,致。同时,五分之二的企业表示,中国的监管行动令总部感到不确定中国的监管行动令总部感到不确定和担忧,进而影响了其在华投资的和担忧,

141、进而影响了其在华投资的信心和意愿。信心和意愿。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 61Only 16%of members report that at least 50%of their top(country)management are not native Mainland Chinese仅有 16%的受访企业表示,中国业务高管团队中非中国籍高管占半数以上Figure 43.Percentage of top(country)management that are not native Mainland Chi

142、nese 图 43.非中国大陆籍的高级管理层人士比例4.2 Human Resources人力资源Members report that a significant majority of their management consists of native Mainland Chinese,with more than three-quar-ters of firms having less than 25%foreign management.The proportion of foreign management is lowest in the Tech and R&D sector

143、,while a small but substantial percentage of companies in other sectors have a majority of foreign management.%By percentage 75%50-75%25-50%0-25%Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业71891372781386123 3756172 2771158受访企业表示,其高管人员由中国大陆籍人士担任受访企业表示,其高管人员由中国大陆籍人士担任的比例较高。管理

144、层人员中非大陆籍高管占比低于的比例较高。管理层人员中非大陆籍高管占比低于25%的会员企业占比高达77%。在技术和研发行业,25%的会员企业占比高达77%。在技术和研发行业,非大陆籍管理层占比最低。在其他行业的企业中,非大陆籍管理层占比最低。在其他行业的企业中,非大陆籍人士担任管理层的比例相对较高。非大陆籍人士担任管理层的比例相对较高。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 62Women continue to hold a larger portion of top management positions in Con

145、sumer and Services sector companies在消费行业和服务行业中,女性高管人员继续保持较高比例Figure 44.Percentage of female top(country)management 图 44.女性高层管理人员比例%By percentage Women make up a minority of management positions in 69%of companies,yet this trend varies across sectors.In both the Consumer and Services sectors respec-t

146、ively,women hold more than 75%of management positions in 14%of companies,and represent a majority of management positions in nearly half.4623238Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业21432314154328143252142 23144231 1 75%50-75%25-50%0-25%有近七成的会员企业表示,女性在其管理层中有近七成的会员企业表示

147、,女性在其管理层中占比少于 50%,但各行业的情况并不一致。在占比少于 50%,但各行业的情况并不一致。在消费行业和服务行业中,14%的企业表示,女消费行业和服务行业中,14%的企业表示,女性高管占比超过 75%。性高管占比超过 75%。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 63While US-China tensions were the top HR concern for members in 2023,it has fallen to third place behind total labor costs a

148、nd rising salary and wage costs.It is notable that the top two concerns for 2024 are both re-lated to rising costs of labor which cut into firm profit margins,a concern that has been echoed consistently over the past five years.Labor costs and rising salaries/wages return as the top HR challenges fo

149、r members,while concerns over US-China tensions have eased since last year受访企业预计 2024 年在人力资源方面面临的主要挑战包括:人力成本增加和薪资成本上涨;对美中关系的担忧相较上一年度有所缓解Figure 45.Top three human resources challenges 图 45.人力资源面临的前三大挑战 20202021202220232024Rising salary and wage costs 薪资成本上涨69%Total labor costs整体人力成本增加53%Total labor c

150、osts整体人力成本增加44%US-China tensions and geopolitical concerns美中关系紧张及 地缘政治顾虑43%Total labor costs整体人力成本增加41%Cost of social benefits社会福利成本47%Rising salary and wage costs 薪资成本上涨52%Rising salary and wage costs 薪资成本上涨42%Total labor costs整体人力成本增加37%Rising salary and wage costs 薪资成本上涨35%Difficulty terminating

151、employees难以裁退员工33%Developing digital talent and organizational capabilites发展数字化人才 及组织能力32%US-China tensions and geopolitical concerns美中关系紧张及 地缘政治顾虑28%Rising salary and wage expenses 薪资成本上涨31%US-China tensions and geopolitical concerns美中关系紧张及 地缘政治顾虑30%1232023 年,美中关系紧张是会员企业在人力资源方面最担心的问题。2024 年,预计排在首位的

152、是整体人力成本增加,其次是薪资成本上涨、最后是美中关系紧张。2024 年排在前两位的人力资源挑战均为成本问题,与过去五年情况保持一致。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 64Around 80%of members believe labor costs will rise in 2024,with Resources&Industrial companies bracing for the most significant increases近八成会员企业预计 2024 年劳动成本将继续增加,其中资源和工业行业的企业

153、劳动力成本增幅最大Figure 46.Expected change in the companys average labor costs per employee in 2024 vs.2023 图 46.2024 年与 2023 年相比,贵公司预计的人均劳动力成本变化%By percentage While the vast majority of member companies expect labor costs to rise in 2024,these costs are anticipated to rise less than was expected in 2023.R&

154、I companies expect the largest increase in labor costs,while Services companies expect the smallest rise in labor costs.20%higher上升幅度超过20%10-20%higher上升 10-20%5-10%higher上升 5-10%5%higher上升 10%增加 10%Decrease 10%减少 10%Increase 5-10%增加 5-10%Decrease 5-10%减少 5-10%Increase 5%增加 5%Decrease 5%减少 20%)显著增加(2

155、0%)Higher(5 to 20%)增加(5-20%)About the same(+/-5%)持平(5%)Lower(5 to 20%)降低(5-20%)Significantly lower(20%)显著降低(20%)62057132022202352160863 3AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 68Recruiting talent,employee retention,developing employees are the top HR priorities for 2024会员企业 2024 年人力

156、资源的首要任务是人才的聘用、留任和职业发展Figure 50.Top Five human resource priorities for 2024 in China 图 50.2024 年贵公司在华人力资源前五位首要任务%By percentage 受访企业表示其人力资源的首要任务是员工招聘、入职、职业发展和留任。2024 年,将上述事项列为首要任务的企业比例与 2023 年大致持平;近三分之一的企业强调营造多元化、包容性工作环境的重要性,较 2023 年上升了 7个百分点。Member companies report that the top priorities for their h

157、uman resources department are employee acquisition,em-ployee onboarding,employee development,and employee re-tention.The share of firms reporting these priorities are about the same in 2024 as they were a year earlier.About one-third of firms in 2024 emphasize the importance of creating a diverse an

158、d inclusive work environment,up 7pp from 2023.2024 2023Developing employees 员工职业发展Finding/hiring/on-boarding the right talent合适人才的寻找、招聘和入职Managing employee engagement and retaining employees确保员工的积极性和控制流失率Restructuring to meet business needs变革组织架构以适应业务需求Fostering a diverse and inclusive work environm

159、ent营造多元化和包容性的工作环境40413941394233262620AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 69近九成会员企业仍表示创新和研发对其中国业务的增长至关重要,这一趋势与过去四年保持一致。86%of members report that innovation and R&D are important to their business growth in China 86%的会员表示创新和研发对公司在华发展至关重要4.3 Innovation and Intellectual Property Righ

160、ts创新和知识产权Figure 51.Importance of innovation/R&D to future growth in China 图 51.创新/研发对贵公司未来在华发展的重要性%By percentage Innovation and R&D are still seen as an important factor to business growth in China by almost nine out of 10 members.This trend is consistent across the last four years.18264413182242181

161、6254415202343142020202120222023 Top priority首要重点 Top three priority前三大重点 Important重要 Not at all important完全不重要AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 70会员企业表示,对美中技术脱钩的担忧、愈发严格的限制性网络安全政策以及与数据隐私相关的政策,是其在中国开展创新时面临的前三大障碍;企业对知识产权保护力度不足的担忧有所改善,比 2023 年下降了4 个百分点。Members cite potential bilate

162、ral tech decoupling,increased restrictive cybersecurity policies,and increased data privacy-re-lated policies as the top three barriers to increasing innovation in China.Concerns over IP protection has decreased,with a 4pp improvement compared to the previous year.Figure 52.Top Five barriers to incr

163、easing innovation in China 图 52.阻碍创新的前五大障碍%By percentage The top two barriers to innovation are the same as last year:technology decoupling concerns and restrictive cybersecurity policies会员企业在创新方面面临的两大障碍:对美中技术脱钩的担忧和愈发严格的网络安全政策Increased restrictiveness of data privacy-related policies 与数据隐私相关的政策限制增加C

164、oncerns around potential US-China tech decoupling对美中技术脱钩的担忧Increased restrictiveness of cybersecurity policies 愈发严格的网络安全相关政策Insufficient talent人才不足Lack of sufficient Intellectual Property(IP)protection知识产权保护力度不足26272219191716201612 2024 2023AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 71A

165、 significant number of Tech sector members reported being extremely negatively impacted by Cybersecurity Law-related issues(1/3)大量技术和研发行业的会员表示,网络安全法相关问题对其造成非常消极的影响(1/3)%By percentage Figure 53.To what degree do the following Cybersecurity Law-related issues negatively affect your companys competitiv

166、eness and operations in China?图 53.以下网络安全法相关问题对贵公司在华竞争力和运营有多大不利影响?网络安全法相关问题继续对会员企业造成负面影响,特别是与数据本地化相关的要求。保护关键信息基础设施和重要数据的网络安全规则对技术和研发行业造成显著负面影响。2022 年 25%的企业表示这些法律法规为其来了一定的负面影响,这一比例在 2023 年上升至 49%,几乎翻了一番。Issues related to Cybersecurity Laws continue to have an adverse effect across all sectors,especi

167、ally data localization related requirements.The Tech and R&D sector is confronting a considerable negative impact due to regu-lations concerning the protection of critical information infrastructure and important data.While last year only 25%reported a somewhat negative impact from these laws,this y

168、ear the percentage has climbed to 49%,nearly doubling.Not at all没有影响 Somewhat稍有影响Extremely影响极大Data localization requirements数据本地化要求165133125335354223314821394714444413453916304525Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业20222023202220232022202320222023Cybersecurity rules

169、 on protection of critical information infrastructure and important data保护关键信息基础设施和重要数据的网络安全规则552520274923513910354916504549419365113374121Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业202220232022202320222023202220235 5AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report

170、72A significant number of Tech sector members reported being extremely negatively impacted by Cybersecurity Law-related issues(2/3)大量技术和研发行业的会员表示,网络安全法相关问题对其造成非常消极的影响(2/3)Figure 54.To what degree do the following Cybersecurity Law-related issues negatively affect your companys competitiveness and op

171、erations in China?图 54.以下网络安全法相关问题对贵公司在华竞争力和运营有多大不利影响?%By percentage 64%of the Tech and R&D firms as well as 59%of R&I firms feel they have been nega-tively impacted by the third-party reviews that caused data security/IP leakage issues.This propotion has increased by 20pp and 4pp respectively.Furth

172、ermore,in compari-son to 2022,61%of the the Tech and R&D firms have been negatively impacted by re-strictions on hardware and software procurement and other secure and controllable policies(up 11pp).在技术和研发行业与资源和工业行业中,分别有 64%和 59%的企业认为,由第三方审查导致的数据安全和知识产权泄露问题对其造成负面影响。这一比例较 2022 年分别增加了 20 个百分点和 4 个百分点。

173、此外,相比 2022 年,61%的技术和研发企业因硬件和软件采购限制及其他安全可控政策而受到负面影响,这一比例增加了 11 个百分点。Data security/IP leakage as a result of third party reviews因为第三方审查导致的数据安全/知识产权泄露问题Restrictions on hardware and software procurement and other secure and controllable policies对硬件软件的采购限制,及其他安全可控政策 Not at all没有影响 Somewhat稍有影响 Extremely影

174、响极大562717364915454312414811415185140938501245411551311939412046468464410395475638734587513811Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业202220232022202320222023Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业2022202320222023202220232022202320222023AmC

175、ham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 73Compliance concerns due to vague implementation regulations法规实施不明确引发对合规的担忧Data privacy regulations数据隐私法规Figure 55.To what degree do the following Cybersecurity Law-related issues negatively affect your companys competitiveness and operations in

176、China?图 55.以下网络安全法相关问题对贵公司在华竞争力和运营有多大不利影响?%By percentage A significant number of Tech sector members reported being extremely negatively impacted by Cybersecurity Law-related issues(3/3)大量技术和研发行业的会员表示,网络安全法相关问题对其造成非常消极的影响(3/3)There has been a notable rise in the number of members in the Tech and R&D

177、 and R&I sectors who report that compliance issues,stemming from unclear implementation regulations,have had a negative effect on their business.The negative sentiment regarding this issue in the Tech and R&D sector has increased 47pp compared to last year.All sectors note a rise in adverse impacts

178、associated with data privacy regulations.Tech and R&D and R&I sectors have seen 32pp and 23pp increase respectively in negative sentiment concerning data privacy regulations.Not at all没有影响 Somewhat稍有影响 Extremely影响极大在技术和研发行业中,认为法规实施不明确造成的合规问题对其业务产生了负面影响的会员企业比例较上一年度增加了47 个百分点。在所有行业中,认为数据隐私法规对其造成负面影响的企

179、业比例均有所增加。在技术和研发与资源和工业行业,这一比例分别增加了 32 个百分点和 23 个百分点。621325166124523315265321533512384616394219334126562222245720533215424810444313295219523810295714Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业Tech and R&D技术和研发行业20222023202220232022202320222023Consumer消费行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Services服务行业

180、Tech and R&D技术和研发行业20222023202220232022202320222023AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 74Figure 56.IP leakage and IT/data security threats in China 图 56.在华运营面临的知识产权泄露和信息技术/数据安全风险%By percentage Over one-third of members report that the risks of IP leakage and data security are gre

181、ater in China.The trend is consistent across the last four years.Risks are smaller in China在中国风险更低 Comparable基本持平 Risks are greater in China在中国风险更高More than one-third of members report that IP leakage and data security risks are greater in China,holding steady after a few years of declining sentimen

182、t 超过三分之一的会员企业表示,在中国面临更高的知识产权泄露或数据安全风险59375514459385603575736202020192021202220234 44 4超过三分之一的会员表示,在中国面临更高的知识产权泄露或数据安全风险。与过去四年数据基本持平。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 7535%of respondents recognize Chinas improved IPR enforcement efforts over the last year,although a trend of dec

183、lining sentiment(down 12pp from 2020)continues 35%的受访企业对过去一年中国在知识产权执法工作方面取得的进展表示认可,但仍未回到 2020 年水平35%of the respondents acknowledge the improvements in Chinas efforts to enforce IPR over the past year.However,there is an ongoing trend of declining sentiment,with a decrease of 12pp from 2020 levels.Th

184、ere has also been a 2pp increase in the number of respondents who believe that IPR enforcement is deteriorating compared to last year.Figure 57.In the last year,Chinas enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights(IPR)has:图 57.在过去一年中,中国在知识产权法律法规执行方面:%By percentage Improved改善 Stayed the same保持不变 Deteri

185、orated恶化 Unsure不确定47282544312236332935332820202021202220234 42 23 31 135%的受访企业对过去一年中国在加强知识产权保护方面所做的努力表示认可,但与 2020 年相比,这一比例仍下降了 12 个百分点。此外,相较于 2022 年,认为知识产权保护执法力度有所减弱的受访企业比例增加了 2 个百分点。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 7624%的企业认为知识产权保护不足是投资中国的障碍,这一比例与 2022 年持平。在技术和研发行业,对此表示担忧的企业比

186、例达到 36%。The proportion of companies indicating that insufficient IP protections are a barrier to investment in China remains unchanged as 2022 at 24%,with this concern notably higher among Tech and R&D companies at 36%.Figure 58.Do concerns of inadequate intellectual property protection limit your c

187、ompanys investment in China?图 58.对知识产权保护不足的担忧是否限制了贵公司在中国的投资?%By percentage Yes是 Unsure不确定 No否The percentage of member companies reporting that inadequate IP protections limit investment in China remains the same at 24%,rising to 36%for Tech companies24%的会员企业认为,知识产权保护不足会限制其在华投资;此比例在技术和研发行业高达 36%20232

188、022243640243641Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业323236313633424414434314AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 77知识产权执法和保护不足仍然是该领域的主要挑战。此外,在 2023 年,对技术转让和许可限制的担忧有所上升,分别增加了 9 个百分点和 11 个百分点。Prosecution of IP infringements and insufficient IP protec

189、tion remain the top two IP challenges;technology transfer and licensing constraints rose as concerns in 2023 会员企业在知识产权方面面临的主要挑战包括:法律法规保护不足、难以通过法律手段进行知识产权维权;技术转让和许可限制在 2023 年成为新挑战Figure 59.Most important IP challenge 图 59.贵公司面临的最重大的知识产权挑战%By percentage The enforcement of intellectual property infring

190、ements and inadequate IP protection continue to be the primary challenges in the realm of IP.Additionally,in 2023,there has been a rise in concerns related to technology transfer(9pp)and licensing con-straints(11pp).2023 2022Difficulty prosecuting IP infringements in court or via administrative meas

191、ures难以在法庭上或通过行政手段起诉侵犯知识产权的行为Insufficient protection offered by the text of IP-related laws and regulations相关法律和法规对知识产权提供的保护不足Licensing constraints许可限制IP theft by employees员工窃取知识产权Cybertheft网络窃取Other其他Expectations of technology transfer arrangements with business partners需向商业伙伴进行技术转让的预期27176312328291

192、2947121 1AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 78Figure 60.How much technology and proprietary knowledge does your company share with its business partners and clients in China compared with those in other overseas jurisdictions outside your home country?图 60.贵公司在中国与商业伙伴和客户分享的技术和专利

193、知识的数量,与您所在国之外的其他海外司法管辖区相比如何?%By percentage Much more多很多 Somewhat more多一些 No difference没有区别 Somewhat less少一些 Much less少很多 We do not share technology and proprietary knowledge with business partners and clients in China我司不与中国的商业伙伴及客户分享技术和专业知识There are more members sharing and more members not sharing

194、technology and IP with local business partners this year,with less sharing overall happening in the Services sector 与 2022 年相比,会员企业与在华商业伙伴分享技术和专利的态度趋于两极化;服务行业的会员企业更少与在华商业伙伴分享技术 和专利Member companies sharing of technologies and patents with Chinese business partners is more polarized compared to last y

195、ear,which includes a 3pp increase in those who would like to share much more and 2pp rise in those who would prefer not to share.Specifically,companies in the Services industry are showing a prefer-ence to share no patented technologies.2023202275266441372465382 2Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industr

196、ial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业1411114968219194083 3221050963 343113264 44 4与 2022 年相比,会员公司在与中国伙伴共享技术和专利上的态度趋于两极化,愿意大量分享技术和专利的企业比例增加了 3 个百分点,而不与中国商业伙伴共享技术和专利的企业比例增加了 2 个百分点。服务行业的企业更倾向于不共享技术和专利。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 7960%of members share patented technologies with

197、 business partners and clients in China mainly driven by commercial interests,a proportion that remains consistent with last year.The proportion of companies sharing patents due to joint venture require-ments has decreased(5pp),while the influence of unofficial pressure from business regulatory auth

198、orities has increased(3pp).Figure 61.Your companys technology or proprietary knowledge was shared 图 61.贵公司分享技术和专利知识的原因是%By percentage As a voluntary business decision in our companys best interest作为最符合公司利益的自愿商业行为 To(implicitly/explicitly)improve market access prospects为了(潜在或明确地)增强市场准入的前景 As required

199、 by joint venture regulations出于对合资企业的要求 Due to informal pressure from business authorities来自业务主管机关非正式的压力 Other其他Voluntary sharing of technology and IP is mainly driven by business decision in companys best interest,while sharing due to Joint Venture requirements was replaced by informal pressure 会员企

200、业自愿分享技术和专利主要出于公司商业利益的考量;非正式压力对技术和专利分享的影响有所增加6021156022106202320223 33 31 1Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业61126539276213196296615654 42 22 24 460%的会员认为与在华商业伙伴和客户分享技术和专利符合公司利益,此比例与 2022 年持平。应合资企业要求而分享技术和专利的企业比例有所减少。来自业务主管部门的非正式压力有所上升。US-China Relations美中关系5.AmCha

201、m Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 81PrefaceNearly all respondents consider US-China relations vital to their businesses,especially in the Tech and R&D sector(Figure 62).Around 30%expect US-China relations to improve in 2024,indicating a notably higher level of optimism than in 2023(

202、Figure 63).Members also hope to see further opening of Chinas market to foreign companies and adjustments to localization and cross-border data policies following upcoming bilateral trade talks(Figure 65).Additionally,members urge the US government to avoid aggressive rhetoric,focus on high-level me

203、etings,and engage in consistent,results-driven dialogue,while encouraging the Chinese government to treat US businesses fairly,steer clear of confrontational language,and actively interact with the foreign business community in China(Figure 67).前 言 绝大多数受访企业认为,美中关系是其发展在华业务的关键因素,技术和研发行业尤为明显(图 62)。近 30

204、%的受访企业预计 2024 年美中关系将有所改善,对双边关系的乐观程度明显高于 2023 年(图 63)。在未来的双边贸易谈判中,会员企业希望推动中国进一步向外资企业开放市场、改善本地化与数据跨境政策(图 65)。会员企业期待美国政府避免使用激烈的言辞,聚焦美中高层会晤,并推进以结果为导向的双边政府对话框架(图 66);期待中国政府给予在华美国企业更加公平的待遇,避免使用对抗性的言辞,并积极与外国商界交流(图 67)。AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 82Figure 62.Importance of positiv

205、e bilateral relations between the US and China to your companys business growth in China 图 62.良好的美中双边关系对贵公司在华业务增长的重要性 绝大多数会员企业认为,美中关系对其在华业务增长意义重大。82%的受访企业认为美中关系“极其重要”或“非常重要”。Almost all members believe that US-China relations play a critical role in the growth of their businesses.A notable 82%of them

206、 consider bilateral relations to be either very important or extremely important.Almost all of the respondents think US-China relations are important to their businesses绝大多数受访企业认为,美中关系是其发展在华业务的关键因素%By percentage Extremely important极其重要 Not important不重要 Not at all important完全不重要 very important非常重要 So

207、mewhat important比较重要202320225229155428173 31 11 111Tech and R&D技术和研发行业Resources&Industrial资源和工业行业Consumer消费行业Services服务行业1456291451332 22454191 11 11553311 1AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 8330%of respondents expect US-China relations to improve in 2024,significantly more tha

208、n in 202330%的受访企业认为 2024 年美中关系将会有所改善,对双边关系持积极态度的企业比例较 2023 年显著提高Figure 63.2024 outlook on bilateral relations between the US and China 图 63.2024 年美中双边关系展望%By percentage 2021 年,有 45%的受访企业曾预期拜登当选美国总统将改善美中关系,但未能如愿。2022 年,对美中关系表示乐观的企业比例降至 27%,2023 年这一比例更是一度降至 13%。2023 年 11 月 APEC 峰会两国元首会晤后,预计美中关系将有所改善的企

209、业比例提升至30%。In 2021,45%expected US-China relations to improve with Bidens election,however this hope was not realized.Optimism fell to 27%in 2022 and further to 13%by 2023.Nevertheless,following a positive bilateral meeting at the APEC summit in November 2023,outlook has brightened again,with 30%now a

210、nticipating improved bilateral rela-tions.4536192021134146202330462420242749242022 Will improve将会改善 Will stay about the same将会保持原状 Will deteriorate将会恶化AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 8430%of respondents say that US-China trade tensions are not impacting their business strateg

211、y,up 3pp from last year30%的会员企业表示,美中贸易争端未影响其商业战略Figure 64.Impact of US-China trade tensions on business strategy 图 64.美中贸易争端对贵公司商业战略的影响%By percentage In 2023,30%of respondents report that US-China trade tensions are not affecting their business strategies,a 3pp increase from the previous year.Fewer

212、members are delaying or cancelling investment decisions in China(21%).Instead,more are focusing on localiz-ing production,services,and intellectual property in China to leverage local sales oppor-tunities(20%).Additionally,there is a decrease in those considering capacity relocation adjustments,such

213、 as sourcing components or pre-assembly outside of China(14%).2023 年,30%的受访企业表示美中贸易争端未影响其商业战略,这一比例较 2022 年上升 3 个百分点。21%的企业计划推迟或取消在华投资计划,较 2022 年有所改善。20%的会员企业计划专注于产品、服务和知识产权的本地化,以争取更多市场机会。同时,仅有 14%的会员企业考虑对生产或采购进行调整,如在境外采购零部件或提前进行产品组装。Localizing more production/services/IP in China to access local sal

214、es opportunities推动更多产品、服务或 IP 在中国本土化,以获得本地销售机会Delaying or canceling China investment decisions推迟或取消投资决策Shifting away from certain industry or customer segments in China与中国的某些行业或客户群体逐渐脱离Decreasing China investments推迟或取消投资决策Adjusting supply chain by seeking to source components and/or assembly outside

215、 China调整供应链,在中国境外采购零部件和/或组装Considering relocation of some or all manufacturing out of China考虑将部分或全部制造业迁出中国2129885744434745302720151418148811Other其它Considering exiting the China market 考虑退出中国市场Adjusting supply chain by seeking to source components and/or assembly outside the US调整供应链,在美国境外采购零部件和/或组装In

216、creasing China investments增加在华投资Considering relocation of some or all manufacturing out of the US考虑将部分或全部制造业迁出美国No impact没有影响Pursuing JV with Chinese entities that we would not normally consider to access local sales opportunities 寻求与我司通常不会考虑的中国实体建立合资企业,以获得本地销售机会Considering onshoring some manufactur

217、ing/operations to the US考虑将部分制造/运营业务移至美国2 2 2023 2022120 00 0AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 85%By percentage 49%of members hope that future bilateral trade discussions will lead to a greater open-ing of Chinese markets to foreign companies(down 11 pp from last year).While 33

218、%would like trade discussions to address Chinas data policies,with a particular focus on strict data localization requirements and restrictions on cross-border data transfers.This represents a substantial 24pp increase compared to last year.49%的会员企业希望在未来的双边贸易谈判中推动中国进一步向外资企业开放市场、这一比例较2022年下降了11个百分点。3

219、3%的企业期待在双边贸易对话推动中国在改善数据政策方面取得进展,特别是在数据本土化和跨境传输限制领域,这一比例较 2022 年增加了 24 个百分点。Chinas data policies including strict data localization requirements and restrictions on cross-border data transfers中国的数据政策,包括严格的数据本地化要求和跨境数据传输限制The development and application of technical standards and standards-setting pro

220、cedures in China中国技术标准的制定和应用及标准制定程序Further opening of the Chinese market to foreign companies进一步向外资开放中国市场Provision of a fair and transparent tariff exclusion process恢复公平透明的关税豁免程序Continued effort to strengthen Intellectual Property protections持续加强知识产权保护Issues of bias in merger reviews 并购审查中的偏见问题China

221、s cybersecurity policies中国的网络安全政策Chinas excess capacity in steel,cement,aluminum,and other industrial sectors中国钢铁、水泥、铝和其他工业领域的产能过剩Restoration of regular visa processing services and/or provision of a channel for US and Chinese citizen employees holding valid work visas and their dependents to return

222、 to China and the US 恢复正常的签证办理服务和/或为持有有效工作签证的美国和中国公民雇员及其家属返回中国和美国提供渠道The subsidies and material support given to SOEs and other domestic firms stemming from Chinas industrial policies 中国产业政策给予国有企业和其他本国企业的补贴和物质支持Further reductions in tariff levels进一步降低关税水平Other 其它4960124115974443339311624182372143146

223、Narrowing the scope of respective export controls缩小各自的出口管制范围Further opening the Chinese market and data policy improvements are both areas where members hope progress can be made in bilateral trade talks会员企业希望在未来的双边贸易谈判中推动中国进一步向外资企业开放市场、改善数据政策Figure 65.Desired areas for progress in future bilateral

224、trade talks 图 65.未来双边贸易谈判中希望取得进展的领域 2 20 0 2023 2022AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 86Members hope the US government will refrain from engaging in aggressive rhetoric,prioritize high-level meetings,and pursue a result-oriented framework for regularized government-to-governmen

225、t dialogue 会员企业期待美国政府避免使用激烈的言辞,优先考虑美中高层会晤,并开展以结果为导向的、常态化的双边政府对话框架Figure 66.Top five actions members hope to see by the US government 图 66.会员希望美国政府采取的前五大行动 2023Refrain from engaging in aggressive rhetoric and tit-for-tat actions避免使用激烈的言辞和 针锋相对的行动47%Prioritize high-level/in-person/government-to-govern

226、ment meetings优先考虑美中高层个人/官方渠道会晤36%Pursue a results-oriented framework for regularized government-to-government communication开展以结果为导向的、常态化的政府间沟通机制33%Advocate more strongly for a level playing field for US business in China为在中国的美国企业争取一个公平的竞争环境28%Reduce tariffs on Chinese goods降低对中国商品的关税18%2022Refrain f

227、rom engaging in aggressive rhetoric and tit-for-tat actions避免使用激烈的言辞和 针锋相对的行动41%Pursue a results-oriented framework for regularized government-to-government communication开展以结果为导向的、常态化的政府间沟通机制35%Advocate more strongly for a level playing field for US business in China为在中国的美国企业争取一个公平的竞争环境30%Provide a

228、channel for non-US citizen employees holding valid work visas to return to the US为持有有效工作签证的非美国公民雇员提供返回美国的渠道29%Restore regular visa processing services/provide a channel for non-US citizen employees to return to the US恢复对美国和中国公民的正常签证服务27%2021Refrain from engaging in aggressive rhetoric and tit-for-ta

229、t actions避免使用激烈的言辞和 针锋相对的行动41%Pursue a results-oriented framework for regularized government-to-government communication开展以结果为导向的、常态化的政府间沟通机制29%Restore regular visa processing services/provide a channel for non-US citizen employees to return to the US恢复对美国和中国公民的正常签证服务28%Advocate more strongly for a

230、level playing field for US business in China为在中国的美国企业争取一个公平的竞争环境27%Prioritize an in-person meeting between President Biden and President Xi 优先考虑拜登总统和习主席的线下会晤23%12345AmCham Chinas 2024 China Business Climate Survey Report 87Members hope the Chinese government can ensure a level playing field for US b

231、usiness,dial down aggressive rhetoric,and engage with the foreign business community 会员企业期待中国政府给予在华美国企业公平的竞争环境,避免使用激进的言辞,并积极与外国商界交流Figure 67.Top five actions members hope to see by the Chinese government 图 67.会员希望中国政府采取的前五大行动 2023Ensure a level playing field for US businesses in China确保美国企业在中国的公平竞争环

232、境27%Refrain from engaging in aggressive rhetoric and tit-for-tat actions避免使用激进的言辞和采取针锋相对的行动25%Proactively engage with the foreign business community积极与外国商界交流22%Ensure consistency between central,provincial,and local-level policies确保中央、省级和地方三级政策的一致性21%Further open the market to foreign investment wit

233、h clear timelines进一步向外资开放市场,明确时间表20%2022Ease the COVID-19-related restrictions(newly added)进一步放宽疫情防控措施相关政策(新增选项)54%Refrain from engaging in aggressive rhetoric and tit-for-tat actions避免使用激进的言辞和采取针锋相对的行动21%Ensure a level playing field for US businesses in China确保美国企业在中国的公平竞争环境20%Simplify expat visa a

234、nd work permit processes简化外籍人士签证和工作许可流程18%Restore regular visa processing services/provide a channel for US citizen employees and their dependents to return to China恢复对美国籍雇员及其家属的正常签证服务17%2021Ensure a level playing field for US businesses in China确保美国企业在中国的公平竞争环境24%Restore regular visa processing ser

235、vices/provide a channel for US citizen employees and their dependents to return to China恢复对美国籍雇员及其家属的正常签证服务22%Accelerate resumption of international flight services/approvals加快恢复国际航班服务/审批21%Refrain from engaging in aggressive rhetoric and tit-for-tat actions避免使用激进的言辞和采取针锋相对的行动20%Further open the mar

236、ket to foreign investment with clear timelines进一步向外资开放市场,明确时间表19%12345AmCham China would like to thank all survey participants and business executives who provided their input for this report.Contributors:Claire Ma,Weijia Zhang,Mia Wang,Serena Teng,Yuning Xu,Elliott Johnson,Sihan Qu Mark Dreyer,Norr

237、is TangenDesigners:Jin Peng,Zhang HuiSurvey partners:Thomas Leung,Jeff Yuan,Tiger Shan,Ken Zhong,Chris Xia,Andy Li,Jason Li,Jenny Wang,Sharon Song,Chenzhu Wang AcknowledgementsAbout AmCham ChinaThe American Chamber of Commerce in the Peoples Republic of China(AmCham China)is a non-profit,non-governm

238、ental organization whose membership comprises tens of thousands of individuals from nearly 1,000 companies operating across China.The Chambers nationwide mission is to help American companies succeed in China through advocacy,networking,insights,and business support services.AmCham China is official

239、ly registered as a foreign chamber of commerce in China and is licensed by Chinas government to represent American business in mainland China.In addition to our headquarters in Beijing,AmCham China serves Tianjin,Central China,Southwest China,and Northeast China through our Chapters in Chengdu,Dalia

240、n,Shenyang,Tianjin,and Wuhan.Across the six offices,AmCham China has more than 30 working groups,and holds more than 150 events each year.For more information,visit:www.amchamchina.org关于中国美国商会中国美国商会(以下简称商会)是一家非盈利、非政府组织。目前商会会员遍布各行各业,代表着在华从事经营活动的近一千家外资企业。商会的使命是通过政策建言、信息共享、人脉扩展以及专业服务等方式帮助美国企业在中国取得成功。中国

241、美国商会是获得中国政府官方认证、代表美国企业在华的商会。除北京总部外,商会分别在成都,大连,沈阳,天津,和武汉设有 5 个分支办公室,业务遍及中国华北、东北、华中、西南地区。商会旗下设有 30 余个工作组,每年举办逾 150 场会员活动。有关更多信息,请访问:www.amchamchina.orgUS-CHINABUSINESSTHE NEXT HUNDRED YEARSThe American Chamber of Commerce in the Peoples Republic of China中国美国商会 Floor 3,East Gate 1,Pacific Century Place

242、,2A Workers Stadium North Road,Chaoyang District,Beijing,100027,the Peoples Republic of ChinaTel:(8610)8519-0800 Fax:(8610)8519-0899Website:www.amchamchina.orgHeadquartered in Beijing with chapters in Tianjin,Central China(Wuhan),Northeast China(Dalian,Shenyang),Southwest China(Chengdu)北京市朝阳区工体北路甲 2

243、 号,盈科中心东 1 门 3 层邮政编码:100027电话:(8610)8519-0800传真:(8610)8519-0899网址:www.amchamchina.org中国美国商会总部设于北京,在天津、华中(武汉)、东北(大连,沈阳)、西南(成都)设有区域办公室2024 by the American Chamber of Commerce in the Peoples Republic of China(AmCham China),all rights reserved.This report may not be reproduced either in part or in full without the prior written consent of AmCham China.中国美国商会拥有本报告的版权,并保留其他一切权利。未经中国美国商会书面授权,不得对本报告或本报告中的部分章节进行复制。US-CHINABUSINESSTHE NEXT HUNDRED YEARSRelease 02012024Release 02012024

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